Is it dangerous for a person?
- Fact: Forest mice are usually brown, but there are red and yellow specimens.
- Fact 2: 60-75 days after the birth, the small animal becomes sexually mature and ready for reproduction.
- Fact 3: The mouse is not only the devourer of everything that “lies badly”, she herself is a good lunch for predators: owls, foxes, ferrets, weasels.
- Fact 4: If there are only a few pairs of mice on the sowed field in the spring (5-6), then in the autumn there will be about a few thousand rodents (7-8).
What are dangerous ticks and their bites?
The tick bite is dangerous in that it causes infection, which can then turn into such diseases: borreliosis, encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever. There are other diseases, but these are the most dangerous and common. For example, in case of encephalitis, even after treatment, paralysis and atrophic paresis (partial paralysis of any part of the body or organ) may remain.
The greatest problem is that the sucked tick can be overlooked, and the symptoms of the disease appear only after 1-2 weeks, when the treatment is already less effective. Symptoms of a bite can be:
- lack of appetite,
- headache, vomiting,
- increase in body temperature (up to 40 degrees),
- general weakness
- pains in muscles, throat, joints.
If you notice such ailments, immediately consult a doctor, otherwise the consequences can be very sad.
What is the danger for humans ticks?
In addition to the above diseases, great difficulties appear when removing a tick. The fact is that if an insect body is improperly carried out, the proboscis or limbs may remain in the human body. Sometimes, they disappear themselves, and sometimes - cause processes of decay, skin irritation, etc.
What if the tick has already bitten?
The danger of a tick bite to a person is obvious, so immediately after identifying a bite, you should immediately consult a doctor to remove it. If there is no possibility to go to the doctor, it is necessary to remove the pest by yourself.
Before the procedure, wash your hands well with soap and rub the area around the tick with alcohol without touching it. After that, tweezers or a thread (do not use your fingers, they are too big), wrap the proboscis with a tick and gently turn it counter-clockwise as if twisting it.
Making these movements, imagine that twist a remarkably oiled mechanism, in any case, do not push, and do not make extra efforts. The task of the person taking the tick is to allow him to independently leave the body of the victim.
Even the remains of the tick are dangerous for humans, if they remain, try to remove them and wipe the wound with hydrogen peroxide or alcohol. Disinfection must be required. It happens that the removal of the proboscis is impossible, then wait a while. If the wound does not dry out and it does not disappear by itself, be sure to consult a doctor.
Be careful and attentive when traveling in areas with dense foliage. If you take all precautions and carefully check your body after the street for ticks, your health will be safe. Take care of yourself! Who if not you?
Description of the species
Forest mice are somewhat larger than their domestic kin. The average length of their body is 7-10 cm, but larger individuals are also found (12-15 cm). The tail in mice has a length equal to the length of the body. Rodent weight is not more than 25-30 g.
General description of individuals:
- The head is rather large with an elongated pointed muzzle,
- The eyes are like big black beads,
- The rodent has very long ears that can reach a size of 2 cm. Such ears are indispensable helpers in dangerous forests,
- The most common animals with brown color, less red and yellow flowers,
- The belly is white, some individuals have a yellow stripe on it,
- Mice living in the mountains, on the chest have a bright spot. There is also a red or yellow spot between the forelegs of wood mice,
- The color of young animals is less bright than in adult mice.
How does reproduction occur?
Reproduction is actively taking place in the warm season: from the end of March to September. How forest mice breed:
- The female for 1 season can bring 3-4 offspring, but in regions with a warm climate this figure increases,
- Bearing lasts 20-25 days,
- The female leads from 3 to 6 mice, which are born blind, deaf and without hair.
Typical habitats or where the mouse lives
Forest mice have a vast habitat. One of the favorite places that animals choose for their families is the open areas of mixed and deciduous forests in river valleys. Due to the geographical features of forest rodents can be found in several regions:
Do not disdain the mouse and steppe areas. Animals successfully master the steppes of Altai, China and northeastern Kazakhstan. Agricultural land with grain crops gives rodents both food and shelter. Their habitat extends to the Mediterranean islands and the mountains of North Africa.
The small rodent prefers to build burrows in the roots of trees with thick undergrowth or among lush bushes. How forest mice live:
- Places with thick grass and fallen leaves are great for arranging a mouse "house". Less often animals settle in hollows of trees,
- For a comfortable stay, mice create a home with a lot of moves, “rooms” for breeding offspring and storerooms for storing supplies,
- With the arrival of cold weather, rodents move to “warm apartments”, closer to the person,
- Forest mice are thrifty animals. During the warmer months, each mouse makes up to 5 kg of supplies,
- In winter, animals do not hibernate, but they are inactive during this period.
What eats and place in the food chain?
The diet of the forest rodent includes a variety of plant foods, insects and their larvae, small animals. "Menu" of animals directly depends on the season:
- My favorite food for mice is acorns and nuts. Also, individuals can enjoy the fruits of different plants, seeds, buds and young ovaries,
- Mushrooms, not spoiled by pests, a real delicacy in the diet of animals,
- Left unattended, egg laying will also be a desirable prey to petty thieves,
- In winter, when mice are inactive, they feed on stocks made over the summer, or move to winter quarters closer to humans,
- In the absence of a sufficient amount of food, the mouse eats the leaves, seeds and fruits of various trees in the forest, which cause great harm.
The presence of natural enemies in forest rodents inhibits the rapid growth of their populations in the wild. These animals - food for owls, foxes, ferrets, weasels, as well as for birds of prey from the order of falcons.
Values for man
Forest mice, invading agricultural land, are capable of causing great damage to grain crops, trees and shrubs. At any stage of growth, wheat, oats, barley, and other grains are prey for the breeding rodent family.
What is the harm of individuals for the garden:
- Mice actively break holes and passages, spoiling the root system of fruit-bearing trees and shrubs,
- These small pests gnaw through tree bark, roots and shoots, which can lead to the death of the plant,
- By eating ripe berries and fruits, mice can leave gardeners without a crop.
Mice also carry fleas on their fur and infect domestic animals with them.
Effective means and ways of dealing with mice
Fighting forest mice can be a variety of methods. In private and small farms, installation of electronic or mechanical scarers, barrier barriers will help.
What you need to know about the fight:
- The smell of garlic and chernokorny will frighten off rodents-wreckers. These plants can be expanded around the perimeter of the plot,
- Fill the mouse holes with a special repellent solution,
- You can use a mousetrap with bait, poisoned grain, traps with glue, chemical pollination.
- It is best to use an integrated approach in the fight against pest mice.
Like everything that surrounds us, forest mice are a necessary element of interaction in living nature. But in the absence of normal living conditions in the natural environment and lack of control over the growth of the population, mice can become a real disaster for human life.
The appearance of the forest mouse
Upon detailed study, it becomes clear that the size of the forest mouse is somewhat larger than the rest of the rodents — the body length of the adult individual reaches 12 cm.
Forest mouse (Apodemus uralensis).
In addition, she has a rather long tail that is equal to or even longer than her body length. The eyes are large, wide-set, somewhat reminiscent of glossy beads. Ears are large, standing upright - these mice have excellent hearing, which allows them to retreat in time from the danger lurking them.
The color of wool in forest mice is often red, with an implicitly contoured brownish stain along the back. The stomach is the opposite - white, sometimes with a yellowish tinge. Normally, there is a bright yellow patch of wool between the front paws, which occurs in the form of both an oval and a small strip.
Forest mouse habitat
The main habitat, as the name implies, is deciduous and mixed forests located in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Turkey.
Forest mice live mainly in deciduous and mixed forests of Eastern Europe.
Also, these mice live in Altai, northeastern Kazakhstan and China. Also, individuals of the forest mouse are found deeper into the southern steppes, where there is no forest. Agricultural lands are especially loved by these rodents, in particular - grain crops.
There is evidence of the presence of populations on the Mediterranean islands, as well as in the mountains of North Africa.
As a place of residence, the forest mouse prefers old forests, with dense bushes and lush undergrowth. They build themselves a hole in the roots of trees, as well as in dry grass and fallen leaves. They like to settle in natural shelters, if they find one.
Forest mouse feeding
The diet of the forest mouse is quite extensive. It includes acorns, various nuts, seeds from cones, fruits of various plants, buds, ovaries, and other plant food. A variety of food strongly depends on the season - acorns in the fall, nuts - in the period of ripening.
Depending on the time of year, this or that type of feed prevails in the diet.
When there is very little food, the forest mouse is able to eat the fruits of maple, linden, beech and other trees.
Although their nutritional value is not as high as that of nuts or acorns, it is still a fairly high-quality food for small rodents. Forest mushrooms are another delicacy for mice - they eat only high-quality, undamaged specimens.
Similarly, forest mice do not disdain animal feed - they gladly catch and eat insects, larvae and other small animals. If you find a nest with a small bird laying, under a good set of circumstances, the mouse can eat a couple of eggs.
It causes serious harm by eating seeds and seedlings of trees.
Reproduction of forest mice
The reproduction of this small animal occurs exclusively in the warm season - from the end of March to September, a mouse can produce 3-4 breeds, each of which will have 3-6 pups. Kids develop very rapidly - at about a month of age they are already producing food for themselves, differing from adults only in size.
Upon reaching the age of three months, forest mice are ready to produce their own offspring. Due to this rapid reproduction, a forest mouse can very quickly occupy any habitat, if there are not enough natural enemies there. Owls and falcons, as well as foxes, are especially dangerous for these rodents - they easily recognize under the ground the burrows of mice, and, digging them out, they catch the hosts.
Forest mice are carriers of tick-borne encephalitis, brucellosis, tularemia, anthrax and other diseases.
The value of the forest mouse for humans
Like any other small rodent, the forest mouse is a pest, like grain crops, and young trees and shrubs. Eating young shoots, the mouse almost dooms the plant to death. It is for this reason that agriculture is struggling in every way with the invasions of mice, and foresters are trying to control the population of predators, so that they thin out the ranks of eternally hungry rodents.
This is also interesting!
For any type of mouse tribe, the easiest way to get food is to visit the food bins, raid the garden, garden or wheat field, or even manage a buffet in the room of your enemy - a man. Forest mouse is no different from the other gray tribeswoman. Although she should dwell in the forest, judging by the name, but oh, how she loves to harm and rob the farms.
The main characteristics of the forest mouse
Unlike the brownies, this species of rodents is larger, up to 10 cm. Plus, the tail is the same length. The weight of the animal is 15-30 g. The big-eyed head with a sharp little face and rather large in relation to the body, and decorated with long ears. Their size reaches one third of the body length.
Forest mice are usually brown, but there are red and yellow specimens. Moreover, the intensity and brightness of color depends on age: the younger the animal, the dimmer the color of his coat. Many breast adorned with a bright spot, especially among the representatives of the highlands. In the afternoon, the forest cheat prefers to rest, but awakes at dusk, night and early morning hours. They do not have hibernation.
60-75 days after the birth, the small animal becomes sexually mature and ready for breeding.. In good conditions, the female mouse brings up to five litters per year, with five to six calves in each.
In the Russian Federation, the forest mouse is found absolutely everywhere except in the Polar Region and the permafrost regions. The most preferred places for settlement are mountainous or flat mixed forests. And be sure to have water nearby. They love water very much, so they will not live where there is a shortage of precious moisture. Dwells in the hollows of trees, sometimes quite high. Climbing the trunk for the animal is not a problem with sharp tenacious claws.
You can also choose a thick brushwood, tree roots or just dig holes in a field with a lot of twisting passages and tunnels. In underground dwellings there are usually several cells for arranging storerooms with supplies and places for resting and nursing offspring. In winter, cunning beasts can get housing in warehouses or granaries. So the mice kill two birds with one stone: they save themselves from frost and get a rich power source.
Diet and role in the overall food chain
In the wild, a forest mouse consumes plant and tree seeds. This is her main delicacy. Further preferences are the fruit of berries and small insects. Greens of leaves may be eaten, but this is if they are very hungry in the absence of other food.
In the neighborhood with a man will never deny himself the pleasure of borrowing his reserves.. There were cases when forest mice completely destroyed forestry, destroying the entire seed stock of beech, maple and linden trees.
But the mouse is not only the devourer of everything that “lies badly”, she herself is a good lunch for predators: owls, foxes, ferrets, weasels. In addition, the mouse is one of the few sources of food for birds of prey in the winter when there is practically nothing to feed in the forest. The ration of snakes and hedgehogs will also drastically become scanty, suddenly disappear from the ranks of forest dwellers a brisk creature.
Rodent Harm and Controls
Forest mice have good adaptive qualities, easily adapting to the most adverse conditions. These nimble animals cause significant damage to winter and spring fields with cereals and crops.
Amazing fact! If on the sowed field in the spring only a few pairs of mice will start (5-6), then in the autumn of rodents there will be about a few thousand (7-8)..
Plants suffer from voracious animals at any stage of growth and development: grain, sprout, adult stem, young and filled ear. By the way, the last mouse destroys with special pleasure. During the day, each mouse consumes grains with a weight equal to its own mass. Swarms endless burrowing passages, rodents spoil the roots of plants, bushes and trees, eat the ovary of fruits and ripe harvest. The problem is complicated by the fact that animals breed very quickly and occupy vast territories. In addition to daily meals, they make winter cereal stocks.
Another unpleasant quality of forest mice is the spread of dangerous infectious diseases: hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis and ectoparasites: fleas, lice, which are very dangerous for domestic animals.
Two methods are used to fight rodents: