The solar vegetation of the school teacher of physics Ivanov is the same greenhouse, but with a lean-to roof with a slope of about 20 degrees and a blank rear wall that plays the role of a reflective screen. It uses the maximum energy of ultraviolet rays. This building, belonging to a new generation of similar structures, allows the growing season of heat-loving plants to continue and produce good yields. Greenhouse technology Ivanova is now often called "Scandinavian" due to the fact that the countries of northern Europe are actively using and developing the methodology of our compatriot. Sunny vegetarian easy to build with your own hands. Our article will help in this, photos and videos posted in it.
Benefits of a Sun Vegan
Many summer residents have a greenhouse on the site. Most often it is built in the form of a house or arch. In the first case, an average of about 20% of the sun's energy enters the room, and in the second about 35%. At the same time, when it becomes cold outside, it is suddenly cold in the greenhouse, if there is no heating in it.
A variety of greenhouses, invented by an ordinary physics teacher, is deprived of these shortcomings. Its secret is in a special construction, which allows the sun's rays not to glide over the surface, but to fall on an inclined roof almost perpendicularly. As a result, such a greenhouse, called a vegetarian, the sun gives its energy more than 4 times during the day and at 18 at night.
A geothermal, used all year round, begins to need additional heating at minus 15 degrees outside. Harvest it up to 10 times higher than normal. And the plants planted in a vegetarian, begin to bear fruit on average 20 days earlier.
The rear wall of the vegetarian is capital, lined with mirror reflective material and is oriented to the north. It can be a blank wall of any structure or a freestanding boardwalk or brick, well-insulated, protected from rodents. In any case, it must be sheathed with foil insulation.
Ultraviolet rays, reflected from the mirror wall, return to the plants, providing them with energy and heat. As for the dimensions, they are limited only by the size of the site and the financial capabilities of the owner.
Classical vegetarian, invented by teacher Ivanov, is erected on a plot with a slope of 15-35 degrees with a slope facing south. If the terrain is flat, then it is created artificially. The floor and the roof are parallel to each other.
Another interesting point is the presence of perforated pipes laid at a depth of about 0.35 m. Excess moisture is removed through them and the soil is heated during the period of cold weather if conventional fans are connected to the terminals. With the help of forced ventilation, warm air is distilled from under the ceiling of the room through pipes located underground. In hot summer, the same fans cool the geothermal table.
Attention! Many often deviate from the traditional design, retaining only a sloping roof, and the floor is made even. As it turned out, this is not a very significant detail. The main thing is that the change does not affect the quality of the crop.
Sunny Vegetarian DIY
Construction of the greenhouse of the new generation begins with the foundation. To do this, first line up the site. Base erected in a bored manner:
- An ordinary drill is taken and holes are made to a depth of about 1 m with a diameter of not more than 200 mm along the marked perimeter.
- The ruberoid, rolled into the tube and pieces of reinforcement, is inserted into the pits so that a part of it is protruding above the ground. Later in these places establish the support.
- Pour concrete.
Next step - frame mounting. The best material for it is shaped pipes, but they also use wooden beams after careful processing. The technology is as follows:
Council To protect the metalwork, use a moisture-resistant paint. The moisture level in the vegetarian high and the metal will quickly corrode.
The frame is covered with cellular polycarbonate. For walls, a thickness of 0.4 cm is sufficient, and a more durable one, 0.6 cm, is more suitable for the roof. Where the sheets are joined, use connecting and end profiles UP. To prevent dirt from entering the cells, polycarbonate sheets from the ends are closed with an airtight tape.
Doors, vents, heated beds, interior layout
After the work on the device frame is completed, install the door and vents, 1-2 on each side. Heat accumulators serve barrels of water, placed in a vegetarian. During the day heat accumulates there, and at night air heats up from it. Thus, day and night temperature jumps are smoothed out.
It is not enough one barrels for space heating, therefore, in addition to them, in a geoteplitse suit a system with a closed cycle of heat and air exchange, operating on the same battery principle:
- Thin-walled pipes 11 cm in diameter with an interval of 0.6 m are buried in the ground.
- From the bottom side make a series of holes with a diameter of 7 mm 150 mm from each other. They are designed for draining excess moisture.
- Remove the upper ends under the roof.
- Install exhaust fans designed for continuous operation.
Improvement of the internal space of the greenhouse is in the breakdown of the beds, the device of the aisles, a special shelf for barrels of water. The convenient width of the aisles is about 0.65 m.
For each bed, separate frames are made of metal, sheathed with boards or slate. The beds should rise above the floor, but not more than 0.6 m. In traditional vegetarians, they are a series of terraces.
The design allows you to effectively capture the sun's rays and create a stable environment for plants with enough carbon dioxide and moisture. The absence of excessive moisture in the leaves contributes to the active growth of the fruit and the acceleration of ripening. At the same time for irrigation consumes very little water, and the first vegetables and greens on the table appear as soon as possible.
The experience of many summer residents proved the effectiveness of this type of greenhouse device. The cost is low, so the materials and work expended quickly pay for themselves, and in addition, a successful experiment will bring great moral satisfaction.
What is known vegetarian
Vegetarian is widely used in the Scandinavian countries, where with its help, with a rather severe climate, it is possible to obtain excellent yields. You can often find its name as the greenhouse on the Scandinavian technology. But the vegetarian was constructed in the 50s of the last century by a physics teacher in the Soviet school A. V. Ivanov.
Another vegan synonym - helio-greenhouse. This name he received because his design provides for the maximum production of solar energy. This allows plants to grow without additional heating of the solar greenhouse at an ambient temperature of minus 10 degrees. At the same time the temperature inside the building will be 16-20 degrees.
Naturally, such indicators could not fail to attract the attention of gardeners, because this is simply a terrific figure. Ivanova Bio Vegetarian is a greenhouse, which has a number of significant improvements in the design, which allows to achieve such excellent results.
In practice, it has been proven that it is possible to grow exotic agricultural crops in the solar greenhouse, which cannot be grown in ordinary greenhouses and greenhouses. It’s hard to believe, but some vegetarian owners claim that compared to outdoor cultivation:
- Productivity can increase tenfold.
- Harvest can be collected 3 times a year.
- Significantly reduced physical effort spent on the cultivation of crops.
Naturally, everything has a good side, but there is a negative side. The disadvantages of a vegetarian in relation to ordinary greenhouses include:
- The high cost of materials from which it is mounted.
- Large labor costs for the construction.
- Increasing material costs for the maintenance of the solar greenhouse.
However, all costs pay off a hundredfold, because a vegetarian is a solid structure for long-term use.
Having invested once, it is possible for many years to make excellent harvests, thereby repeatedly returning all your costs. When operating the solar greenhouse, it will only be necessary to repair it occasionally.
The main design feature is the special geometry of the structure. An ordinary greenhouse is constructed of a gable, rectangular or arched shape on a suitable, as even as possible, part of the vegetable garden. In the overwhelming majority of cases, all its walls are transparent and are made of plastic film, less often of glass or polycarbonate.
Only occasionally can one meet a greenhouse with one blank wall, usually on the north side. A vegetarian is always constructed with one blank wall on the north side, it happens that it is adjacent to the wall of another building. This wall is necessarily insulated and covered with a reflective layer inside, usually foil insulation is used.
The remaining walls of the structure and its roof are transparent, sheathed with glass or polycarbonate. A vegetarian always settles down at least 20 degrees from north to south.
In northern latitudes, it is recommended to increase the slope to 40 degrees. Due to the inclined arrangement of the solar greenhouse, more sunlight comes into it, and the northern wall additionally reflects the light falling on it on the plants. In an ordinary greenhouse, part of the sunlight simply passes through it uselessly, part of it reflects off the glass roof, falling at an angle. On the roof of a vegetarian, the light of the sun falls almost perpendicularly, giving much more energy to the plants and the ground.
Closed loop ventilation
It is because of this location that a vegetarian gets much more solar energy than a simple greenhouse. But the received energy must also be used wisely. For these purposes, inside a structure, in the ground, at a depth of 300-350 mm, pipes with a diameter of at least 110 mm are dug in.
During the cold period, the greenhouse soil is heated through these pipes with warm air passing through the pipes. Passing under the ground, the air gives it its heat and goes into the greenhouse, where it is again heated by the sun and again gets under the ground. And its temperature is a very important indicator for plant growth. And at night, on the contrary - the soil warmed up during the day gives up its heat to the greenhouse air.
To control the fan, two temperature sensors are usually installed.. One of them is located in the upper part of the vegetarian, the second - in the soil. Both sensors must be protected from direct sunlight. Sensors are connected to the controller that controls the operation of the fan.
The upper sensor, when the maximum set temperature is reached, turns on a fan to protect against overheating of air in the greenhouse. The lower one turns on the fan when the soil temperature drops to the specified value. In northern latitudes, additional barrels of water are installed in the solar greenhouse, they serve as heat accumulators. During the day, the barrels heat up, at night they give off heat to the room.
Closed loop ventilation, in addition to heating the soil, performs another important function - helps to improve the quality of the air environment in the vegetarian. As you know, in the plants during the day, in the light of the sun, photosynthesis constantly occurs. This produces oxygen and absorbs carbon dioxide.
At night, on the contrary, by absorbing oxygen, plants emit carbon dioxide. When the greenhouse is ventilated, its air is replaced by air from the atmosphere, and there is less carbon dioxide in it than the plants need. The closed cycle of ventilation provides an increased content of carbon dioxide in the air environment of the room of the vegetarian, and this accelerates the growth and development of plants.
In addition, the closed loop of ventilation provides another bonus - the preservation of moisture in the structure. Both a vegetarian and a conventional greenhouse can be equipped with a highly efficient drip irrigation system. However, when airing a conventional greenhouse, moist air is replaced with dry atmospheric air.
In the solar greenhouse, a greater amount of moisture is retained. Water turns into water vapor, which condenses in cool pipes under the ground and through the holes in them again gets to the plants.
Agricultural crops are constantly provided with moisture, which contributes to good growth and high yields. In addition, water consumption for watering is reduced and, accordingly, the amount of labor costs is reduced.
There is an opinion that crops grown under conditions of solar thermal facilities do not need external watering. This is not true, the humidity still needs to be controlled and watering is still needed. But - in much smaller volumes. Usually, irrigation in the Ivanovo solarium is turned on only when ventilation is running, in order to prevent excessive air humidity.
So, in a properly constructed and equipped vegetarians, you can achieve high crop yields for a shorter period of time. This is facilitated by the following factors:
- increased heat generation from sunlight due to a change in the angle of incidence of it on the greenhouse and reflection by a blank wall,
- constant heating of the soil with air heated in the greenhouse, accumulation of heat by the ground,
- high humidity inside the building
- increased carbon dioxide inside the vegetarian.
Growers who are interested in a vegetarian can start by building a small solar vegetarian with their own hands. This will allow you to assess your strengths, costs, possible yield. If you wish, you can always finish building a solar greenhouse.
To begin to choose a place on the site. This place should not be shaded by trees or buildings. Well, if the plot has the desired slope from north to south, if not - this slope will have to do with your own hands. Vegetarian Ivanova in the classical form is located exclusively on a slope, the angle of which is at least 20 degrees.
You can build a vegetarian and without tilting, but then you should not count on getting a lot of heat from the sun. On the Internet, it is not difficult to find the drawings of the classical solar greenhouse Ivanov. Having recalculated the dimensions according to the conditions of your site and having decided on the materials and their quantity, you can proceed to the construction of the greenhouse.
First, the foundation is poured, usually choose monolithic tape or pile-tape. When it is poured, an anchor must be placed in it, in the future they will serve to fix the frame of the structure. In the classical vegetarian Ivanova on the north side is an economic structure, however, it is not necessary to hurry and immediately build a capital building.
For a start, it's easier, faster, and cheaper to get by with one wall. It needs to be plastered and insulated. From the inside, the wall is additionally insulated with a layer of foiled insulation. Instead of insulation, you can use a reflective film, or even just paint the wall with white paint.
Fertile soil for bio-vegetarian prepared in advance. For him use humus or peat. According to the pipe layout, trenches with a depth of 60-65 cm are excavated. From the bottom of the trench, it is necessary to fill it with a layer of expanded clay 20 cm thick. It is best to use sewer PVC pipes 110 mm in diameter for the underground pipeline.
Every 15–20 cm in the pipes it is necessary to drill holes with a diameter of 4–5 mm; condensate will leak through them. On the expanded clay stack mounted pipeline and poured it fertile soil. Vertical nozzles on the south side are displayed 10 cm above the soil level, they are equipped with suction fans.
These connections must be covered with a safety net. On the north side, suction nozzles are located close to the wall, they take in air at the very top of the vegetarian. The frame is best made from galvanized metal profile 40x80x4 mm. At the bottom of the frame is attached to the anchors in the foundation, from the north - to a brick wall.
The roof and the remaining walls of the solar greenhouse are sheathed with transparent cellular polycarbonate. For better sealing of the room, all joints and gaps are treated with silicone sealant. Even during the construction of a vegetarian, it is necessary to consider how snow will be removed in winter. And also it is necessary to provide window leaves for airing the solar greenhouse.
As the beds inside the vegetarian boxes are used, they are located on the sides of the central passage. They are arranged in a downward cascade from north to south. The beds are equipped with a drip irrigation system. It will be convenient to use drip irrigation, combining it with the OGO-Rodnik irrigation system with humidity sensors that automatically turn on the water supply as needed.
Impossible greenhouse - what Ivanov refused
The inventor shot more than 40 kg of cucumbers per square meter. But his greenhouses were not heated, were not aired and almost never watered. Unreal? Skepticism is clear, but science can do anything.
Usually greenhouses erected on the basis of the convenience of construction: flat area, gable roof. The school teacher called for help the laws of physics and found that if the greenhouse was built on a slope, much more light would penetrate into it.
The secret of the vegetarian is in the special geometry of the building. For a greenhouse, a gentle slope of about 15–20 degrees is chosen, oriented so that the long side of the building is located strictly from north to south.
Attention! In the northern latitudes, the steepness of the slope of 20 degrees will be small. Here you have to search or pour a hill with a slope of up to 40 degrees.
The north wall is built entirely of bricks to protect against the cold wind. To worry that on this side the light does not get in, it is not worth it: it will still be too small. Ideally, the north wall should adjoin the house, garage or an economic extension. If such a plan is not possible, the outside wall should be painted white, and the inside with a reflective film.
All other walls and roof are made, as expected, from glass or polycarbonate.
Inside, the greenhouse is being landscaped with terraces, while the beds are greatly raised to the level of the main soil and are covered with boards of boards, bricks or slate.
How does the solar greenhouse
Sunny vegetarian - this is the case when science finds the most practical way to solve immediate problems. Here the laws of incidence and reflection of light, the trajectories of the movement of air masses, the thermal conductivity of various materials are taken into account. There are several principles according to which solar greenhouse gives 30% more production with less energy consumption:
- Sunlight in temperate latitudes falls to the Earth at an angle. The horizontal roof of traditional greenhouses reflects a significant part of it. The sloping roof and the rays of light form a right angle, which means that the air inside is heated earlier and better.
- Ivanov rightly believed that airing greenhouses leads to deterioration of air quality for plants. And in fact: oxygen, for the sake of which a person ventilates both the lungs and the room, the plants produce themselves during photosynthesis. But carbon dioxide, necessary for this very photosynthesis, escapes to the atmosphere during ventilation.And the humidity to which tropical crops, such as cucumbers, are so sensitive, drops noticeably. Therefore, the mixing of air in the solar greenhouse takes place with a perforated pipe system and a powerful fan.
- Heated vegetarian is carried out on the principle of heat exchanger. The air warmed by the sun is forced into the pipes laid in the soil and gives off heat to the beds. At night, the earth, in turn, is divided by the accumulated heat with air.
- As the heated air enters the cool pipes, the moisture in them condenses and through the holes — for this purpose the pipes are perforated — enters the soil. In fact, drip irrigation is obtained.
Building a solar vegetarian do it yourself
Having experience in the construction of greenhouses, it is easy to build a vegetarian, as only a few of its distinctive points will have to be taken into account:
- The system of drainage pipes with air intakes is the most time-consuming and crucial element of the solar greenhouse:
- tightness of joints to retain heat and carbon dioxide indoors,
- terracing the ridges, because the building is on the slope.
Laying the heart of the vegetarian - drainage system
- According to the previously prepared drawings, a marking is made on the selected site: where the walls of the building and the drainage pipes will be. Monolithic strip foundation is poured.
- For the construction of drainage apply thin-walled water supply PVC pipes with a diameter of 10 mm with holes with a diameter of 6-8 mm at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Holes should be only on one side - the one that then lies down.
- The pipes are laid to a depth of 30-35 cm over a layer of expanded clay. The distance between the pipes is 50-60 cm, the direction is along the length of the greenhouse. From the southern end, the ends of the pipes are drawn upward so that the 30-centimeter segments look upwards. This air intakes. They must be protected from the fallen leaves and clods of the earth with a fine-meshed net.
- From the northern end of the pipe are connected by a transverse collector, from which another pipe is directed inside the main wall to the roof. An adjusting chamber with plugs and an electric fan for forced air circulation is installed on its way.
- All pipes, except vertical, are filled with a layer of fertile soil. Ridges are formed across the greenhouse terraces. Between the terraces and the center of the greenhouse there are openings 70-90 cm wide. The height of the ridges depends on the personal preferences of the owner: it is convenient for many to work with the ground and plants standing.
What to do when drainage is ready
The skeleton of a vegetarian is made of a steel galvanized pipe. Cellular polycarbonate is ideal for coating. All joints must be treated with sealant. Since the sloping roof will still collect snow in winter, it is necessary to think out in advance how to clean it.
If the northern wall of the solar greenhouse adjoins any structure, a tank for watering plants can be placed on its roof, since a truly hot summer can greatly reduce the amount of moisture even in such a room. The tank will be filled with rainwater and heated by the sun.
Advice: for the soil to warm up properly and give the first harvest in September, it is better to start construction work in early summer.
Sunny vegetation is impeccable from an environmental point of view. It requires a minimum of electricity, which is spent mainly on the rotation of the fan blades. Like in a real ecosystem, it has a circulation of water and carbon dioxide. And most importantly - compared with the traditional greenhouse, it gives a much more yield.
The device, design features, types, its pros and cons
Such a structure has the common name "solar vegetarian" or "solar greenhouse". Its feature is the placement of the beds at a certain angle relative to the cardinal points.
In the middle zone of the country for a vegetarian, an angle of inclination ranging from 15 to 20 degrees.For the northern regions, the slope must be made from 35 to 40 degrees, since the rays of the sun, relative to the earth, have a sharper angle. The angle of inclination of the structure relative to the sun's rays should be as close as possible to the right angle.
It should be noted that the wide side of the vegetarian should be located from the north to the south. The rear wall of the structure must be capital, so it is built of brick. From the inside, the wall should reflect sunlight, so it is covered with a glossy or mirror coating. If this wall does not adjoin the house, then it should be insulated with foam plastic.
Ivanov AV, who was a physics teacher, at the end of the 50s of the last century, invented this truly wonderful greenhouse. Thanks to his invention, it became possible to grow garden crops and harvest a large crop, despite the climatic zone in which the vegetarian is located. In practice, Ivanov A.V. He proved that it is possible to collect more than 40 kg of cucumbers from one square meter.
The microclimate in such a structure is perfect for the vital activity of exotic plants, which do not suit the conditions of ordinary greenhouses and greenhouses.
The design of the vegetarian is different from ordinary greenhouses in that:
- Her room does not need to be further heated at an outside temperature of up to -10 ° C. With such frosty air, the internal microclimate will be kept within + 16–19 ° С. Frosts of more than 15 degrees will not lower the temperature in a vegetarian lower than 10–12 ° C.
- Sunny vegetarian due to a special air circulation system, does not need to be updated oxygen. This is explained by the fact that the plants themselves produce it in the process of photosynthesis. During ventilation, the carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis, together with the required humidity, completely evaporates. In this regard, the circulation of oxygen in such a greenhouse is carried out using a system of air ducts and forced ventilation.
- The interior of the vegetarian is heated by natural heat exchange. The movement of warm air is concentrated in pipes under the ground that heats the beds. At night, the earth gives off some heat to the air inside the room.
- Warm air, getting into the cold pipes, contributes to the formation of condensate. The resulting moisture, through the holes flows into the ground, irrigating it. This process is called drip irrigation.
Vegetarian greenhouses are made from various materials. Designs can be equipped with rolled insulation, in case of severe frosts.
The constructions of greenhouses are divided into types:
- with an attic roof
- with sloping walls,
Table: advantages and disadvantages of the design
Sunny vegetarian has more positive than negative criteria, which are expressed in the following:
- possibility of watering by direct and indirect (drip irrigation) method,
- heat-loving garden crops require additional heating when the outside air temperature is -8 ° C. To do this, it is enough to use an electric heater or a small-sized “stove” stove
- if the soil temperature is raised to 32 ° C, then the crop can be harvested a month earlier, and its volume will exceed 2.5 times. In such conditions, the total number of eggplants can increase by 4 times,
- if the temperature of the soil is 3–4 ° C higher than that of air, then as a percentage, the yield of tomatoes will be almost twice as high. Their maturation will also accelerate, it only takes 9 days,
- the quality of vegetables, fruits and berries, without the use of chemical treatments, additional lighting and heating, will not yield to those grown in warm months. Productivity can increase up to 10 times
- the design, irrigation system and microclimate reduce the physical costs of growing 6–7 times,
- if the vegetarian is reliably insulated for use in winter, then it allows you to collect 3 crops per year.
- The design of the vegetarian means its location on the slope. To create it will take a lot of land or the installation of a large number of piles, and these are large physical, material costs and a lot of time,
- for sloping roofs and walls, a transparent and reliable material is required - cellular polycarbonate or glass. The acquisition of these coatings will require large financial investments
- the complexity of the irrigation system and ventilation may require the assistance of specialists.
Photo gallery: options for new generation greenhouses
- Igor (05/14/2016 10:36)
In 2014, in the Belgorod region, he installed a greenhouse 5500 by 9500 mm. under polycarbonate.
Height 2.2 m. In the low part and 2.5 m. From the side of the wall.
On the ground, 8 ridges (700x4300) and 7 ridges (700x600) ate the rest.
In 2015, half of the landing area, according to the Ivanov system, supplied air ducts from perforated asbestos pipes with forced ventilation in a circle. (three fans of 20W each.) I applied a number of my ideas (the fans do not work around the clock, but by timer (while I select intervals, 1–1 hours), combined the Ivanov system and forced heating of the soil (floor heating principle), but still forced heating not used, the height of the ridges of the earth chose 500mm.)
To control the consumption of resources (ventilation + plant lighting and lighting of the workplace, as well as the water consumption for irrigation) set the counters.
I will be glad to report the results after one year of operation.
Preliminary conclusion: SYSTEM really works! in spite of the fact that only a part of the greenhouse is equipped with this system of overheating of air and I haven’t yet conducted the need to open windows (I unscrewed the “openers” on all three windows, the windows were closed), although the temperature behind was already +30 and higher. The temperature has risen at night.
Vladimir (08/07/2016 06:30)
Dear Colleagues. I am from Kazakhstan, for two years I set about trying to build a greenhouse. Accidentally built a vegetarium, there was just a convenient plot of land, between the house and the neighbors, I wrote a single greenhouse into it, and then I read about Ivanov’s vegetarians. Last year he got his harvests. In winter, made an air heating system, everything works. Put in the middle of the device temperature, which records the average temperature. I like the harvest there. There are mistakes and shortcomings, this is poor ventilation in the summer, it is very hot in the greenhouse. But it is not cold, I will refine.
Michael (12/22/2016, 5:53 PM)
I have already built a solar vegetarian in the Kuban. I tried it in the summer - without good ventilation, everything would burn, as in a simple greenhouse, now I’ll ride problems with excessive humidity, highlighting and heating in winter.
Gennady (12/17/2016 19:48)
I think the slope of the soil is very important, I read that 1 degree of slope is equivalent to moving 500 km to the south. The temperature of the root zone is very important, in “HRP” there was a note, as in the Tyumen region. The beds-boxes were placed on old tires, thus tearing off the cold soil and the plants began to grow well. It is not bad to make a pond inside, as it is known water is an excellent heat accumulator, plus the light reflected from below, and it also regulates humidity. Carry out the experiment: place an ordinary incandescent lamp in at least a half-liter jar and place it in a container with water. The light will spread evenly throughout the volume of water;
Preparation for construction: drawings, dimensions, schemes
At the preparatory stage, it will be necessary to draw up drawings and diagrams for the future construction of a vegetarian. For the construction of this structure, calculations are needed more precisely, since it has a specific base and materials.
First of all, you need to choose the right place to accommodate a vegetarian, which is the south or southeast side of the plot.
Beforehand, it is necessary to determine the quality and composition of the soil in the building area, since a certain type of foundation is suitable for each type of soil. For the construction of such structures used tape, columnar or columnar concrete base.
Any land work must be preceded by accurate marking in accordance with the drawing or scheme.
The choice of material tips
To cover the sun vegetarian materials are needed that will pass sunlight.For this purpose, glass or polycarbonate should be used. Although the glass surface is transparent, it can break in the case of hail. In this regard, the best material that simultaneously has high strength and transparency is cellular polycarbonate.
- wooden bars can be used for the frame. They are pre-treated with antifungal impregnation. However, after a few years in humid conditions, this material may deform,
- taking into account the specific conditions of placement of the structure, it is better to use galvanized steel pipes,
- if the structure will be erected separately from the building, then for the northern wall bricks will be required, as well as foam plates for its insulation,
- for pouring the foundation, not only concrete is necessary, but also reinforcing rods that strengthen the base, as well as gravel with sand for the substrate,
- Regardless of the selected transparent coating, its joints must be treated with a sealant. For this purpose, well-established material on a bitumen basis,
- when digging a trench under the foundation, the upper fertile layer should be folded separately, as it will be used for beds,
- to prevent the polycarbonate coating from being damaged during installation, it should be installed on roofing screws with rubber gasket.
Calculation of the required amount of material tools
The calculation will be made for a metal construction of a vegetarian with a brick wall, the coating of which is made of polycarbonate sheets. The foundation for concrete piles was chosen as the basis for the construction. The size of the structure is 500x400 cm. The height of the brick wall will be 282 cm, and the opposite - 182 cm.
For the construction of such a wall the type of masonry was chosen - in two bricks.
To calculate the exact number of bricks, you need to know the parameters of this material. Since the wall of a vegetarian will be erected from full-bodied white silicate brick, its dimensions will be 250x120x65 mm.
For the calculation, you will need a height of the spoon side of the brick equal to 65 mm. It should be noted that the height of each row should be added to the thickness of the solution of 2 mm, so it is more convenient to assume - 67 mm.
First you need to set the number of rows in the wall. To do this, it is necessary to divide its height by 67 mm or 6.7 cm. We substitute the values: 282: 6.7 = 42.08. Since the wall will be built by laying in two bricks, this value must be doubled: 42.08 ∙ 2 = 84.16.
Now you need to determine how many bricks will fit the width of the wall equal to 400 cm. For this we need the parameter of the bonded side of the brick (120 mm). It is necessary to divide the width of the wall by 120 mm or 12 cm. We substitute the values: 400: 12 = 33.3 pieces.
Now it is easy to calculate the total number of bricks for a wall by multiplying the rows by the number of pieces along its width: 84.16 33.3 = 2802.5 pieces.
Ribbon foundation on concrete piles is easy to calculate, if you imagine it in simple geometric shapes - cylinders and parallelepipeds. Using geometric formulas you can calculate the volumes of these figures.
The tape base will look like three elongated parallelepipeds with parameters: two sides of 400x30x20 cm and one - 500x30x20 cm. To determine the volume of each of these figures, you need to use the formula for finding the volume of the cube, which looks like this: V = h³, where h is the height , width and length of parallelepiped. Calculations will be made in meters, we substitute the values:
- 4 ∙ 0.3 ∙ 0.2 = 0.24 m³.
- 5 ∙ 0.3 0.2 = 0.3 m³. Since these figures are two, then: 0.3 ∙ 2 = 0.6 m³.
Now you need to find the total amount of concrete for the tape base: 0.24 + 0.6 = 0.144 m³.
Next, you need to make a calculation for concrete piles. As shown in the diagram, the strip foundation will be located on eleven concrete piles. For convenience, it is necessary to calculate the volume of one pile, and multiply the resulting value by their number.
To determine the volume of a cylinder, you must use a geometric formula that looks like this: V = π ∙ R² ∙ h, where π is a mathematical constant equal to 3.14, R is the radius of the circle of the figure (0.15 2 = 0.3) , h - its height (0.5 m). Substitute the values: 3.14 ∙ 0.3 ∙ 0.5 = 0.471 m³.
Now you need to multiply this value by the number of piles: 0.471 ∙ 11 = 5.181 m³ of concrete mix will be needed to fill all the piles.
To find the amount of concrete needed for the entire foundation, you need: 0.144 + 5.181 = 5.325 m³.
Calculation of reinforcement
Reinforcement cage is required to strengthen the foundation. To do this, use metal rods with a thickness of 10-12 mm. Firming frame is a three-dimensional construction of four interconnected rods. The same material is used as connecting elements.
For convenience, the calculation will be made in running meters for each side and structural elements.
First you need to do the calculation on the sides of the ribbon base. Since each side will be located on 4 solid bars, the values obtained for all of them are multiplied by four. Substitute the values:
- 400 ∙ 4 = 1600 cm. Since there are two sides with the same length, then: 1600 2 = 3200 cm.
- 500 ∙ 4 = 2000 cm. We add both values: 3200 + 2000 = 5200 cm or 52 meters.
Now you need to make a calculation on the connecting elements of the tape base. As shown in the diagram, the element has the shape of a rectangle with the parameters 15x20x15x20 cm. These squares are located at a distance of 30 cm from each other.
First you need to know how you will need fittings for the manufacture of one such element. To do this, add the values of its parameters: 15 + 20 + 15 + 20 = 70 cm.
Now you want to calculate their total. To do this, you need to divide the length of the entire ribbon base into the gap between the elements. 400 + 400 + 500 = 1300 cm is the total length of the tape. We divide this value by thirty: 1300: 30 = 43.3 elements.
We calculate the total length of the elements: 43.3 ∙ 0.7 = 30.31 meters of reinforcement
Now you need to calculate the number of reinforcement for reinforcement of concrete piles: 60 ∙ 4 = 240 cm. Multiply this value by the number of piles: 240 11 = 2640 cm or 26.4 meters. Wire can be used as a connecting element for this framework.
We find the total length of the reinforcement: 52 + 30.31 + 26.4 = 108.7 meters.
The metal frame for the pile in three places is reinforced with wire. This material is also calculated in running meters. The distance between the rods is 10 cm. Find the length of the wire for the entire pile frame: 10 ∙ 4 ∙ 3 = 120 cm or 1.2 meters. Multiply this value by the number of piles: 1.2 ∙ 11 = 13.2 meters of wire.
Calculation of polycarbonate sheets
The standard width of a polycarbonate sheet is 210x1200 cm. To determine the required amount of this material, it is necessary to calculate the surface area to be coated. The roof, as well as the side and front walls of the vegetarian must be transparent, so you need to make calculations for each surface and add the results. To find the area of the figure, you need to multiply its length by width. Substitute the values:
The front wall has a size of 1.82 x 5 m, which in terms of 9.1 m².
The side has the form of a parallelogram, whose area is calculated by the formula S = a ∙ h, where a is the side of the figure, h is the height held at right angles to the side of a. Substitute the values: 1.82 ∙ 4 = 7.28 m². Since there are two sides, then: 7.28 ∙ 2 = 14.56 m².
To calculate the roof area, it is necessary to determine the length of the side (parallelogram) of the vegetarian. To do this, use the Pythagorean formula, which looks like this: c = √а² + в². Substitute the values: c = √4² + 1.82² = √16 + 3.3124 = √19.3124 = 4.395. Now this value needs to be multiplied by the width of the building: 4.395 ∙ 5 = 21.975 m².
We find the total area by adding the values on all sides of the structure: 9.1 + 14.56 + 21.975 = 45.635 m².
When building a vegetarian you will need the following tools:
- Shovel, bayonet or mini-excavator.
- Garden drill.
- Concrete mixer.
- The welding machine with electrodes.
- Construction level and plummet.
- Big square.
- Scissors for metal.
- Cord with wooden stakes.
- Graphite pencil.
Step-by-step instructions for building a greenhouse for a vegetarian on the Scandinavian technology with their own hands
The building process of a vegetarian can be divided into six main stages:
Stage 1. Designing future structures. The important point of this stage will be the correct marking on the sunny side. It is also necessary to investigate the quality and composition of the soil, since the choice of the type of foundation depends on it.
Stage 2 Setting the base for a vegetarian. The tape base on concrete stilts will require digging a trench at the bottom of which holes are made. For this you need:
- Dig a trench of width 20, depth 30 cm.
- Her bottom is rammed.
- At a distance of 85 cm from each other (for the front side of a vegetarian) and 82 cm (for lateral sides), dig holes, 70 cm deep. For this, it is convenient to use a garden drill. If there is none, then you can use a fishing auger for ice.
Stage 3 The construction of the design of the vegetarian. For the construction of the frame, it is best to use profiled pipes with side sizes of 20x20, 30x30 or 40x40 mm. It is more convenient to make separate elements of a design on the earth. The finished metal parts, in order to avoid the appearance of corrosion, must be treated with special moisture-resistant coatings.
Inside the perimeter of the basement, at a distance of 50 cm from each other, dig trenches 30 cm deep. EThese trenches should be perpendicular to the brick wall along the entire vegetation.
The bottom is covered with gravel to make a layer 5 cm thick.
Lay PVC pipes on top. As an alternative, asbestos-cement material can be used. Drill a hole in the bottom of each pipe with a diameter of 6 to 8 mm.They should be located at a distance of 15 cm from each other.
Each element of PVC pipes to connect with the help of taps and couplings of the same material. Bottom ends of the pipes to bring to the surface. In order not to get garbage inside, close the channel with a fine mesh. The open part of the pipe will play an air intake function.
In the upper part of the pipe to connect the transverse segment, which is connected to a vertical channel. This pipe, through the adjustment chamber, goes to the roof of the structure.
The camera is at a height of 1.5 meters from the surface of the earth. It is equipped with fans that circulate the air inside the vegetarian.
4 stage. Covering walls and roofs with polycarbonate sheets. At the junction of the material with the wall, it is necessary to lay insulation. This will protect the plants from drafts. There must be a rubber gasket between the screw head and the roofing material. There is a more convenient and faster installation method - using rivets.
Stage 5 Layout and manufacture of beds. The distance between the beds should be left from 60 to 90 cm. The beds should have horizontal ledges. Each of them should be sheathed with sheets of slate, metal or wood. The height of the boards should be within 60 cm. The ideal location of the beds will not be steps, but on a slope.
6 stage. Installation of vents and doors. After installing the polycarbonate coating proceed to the installation of doors and air vents. The design may include two vents on each side. It is necessary to provide a place for the placement of containers with water. Usually they are installed in the upper part of the structure.
Nuances of operation
Maximum heat retention in a vegetarian can be achieved due to the location of the structure. To do this, you can not pour the ground to make a slope, and dig a pit below the freezing point. The walls must be built of concrete, which is covered with reflective material, such as foil. This method will provide better heating beds. Inside such a vegetarian, the atmosphere will resemble a thermos, preserving carbon dioxide, moisture and heat as much as possible.
In such conditions, even without illumination, there will be 1.8 times more light than in open space in cloudy weather.
Care should be taken to clean the polycarbonate coating periodically.
At especially low temperatures, it is necessary to shelter a vegetarian. To do this, such facilities are equipped with rolled insulation materials.
Garden miracle with fantastic features
Solar vegetarian - the greenhouse of a new generation, a type of solar greenhouse, introduced by physicist A.V. Ivanov. The building was constructed in the 50s of the last century, and immediately demonstrated fantastic opportunities get great harvests in any climate zone.
Cultivation of garden crops in a vegetarian allows you to get a harvest a month earlier, and its value is increased significantly.
The appearance of this building resembles an ordinary wall greenhouse, often found in many suburban areas. The fundamental difference has a special internal structure of the vegetarian.
Vegetarian Ivanova - the destruction of all the stereotypes of growing heat-loving crops in indoor spaces. From an ordinary greenhouse or greenhouse construction characterized by the following parameters:
- Vegetarian does not need additional heating at a temperature starting at minus 10 degrees. Inside the structure under such conditions, the temperature will be maintained within 18-20 degrees. If night frosts come to minus 15, the balance is kept plus 12 degrees inside
- The helio-greenhouse Ivanova is provided with a special air circulation systemThe inner space of the vegetarian does not need airing. What is especially important, because in this procedure the greenhouse loses moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and the presence of these substances in the air is necessary for the full development of plants,
- In the vegetarian optimum humidity for plantsso there is no need for frequent watering.
What is the advantage of design?
Vegetarian Ivanova has a special structure, due to which maximum use of solar energy to preserve the internal microclimate.
In fact, it is a rectangular building with a flat, transparent roof. The coating is arranged at an angle of about 20 degrees.
The roof of the vegetarian is absolutely light. The ideal option is cellular polycarbonate. The side and front walls of the vegetarian are also constructed from polycarbonate or glass.
The northern side is built capital and covered with mirror foil or painted with white gloss paint. As an option, the vegetarian is attached to the wall of the house, shed and even to the fence. But you can build a separate building, with the capital of the northern wall.
If the vegetarian is built separately from the house, it is advisable warm the back wall sheets of foam. The height of the northern opaque wall should be from two to two and a half meters.
The sun's rays fall into a vegetarian through the transparent roof and walls, accumulate, reflecting from the rear wall-screen.
And the lower the standing of the sun, the more energy is used inside vegetarian. The slope of the structure in the amount of 25 degrees, increases the absorption of heat, compared with conventional structures, by 3-4.5 times.
As for the internal arrangement of the solar greenhouse, the beds inside are located steps from north to south. Each ridge is fastened with brick, wooden or metal borders.
This arrangement of ridges and walls contributes to the maximum penetration of sunlight into the inner space. In addition, the reflection of rays is reduced as much as possible, which reduces sun loss.
Ridges inside a vegetarian should be made narrow, with wide aisles between them. Plants inside it have impressive size, so they need a garter to a horizontal trellis, located almost under the roof.
In case of frost below 15 degrees in the greenhouse can provide heating. In this case, the vegetarian is suitable for year-round use.
Air exchange in the greenhouse
The problem of loss of nutrient medium for CO2 plants in the construction of Ivanov is solved by creating closed cycle air exchange.
In the depth of the soil, at a distance of about 35 centimeters from the surface and about 60 centimeters from each other, pipes (plastic or asbestos-cement) are hidden. Pipes are laid in the south-north direction. The ends of the pipes from the bottom are brought to the surface of the earth, and the upper ones are connected to a collector located across the pipes.
A vertical pipe with an adjusting flap is installed in the center of the collector. It overlooks the roof through the northern wall. The exit of this pipe directly into the vegetarian is supplied with a fan.
Using the valves installed in the collector (at the top and bottom of the fan), the temperature inside the greenhouse is regulated. In a solar vegetation in winter, when the temperature outside is minus ten, the internal heat is enough to maintain a temperature of 25 degrees.
Heat accumulator is soilabsorbing it from the air. The heat accumulated in the upper part of the structure is artificially redirected downwards. At night, there is a reverse process of the return of heat from the soil back into the air.
The same ventilation system greenhouse vegetarian saves plants from overheating on hot days. Excess heat is brought out using the same pipes. The bottom flap under the fan now closes and the top flap opens.
In this case, the air flow direction changes. The fan drives it out, ensuring the normal internal temperature and protecting the plants from overheating.
Irrigation system of solar vegetation
For irrigation of plants grown in solarium, soil and air moisture are usedcollected by a specially organized system for its collection.
Pipes laid under the soil, have holes in the bottom at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Passing through the cold pipes, warm air contributes to the formation of condensate on the walls. Moisture collected in this way percolates into the soil, from where it absorbs the roots of plants.
Under the pipes, a layer of expanded clay was laid to spread the moisture along the entire length of the bed. External irrigation of crops under such irrigation system is not needed..
In a similar irrigation system, water quality is also a plus. It is completely free from salt and lime, while filled with ammonia from the decomposition of organic matter. In case of lack of moisture in the greenhouse, drip irrigation is provided.
Such an organization of irrigation is most favorable for plants.. When watering is organized on the surface, moisture actively evaporates, most of it does not reach the root system. The roots of this watering, seeking to get moisture, approach the surface, which also negatively affects growth.
Vegetarian, due to the entry of moisture into the soil, contributes to the development of plants powerful, maximally enriched with moisture and nutrition of the root system.
The creator of a vegetarian, AV Ivanov, dreamed that his offspring was available at every home in order to tame the energy of the sun and provide its inhabitants with vegetables. Currently every amateur gardener has the opportunity to take advantage his invention to increase the yield on the site.
In the photo you can see the new-generation solar greenhouses:
House of solar vegetation by Alexander Ivanov or Back to the Future in Kiev
Perhaps, that in modern agriculture there is no more fashionable and progressive way of growing plants in closed greenhouses than farming in solar thermal houses. There are several reasons for this - these are savings on energy carriers, and a 100% environmental friendliness of the method, and an increased demand for organic farming products in economically developed countries of the world.
We usually admire the development of Canadian and Dutch helio-agronomists.But, unfortunately, few people remember and know that the most effective modern vegetarian has been developed in the early 50s of the last century by AV Kiev, a physics teacher from Kiev.
Therefore, it is precisely the Sunny Vegetariana Ivanova (already 45 years ago that this wonder-greenhouse has officially been called) has become the object of our today's research.
Ordinary Kiev miracle with exotic possibilities ↑
In fact, the Ivanova vegetarian breaks down all the stereotypes associated with the cultivation of heat-loving garden crops and garden trees in traditional greenhouses. Here are the main differences.
- At daytime ambient temperatures of up to -10 ° Celsius, no additional heating is required to produce a crop in a vegetarian. The temperature inside a properly constructed structure will be at a level of + 18 to + 21 ° C. And at night frosts up to -15 ° C, the temperature in the greenhouse does not fall below +12 ° C.
- Thanks to the original air circulation system, plants do not need to be ventilated. Moreover, airing can greatly reduce the yield, since during ventilation the "atmosphere" of the greenhouse loses the carbon dioxide, nitrogen and humidity that plants need.
- Plants grown in the Ivanova vegetarians do not require frequent additional watering.
Agree, at first glance, all this does not look very believable. Nevertheless, all this is the purest truth. The secret of the miracle is in the original design of this greenhouse, invented by an outstanding inventor.
Commercial vegetarian in China - an area of 0.85 hectares
Vegetarian Ivanova: design features ↑
The common expression “all ingenious is simple” fits this structure as well as possible. Externally, the structure is as follows.
- A rectangular greenhouse with a flat roof is located strictly from north to south with a slope of 15 -20 degrees.
- The roof and three walls of the vegetarian (side and south end) are covered with translucent material. Ideally, this is cellular polycarbonate.
- The northern wall must necessarily be capital. For maximum effect, the north wall is painted white or covered with mirror foil. As planned by the author, the northern side of the vegetarian should adjoin the house, however, if desired, the vegetarian can be built separately.
- The beds inside the greenhouse are terraces, descending from north to south. Passages are arranged between ridges. For reliability, the beds are reinforced with brick, plank or galvanized metal borders.
Vegetarian coated with polycarbonate
Such an unusual arrangement of the greenhouse is not accidental. This is one of the ingenious finds of the author of the project. Experienced greenhouses know that at low solstice (autumn, winter, early spring) no more than 30% of the useful solar energy penetrates into a regular greenhouse. The reason is in the reflection of solar flux from the roof and walls of an erect structure.
When the greenhouse is inclined, the sun's rays “fall” on its surface almost perpendicularly. The reflection effect decreases dramatically, and with it the energy loss decreases. According to research conducted by a group of scientists - followers of A.V.
Ivanova, solar heating of a vegetarian as compared with an ordinary arched greenhouse increases 4-5 times during daytime, and more than 20 times in the morning and evening (and also in winter) (!).
Home Vegetarian - Inside View
Chinese farmer boasts vegetarian harvest
New generation greenhouse for progressive greenhouses ↑
In traditional “winter” greenhouses, technical heating systems that are familiar to us are used to create the optimal internal temperature. In vegetarians, the sun and the soil act as a heating device. And now we will tell you how it works.
Under the fertile soil layer (depth 30-35 cm.) A special pipe system is laid. The pipes should be laid along the whole heifer at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other.Initially, asbestos-cement pipes were used for this. Today it is more convenient to use PVC pipes.
The main condition - pipes must be thin-walled.
Scheme pipe bookmarks:
- a layer of expanded clay (to drain water condensate),
- perforated tube
- soil layer.
Scheme of pipe laying: expanded clay, pipe, earth
Holes in the pipe are drilled along its entire bottom part (d 6-8 mm.) At a distance of 15 centimeters from each other. The lower ends of the pipes are displayed on the soil surface (figure) and are closed with fine-meshed grids (or mesh) - protected from the ingress of organic debris into the ground. In this system, these "windows" serve as air intakes.
From above the pipes are connected between themselves by a transverse segment (collector). From it, upwards, there is a vertical pipe, laid in the main wall and going to the roof, through the adjusting chamber. This camera is located at a height of 150 centimeters from the surface of the soil.
It is equipped with an electric fan and special plugs at the top and bottom. By means of the fan air circulation in a vegetarian is provided. In the "winter mode" the upper cap remains blocked. In summer, it opens and thus saves the plants from overheating.
The principle of operation of the solar panel air exchange system ↑
- During daylight hours, the sun warms the soil to 30-32 ° C. The fan is working, it pumps air into the pipes. Passing through the pipes, the air is cooled and returns to the greenhouse. Thus, temperature balance is maintained. At the same time carbon dioxide, the main "food" of plants from the greenhouse is not removed.
- Passing through the underground pipes, the air moisture condenses on the walls of the pipes and returns to the soil through the drainage holes. A layer of expanded clay allows water to spread along the entire length of the beds. This achieves a parallel effect - autonomous drip irrigation of the soil. Therefore, even the most moisture-loving exotic tropical crops grown in the Ivanov vegetarians require a minimum amount of additional watering.
Air intakes look like this
Tomato harvest in vegetarians
Solar vegetarian do-it-yourself: inexpensive and effective
For those who are imbued with the solar idea of Alexander Vasilyevich Ivanov, we offer step-by-step instructions on how to set up a vegetarian in the garden.
- Step number 1: choose a place, fill the foundation and prepare the soil
The southern or south-eastern slope, adjacent to your cottage or to any capital outbuilding that is conveniently located on your site, will be suitable for a vegetarian. Slope steepness - depending on the geographical latitude. In the suburbs, it is enough to design a slope of 25-30 degrees.
In the northern regions - this angle increases to 40 degrees. As a foundation, we recommend choosing a monolithic belt. When pouring, do not forget about the anchors for fastening the frame. The fertile soil layer for the solar bio-vegetarian is prepared in advance.
For this you can use peat or humus.
- Step # 2: we lay pipes and form beds
The scheme of the closed air circulation system
For the closed air circulation system we use water PVC pipes with a diameter of 100 mm. Perforation do only on the bottom of the pipe. The spacing between the holes is 15-20 cm. The thickness of the expanded clay layer is 20 cm. The beds are arranged in steps from north to south in descending order. The height of the borders of the beds - at your discretion.
The correct scheme of laying pipes in greenhouses, more than 3 meters wide
- Step number 3: make the frame and make the installation of a vegetarian
It is most convenient to make the framework of a 40x25 mm profile galvanized steel pipe. As a coating, we use cellular polycarbonate. The properties of this material are perfectly combined with the technology of solar plant growth. The interior of the vegetarian should be as tight as possible.
Therefore, the joints and mounting points of PC sheets are necessarily treated with silicone sealant.On the roof of the building must be laid drainage channels and drains. In addition, you need to think about how you will remove snow from the roof in winter. Installation of structures carried out in the warm season.
This will allow the soil to warm up well before the onset of cold weather.
General view of the Ivanova vegetarian
That's all for today. Now you just have to wait for your first record harvest. Dare!
Greenhouse-vegetarian on the Scandinavian technology
In Denmark and Norway, the climate is such that a large amount of solar heat, the residents of these countries, only dreamed of. That is why countries such as tomatoes and peppers grow poorly in countries.
That is why, in order to get an additional increase in yield, the greenhouse is built according to the Scandinavian technology.
Alexander Vasilyevich Ivanov, who is a physicist, invented the geothermal or, as it is also called, “solar vegetarian”, precisely in order to increase the harvest, with minimal effort and time.
This greenhouse is also called Scandinavian, as it is actively used by the countries of northern Europe. It is worth noting that you can build such a greenhouse with your own hands, and how exactly we will tell you further.
Many summer residents who have greenhouses on their plot, build them in the form of a house or arch. When the greenhouse has the shape of a house, it passes through itself only 20% of the sunlight, and in the second case about 35%, which is also not very much. And when it gets cold outside, it also becomes quite cold in the greenhouse, of course, if there is no heating in it.
The greenhouse, which was invented by our physicist, is simply devoid of these shortcomings. The secret of such a building is that the rays of the sun do not slide over its roof, but fall on it almost perpendicularly. Thanks to this design, during the day the greenhouse gets 4 times more solar heat, and as much as 18 at night.
If you are going to use this greenhouse all year round, then heating is carried out in it when the temperature has dropped below 15 degrees. If we talk about the harvest, the solar vegetarian increases it 10 times. Plants that are planted in such a greenhouse, begin to bear fruit much earlier, about 20 days.
The back wall of a greenhouse such as a solar vegetarian, is lined with a mirror material with a reflective effect. Such a wall is capital, it can be a wall of a dwelling or a separate wooden or brick wall. In this and in another case, this surface should be insulated with foiled material.
The ultraviolet rays of the sun are thus reflected from the wall and returned to the plants, which supplies them with additional energy and heat. If we talk about the size of such a building, then it will depend only on the financial possibilities and the size of the land plot.
The classic version of the greenhouse "solar vegetation" is located on a plot with an inclination of 30 degrees in the southern region. If the area has a flat surface, the slope should be made artificially. The roof and floor in the building should be parallel to each other.
Another feature of this design is the laying of perforated pipes to a depth of about thirty centimeters. This element has the function of heating during the period of cold weather, and also the pipes remove excess moisture from the soil.
Heating takes place as follows - fans are connected to the pipes, which produce forced ventilation of warm air from the top through pipes that are located underground.
The same fans in the hot summer can cool the greenhouse.
Geothermal irrigation system
The pipes that are laid in the ground have holes in their bottom at a distance of about 20 cm. Warm air that passes through the cold pipes creates condensate in them. This creates moisture, which flows along the walls of the pipes into the holes and enters the soil, namely, directly to the roots.
To equip the land and plants in the greenhouse with water, soil and air moisture is used, which is collected by a special system.
Usually, a layer of expanded clay is laid under the pipes so that with it the moisture spreads along the entire length of the bed.
If in the greenhouse there is such a system of irrigation of plants, then they do not need external watering. The advantage of this irrigation is the quality of water, which is completely free of salts and lime, but it also has a large amount of ammonia.
Do not forget that watering can be turned on only when the ventilation is working, otherwise you will over-humidify the air.
This method of irrigation is extremely useful for plants, because with external watering a large amount of moisture evaporates, not reaching the root system.
The roots tend to get the missing moisture and stretch upward, which is extremely unfavorable.
Sunny vegetarian with its method of irrigation provides plants with the development of a strong root system, which is enriched with all useful trace elements. Consequently, the harvest will be not only rich, but also useful.
If we talk about the design, then in the case install several vents and doors on each side. Barrels of water located in a greenhouse can act as a heat accumulator. During the day heat will accumulate in them, and at night the water will give it away to the air, warming well.
The long experience of summer residents shows that the use of this Scandinavian type greenhouse is highly efficient in growing plants. The cost of such construction is very low, so you do not need a strong cost of materials. Yes, and all financial costs quickly pay off due to good growth of plants and their high yields.
How to make a solar bio-vegetarian with your own hands
Compared to conventional greenhouses, a solar bio-vegetarian has a number of undeniable advantages:
- the harvest begins to ripen a month earlier
- real yield is 10 times higher,
- economic efficiency is 3 times higher
- does not require airing in hot weather,
- do not lose CO₂ and H₂O, necessary for photosynthesis and intensive growth.
The sloping roof of the vegetarian takes sunlight at right angles, which are not reflected and completely reach the plants. Due to this, all the heat and light go for heating and lighting.
During the transitional seasons, solar energy in it is 4 times more, and in winter and at night - 18 times. In ordinary arched greenhouses comes only 35% of the light, in any other modifications and even less.
Creating a vegetarian project
Initially, you need to decide on the place and size, where you plan to build a solar vegetarian with your own hands. It can be either a winter garden or a small garden bed. Dimensions can vary from a few square meters to several thousand. The project can be prepared independently or ordered in a professional concern. The drawing includes:
- pipe layouts
- closed circulation system plan.
The choice of location and installation of the foundation
Vegetarian Ivanova was invented more than 60 years ago. Today, it has been perfected at times and has become highly effective. His experience was used by foreign countries and created a Scandinavian greenhouse. It can be placed in any place where there is a slope.
If there is no slope, they make it themselves. The slope is drawn to the south or in the direction of the southeast. The slope should be between 15 and 35 °. This rule applies to the floor and roof. A bio-vegetarian can be with a horizontal floor and a sloping roof.
Before installing the foundation area equate and proceed directly to the construction. The instruction includes the following steps:
- For the base it is better to use a tape monolith.
- Buryat 14 holes with a depth of 1 m and a diameter of 20 cm.
- Pour concrete and leave to solidify.
- Anchors are used to attach the frame structure.
- In the prepared pits set rebar and rolled roofing material.
How to build a frame?
The profile steel pipe is best suited for the frame. If you assemble the structure yourself, then perform welding work on a two-part frame (6 and 4 m) on the ground. It is much more convenient and easier. And only then tie to the pillars and connect.
Be sure to cover the frame with paint against rust - this is a necessary measure, since the greenhouse is always very wet. At the joints hold processing sealant. Place drains and drainage channels on the roof.
Solar vegetation - solar greenhouse of the future from the Soviet past?
?Alexander Popov (athunder) wrote,
2014-05-01 11: 52: 00Alexander Popov
2014-05-01 11: 52: 00 For the cultivation of heat-loving plants, Anatoly Orlov proposes building buried greenhouses. At the same time, he recommends doing a burial below the depth of frost penetration, so that the root system does not suffer from frost.
According to Anatoly, it is the roots of tropical cultures that are afraid of low temperatures. In this case, the leaves of banana palm endure -15 degrees. If the walls are made of reinforced concrete, the greenhouse will come out very expensive. And the issue with drainage remains open. Let's look at simpler alternatives.
Helio-greenhouse Ivanova A.V.
A simple physics teacher, Alexander Vasilyevich Ivanov, invented a solar greenhouse, which he called House of solar vegetation, or simply sunny vegetarian.
It is alleged that in such a greenhouse Ivanov from 16.5 square meters was able to collect more than 200 kg of lemons, and still there grew pineapples and tangerines. At the same time, he collected cucumbers from 43 to 44 kg per square meter.
And this is at very low heating costs, and even then only in the cold winters of the 40s - 50s of the 20th century.
In the book Ivanko, Kalinicheko, Shmat "Sunny Vegetarian" provided technical documentation of structures to create a solar vegetarian area of 20-40 square meters. Given in this book and the drawings for the construction of a solar vegetarian made of wood / metal and glass.
The book states that solar access to the solar greenhouse is 4-6 times more than in traditional arched or dvukhskatny. This is achieved by orientation of the greenhouse to the south or southeast, as well as due to the slope of the roof at 20-40 degrees. In addition, the ground in the greenhouse is placed at the same angle as the angle of inclination of the roof.
Photo from the book "Solar bio-vegetarian"
Generally speaking, to obtain the maximum amount of sun, the angle of inclination of the solar greenhouse is calculated as longitude plus 10-15 degrees. But it is important to bear in mind that it may not be very convenient to work on an inclined section, even if terracing is used.
In addition, the cost of construction of buildings can significantly increase. Yes, and a larger amount of solar thermals implies a greater loss of heat. It is also worth considering that the sun at different times of the year passes at different angles to the horizon, so getting the sun's rays, always perpendicular to the roof of the solar thermal, will not work.
But to ensure that in the couple of months we need the reflection of the rays from the glass was minimal due to the angle close to 90 degrees, it is even possible. The slope of the solar greenhouse can be both natural and bulk. In the proposed solar greenhouse, three walls and the roof are covered with glass. But the northern wall is proposed to be massive.
It is used as a heat accumulator, therefore a solid brick or other materials with large mass and good heat capacity are well suited for its creation. A house, a garage, an economic extension or even a fence can act as the northern wall of the solar greenhouse. In addition, pipes are laid in a solar vegetarian at a depth of 30-35 cm.
Perforation at the bottom of a pipe lying in the ground allows the removal of excess moisture under the ground. Forced ventilation with the help of ordinary fans connected to the pipes makes it possible to warm the earth of the solar greenhouse during cold periods with the help of warm air accumulated under the greenhouse ceiling. In hot weather, ventilation allows you to get rid of excess heat in the solar vegetation.
The authors argue that heating will need to be included in such a solar greenhouse only when the outside temperature drops below 15 degrees Celsius. In the solar greenhouse arranged in such a way, fruiting begins 10-45 days earlier and the crop is 3-10 times higher.
But despite such stated figures, as well as the simplicity of the idea and its implementation, five dozen of the past years have not led to the massive use of this technology. And it makes you think about how effective the use of solar thermals is. Moreover, the authors of the book do not give the coefficient of resistance of enclosing structures or specific figures, how much the soil warms up in such a greenhouse.
Solar thermals. Experience Sergey Konin and NPO Green-PIK Company.
Solar thermals. Chinese experience.
In China, there is a massive construction of solar thermals. They are also oriented south or southeast, and a massive wall is built on the opposite side. It may be 1.5 meters of clay. The side walls of helio-greenhouses are built from various blocks. The south oriented wall is made of polycarbonate.
The angle of inclination of the solar greenhouse is, of course, calculated taking into account longitude. Some of these solar thermal cells are buried. Removable soil is used for the construction of the northern wall.
In addition, the Chinese are installing devices that allow sheltering the solarium from cold at night (most likely with polyethylene foam): In the solarium, it is not necessary to use expensive materials and devices.
It is possible to cover the greenhouse with the help of reeds or corn. Certainly, it should be borne in mind that polycarbonate transmits sun rays worse (light transmission up to 85%), but it bends well, light and durable. It is important to pay attention to competent installation. After all, water can get into the formed holes and then the mold will start, causing the polycarbonate to turn black.
While the Russians are sleeping and wondering if they are needed or not, the Chinese are building them with might and main. For them, it is obvious that in the open field it is possible to grow much less production. At the same time, the Chinese are experimenting with materials for the construction of solar thermals. Including build arches not from metal, but from polymers.
Issues and problems in the construction of solar thermal
One of the issues in the construction of solarium (solar bioelectric) remains the lack of ventilation. According to the authors of the book, it is a closed cycle that allows you to save moisture, nitrogen, phosphorus and even carbon dioxide in the greenhouse.
At the same time, another point of view suggests a constant inflow (and outflow) of air to obtain the required amount of CO2. In addition, there remains a great doubt about the efficiency of the fans for cooling the greenhouse to a temperature below 40 degrees, especially when the outside air temperature is 35-38 degrees heat.
A few thoughts (tips for yourself) about building solar bio-vegetarians:
- Semi-arched polycarbonate type of Chinese solar greenhouse, but taking into account our longitude. Either glass vertical walls and a sloping polycarbonate roof. Konin:
- The wall on the south side of the solar greenhouse 40-50 centimeters, so as not to come into contact with snow.
- Thermal termination of solar thermal using extruded polystyrene foam
- The side walls are either transparent, or with the use of heat-intensive material and vermiculite insulation or foam glass (but definitely not polystyrene or highly absorbing mineral wool, even pressed rye straw with clay plaster will be better, and the uniform design of the wall, unlike pie, has best features)
- Pipes for ventilation - ordinary PVC sewer pipes with perforations below. Lay on the rubble, so that the moisture leaves.
- Consider the option of deepening the greenhouse 50-100 cm.
- Consider the option of a solar greenhouse made of polycarbonate in the form of a semi-archway on two floors (access to the second from the balcony).Although the windows in the house is recommended to focus on the south side, and polycarbonate will reduce the amount of sun and heat.
- For a test solar greenhouse you can use old wooden windows that are thrown away everywhere
- To consider the option of using biohumus and earthworms for solar heating in order to obtain environmentally friendly (organic) products. Details from Konin.
- With a large amount of solar thermal facilities, consider the possibility of creating a vestibule (to save heat and protect against pests).
- Consider the use of special LED lamps emitting ultraviolet light (LED phyto lamps). Mainly for use during the winter solstice, frosty and cloudy days.
- In addition to natural lighting and top lighting, consider the option of lower lighting. But only where tall and highly dense planting of agricultural crops will be grown. The light produced by lowering the light exposure is better penetrated into the phytocenosis and significantly increases the intensity of photosynthesis, and, consequently, increases the yield.
- Arches of steel with cold galvanized (so as not to rust)?
- Painting the north wall of the greenhouse in white color from the inside
- Construction of a greenhouse on the southern or southeastern slope
- Shelves with plants on the northern wall of the solar greenhouse. Pots suspended from the ceiling of the solar greenhouse.
- Heating of the greenhouse in winter: a pyrolysis boiler on a pellet or a gas heater (gas heat generator) with high efficiency.
- Consider the option of shading the solar greenhouse in hot weather.
- Konin inside the greenhouse canopies: "This is non-woven materials, you can also use nets to reduce the flow of solar energy."
- Consider the option of warming the solar greenhouse, including the use of heat-reflecting foil materials. Konin:
Organic farming in solarium:
Bio-vegetarian: description, design and construction
Definitely solar bio-vegetarian is a new technology in the world of garden crops. At present, such constructions can be found both in small private farms and in large, business-oriented ones. Sunny vegetarian Ivanova gained such fame thanks to the following advantages:
- due to the large amount of glazing, the illumination is improved several times, due to which plant growth is improved due to the large amount of sunlight,
- The solar bio-venting ventilation system is designed in such a way that the air is cleaned without losing the chemical elements necessary for plants, such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen,
- if you build a solar vegetarian with your own hands correctly, then the heat losses in winter will be minimal, while in an ordinary greenhouse you cannot maintain an optimal microclimate without an additional heating system,
- The project of a vegetarian plan provides for the construction of such a roof, when the sun's rays fall at a right angle, which is why so much sunlight accumulates inside the room, which helps to preserve the maximum amount of heat and energy necessary for the growth of vegetables and fruits.
Before talking about the design features, a few words should be said about its inventors. It is believed that the first solar vegetarian, which is also known as the “biofactory” and “solar greenhouse”, was invented by the Soviet physics teacher from Kiev A. Ivanov.
In addition, there is information about the Chinese inventor Wang Lee, who also patented the rights to build solar thermals. However, in the recent past, technology received a new round of transformation: the Russian inventor S. Konin introduced modifications to the design drawings, which is why the invention of the vegetarian diet is often attributed to him.
Also known are bio-greenhouses of the Scandinavian type, which, in fact, are Ivanov's greenhouses, but are called so because of the popularity of ecological gardening in Western Europe.
It is from the Scandinavian countries that the fashion for ecological gardening and year-round cultivation of crops in closed ground comes to Russia.
So, in essence, the greenhouses of the Scandinavian technology, Konin's bio-vegetarians and “smart” greenhouses do not exist, since all of them are just additional names for Ivanov’s Soviet design.
This eco-friendly system of growing garden crops has several main features:
- Existence of a reflecting back wall of the room. The design of the structure provides most of the transparent surfaces. However, the back wall, which can stand either separately or as an extension to a house or shed, is covered with a reflective foil that will redirect the sun's rays to the lighting of the beds.
- As already mentioned, a solar vegetarian is built with its own hands with transparent walls and a ceiling, where the ceiling and the floor are parallel to each other.
- The accumulation of heat is created due to the constant long-term illumination of the greenhouse. For illumination to be long, transparent walls should be facing the south side.
- Heating and air purification occur due to the laying of perforated pipes to a depth of 35 cm, to which an air circulation system (fans) is connected, which cool the air in summer and heat it in winter.
Thanks to all the above-mentioned advantages and features, a user of this garden object, with proper installation of the irrigation and lighting system, gets the opportunity to grow vegetables year-round in a large volume. Even if you do not mount additional lighting, the growing season can be extended by two months.
Moreover, the microclimate closest to the natural allows the use of a minimum amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (most often the owners of biofabriks turn to vermiculture and vermicompost).
Dimensions and design drawings
Step-by-step instructions for building a bio-type greenhouse do it yourself with the choice of a drawing and the size of the building.
The floor plan can be found on the Internet or ordered from the project company, but the dimensions will need to be thought out in advance. They depend on your financial capabilities, size and requirements.
As a rule, the size of the room is from 4 m in width and 6 m in length. Height - to your height.
The main thing that needs to be considered when building, is the level of the floor and ceiling slope. To make the lighting complete, the beds are arranged in a cascade, for which the floor level must be at an angle of 30–35 °. The ceiling should be parallel to the floor.
As already mentioned, the rear northern wall should be solid and covered with insulation and reflective material. The best option would be to attach the building to the wall of the house.
Material for the frame and insulation
It is difficult to build a biofactory itself, but the choice of high-quality materials greatly simplifies the task:
- Concrete, cement support pipes and fittings are used for the foundation,
- frame block is recommended to be made of rectangular steel pipes and wooden bars (you can also try to use metal-plastic pipes),
- the walls are covered with 8 mm polycarbonate sheet,
- in the future, ventilation systems are installed and, if necessary, an automated water supply and lighting system.
On the prepared level plot of land at a distance corresponding to the drawings, holes are made in the ground with a depth of 5–6 cm, to which the support pipes are then installed. Reinforcing rods are installed inside the pipes, and all together it is poured with concrete.
The required angle of inclination is determined by the construction level, after which the pipes are cut off and the reinforcement cage trimmed with wooden planks is installed. Inside, holes are made for ventilation and drain pipes, after which the foundation is poured with concrete.
Further around the frame you can make an earth mound, plant it with flowers or low shrubs.
Covering and warming
Wooden frames and polycarbonate sheets are used as plating. Frames are made in advance, then fixed on a metal frame, after which you can proceed to the installation of polycarbonate using self-tapping screws. Before installation, do not forget to treat all wooden elements with an antiseptic, water-repellent liquid, and paint if necessary.
At the last stage, the greenhouse equipment is performed.
Additional irrigation system for a standard set of crops (cucumbers, tomatoes, etc.) is not required, since moisture accumulates from the air exchange system. As a result of ventilation in the room, condensate is accumulated from moisture contained in the soil, which serves as a moisturizing element. This system allows you to keep the microclimate in the greenhouse in its original form.
Heating occurs due to the fans installed in the base of the pipeline. Fans can operate from electric boilers or from other air heating systems.
Ventilation is carried out by laying the pipeline at a depth of 50 cm. To do this, small holes are made in the pipes, after which they are joined and laid on a 20-centimeter layer of expanded clay. The pipeline is connected to the air exhaust system on the one hand, and the fans on the other. The pipeline is laid at an angle, and is closed from the outside with a grid.
The beds in the vegetarian are collected in the form of boxes, which are placed in cascade type. As a material of boxes it is possible to use both a tree, and a construction stone or a brick.
Sunny vegetarian Ivanova: do-it-yourself construction experience
Instead of the traditional greenhouse, sunny gardeners usually think about summer gardeners, in the region where the late blight comes especially early, and it is difficult to extend the growing season of tomatoes.
Moreover, to build this architectural miracle and at the same time the brilliant creation of an ordinary physics teacher is not difficult - even if you do not hire anyone and do not study Soviet textbooks.
So, sunny vegetarian - do it yourself!
To familiarize yourself with this construction technology, we invite you to watch the video:
Why is a solar vegetarian better than ordinary greenhouses? He has a lot of advantages:
- The lion's share of time in an ordinary greenhouse gets no more than 35% of solar energy - if it is arched, and 20% - if of a different form. In the vegetarian - many times more!
- In the summer heat, the usual greenhouse has to be intensively aired, but this way carbon dioxide and moisture are almost completely removed from it - and these are vital for plants.
- An ordinary greenhouse without an expensive heating system loses heat very quickly - as soon as frosts appear. The correct vegetarian solar is designed so that such temperature jumps in it are much more smoothed.
And the most important thing is that the sun's rays fall on a sloping roof of a vegetarian at a right angle and therefore are practically not reflected.
All energy eventually goes to heating and lighting a vegetarian, and it turns out to be 4 times more than in a normal greenhouse in the warm season, and 18 times more than in winter and at night.
Impressive, isn't it? Not for nothing they say that the solar vegetarian is the greenhouse of the new generation!
Stage I. Design of a solar vegetarian
The back wall in a vegetarian traditionally becomes capital, with a mirror-reflecting material.
Due to this, up to 95% of heat and light energy will return to the plants again - that is the secret! In this regard, even research was conducted that in central Russia, when the soil tilts the vegetation, the sun's rays are absorbed 32% more in the winter, and this is undoubtedly a more solid crop.
This wall can be part-time a blank wall at home, or simply sewn up with boards. She is always north. It can be insulated with ordinary foam plastic - the main thing is to protect it well from mice.
He closes, in turn, with foiled insulation, which can be well attached with a construction stapler.
The size of the solar vegetarian is determined individually - depending on the planned budget and the capacity of the site for construction.
Stage II. Placement and foundation
Placing a solar vegetarian, created and tested 60 years ago by the genius inventor Ivanov, is necessary on a natural or artificially created slope from 15˚ to 35˚, the slope of which faces south or slightly to the south-east.
The floor in a traditional vegetarian should be parallel to the roof - and both should be inclined at up to 15 to 35˚.
But today, Ivanov’s vegetation with a horizontal floor, but with a sloping roof, is increasingly being built, and the harvest still pleases, oddly enough.
So, let's move from theory to practice - the platform must be carefully leveled, and you can begin to build a foundation. The best option is bored. To do this, you need to drill 14 holes up to a meter deep and with a diameter of about 20 cm.
Pit poured concrete and give him time to freeze. By the way, the dimples themselves can even be made an ordinary borer for winter fishing. Only during drilling you need to add a little water - so that the soil itself sticks to the drill.
In this case, each of these holes will take no more than 15 minutes.
In ready pits, you need to insert rolled up ruberoid into a roll and pre-prepared reinforcement, which is then welded to the metal frame of the vegetarian.
Stage III. Frame construction
Ivanova’s solar vegetation itself can come from a wide variety of materials - construction experience shows that both low-cost constructions and highly durable metal do an excellent job with all the functions.
That's just the tree does not always feel good in such an ecosystem - its humidity is much more than in ordinary greenhouses. And so ideal for the construction of a vegetarian - a profiled tube with parameters 20x20 and 40x40 cm.
And what tools are needed for work: screwdrivers, a saw for metal and a grinder.
Making a solar vegetarian with your own hands, the skeleton is better and easier to cook right on the ground - in two parts, 4 m and 6 m. After that, it can already be tied to the pillars and connected.
It is also convenient to do the roof system, then to install it one by one.
The welded carcass must finally be painted with a special paint from rust - because the climate in the vegetarian will be wet.
Stage IV. Polycarbonate coating
Modern experience in the construction of a solar vegetarian says that it is better to use high-quality cellular polycarbonate as its coating - 4 mm is enough for walls, and it is better to lay the roof on sheets 6 mm thick.
To avoid later drafts in the vegetarians, inside the greenhouse under the ridge, the junction of polycarbonate to the wall itself must be sealed with pipe insulation. The bottom of the vegetarian must be flushed with a professional sheet for special rivets to the frame.
Stage VI. Installation of doors, air vents and bed heating systems
Next, we already make and install the door, make a shelf for barrels of water and other trifles.
It remains only to think of a ventilation and watering system. A good accumulator of heat for such a greenhouse will be water in barrels left overnight.
She will accumulate heat all day and give it away at night. Thus, the temperature jumps between the time of day will be significantly smoothed.
But to warm the water will not warm - for this we need a much more serious system, which will be discussed further.
The heart of a solar vegetarian is a closed cycle of air exchange and heat. To this end, pipes are laid to a depth of up to half a meter — 60 cm apart from each other. Their lower ends are raised above the ground, the upper ends are brought under the roof of the greenhouse.
And on the pipes themselves are equipped with exhaust fans that work around the clock. During the day, the air is cooled in the soil, and at night the ground in the accumulated heat heats up during the day and enters the vegetarian.
Everything is very simple: in the heat, such ventilation saves the plants from pernicious overheating, and warms them on cold nights. Due to all this, the roots of the plants themselves are constantly in a favorable environment, and all the moisture in the vegetation is preserved, as is carbon dioxide.
Watering so much is no longer necessary - the humidity is high, the leaves evaporate little water - and the fruits increase significantly in size.
A vivid example of this is the successful experiment of the author of the solar vegeter himself: he collected 216 kg of lemons from two eight-year-old plants on just 17 square meters! And with modern calculations in the vegetarian production goes three times more than in a conventional greenhouse, although the cost of the fruit is obtained three times less. After all, it is not without reason that Timiryazev, a scientist, was quoted who was convinced that the limit of fertility is determined not by the amount of fertilizer and watering, but by the amount of light energy. That is why a solar vegetarian is a real solar technology!
And the plants in the vegetarians bear fruit almost a month earlier, without any difference from the same vegetables that are grown under the open sky, neither in taste nor in the presence of useful trace elements. Miracle of technology, and more!