Milk productivity of cattle depends on the characteristics of the animal, conditions of detention, age and many other factors. But first of all - from the breed and origin. Since the beginning of the last century, a black (variegated) breed of cows has been widely distributed in Russia, and it still holds leading positions today.
Among the distinctive characteristics relating to the exterior of these animals, of course, the main is the suit. Wool is always black and motley color, very pleasant and soft to the touch. Thin skin forms small folds on the body. The back and loin make a straight line. The elongated body of an animal with a rather bulky belly is developed proportionally. Udder cup-shaped with asymmetrical lobes and very close posterior nipples. Strong limbs set straight. The cow is gaining body weight very quickly. Having a birth weight of 35 kg, by the period of growing up, it weighs 470–550 kg with a height of 140 cm. Bulls are much heavier - their weight is from 850 to 900 kg.
Black-and-white breed of cows belongs to the dairy, so its meat quality is quite satisfactory. The question “a lot a cow gives milk” is the main one in assessing its merits. This breed is considered the most productive in terms of the amount of milk; milk yield sometimes reaches 7000 kg per lactation.
Animals are highly adaptable to a wide variety of climatic conditions. They get used to any weather conditions very quickly, easily tolerate cold and heat, have good health and stable immunity, can stay on pasture for a long time and not be afraid of long-distance crossings. The food is unpretentious, as long as there is a large amount of feed - both green pasture, and haylage and silage. Due to all these features, farmers prefer the breeding of this particular breed.
Domestic black-and-white breed of cows bred by breeders in the 30s of the twentieth century. Local cattle from different regions of Russia crossed with Dutch cows. The work was carried out in 2 stages: first, obtaining various hybrids, then their improvement. This breed received official recognition of the Ministry of Agriculture only in 1959, after which it became popular not only in our country, but also abroad, the black-and-white breed of cows.
Of great importance for this indicator is the region of breeding cows. Milk fat content is in the range of 3.2-3.9 percent, and its high threshold was observed in cows in Siberia, Estonia and Ukraine. Breeding farms can boast of high yields, sometimes reaching 6500 kg. Fighting for leadership and competing for various indicators, state farms record and achieve by milking. The record for today is 10,000–12,000 kg. This amount of milk for the period of lactation today can give a black-and-white breed of cows. The characteristic of meat productivity differs significantly. Only 50% is slaughter output carcasses.
There are several types of this breed, differing in external features, in milk yield, depending on the breeding site. These indicators are influenced by climatic conditions, the level of breeding work in the region and the initial type of livestock.
Breed of cows of the Central region of Russia
The black-and-white breed of cows in this part of Russia has its own characteristics. These are very large animals. Cows have an average weight of up to 650 kg and high productivity (7500–8000 kg of milk with a fat content of at least 3.6%). Bulls sometimes reach a mass of 1000 kg. The breed was created by crossing local breeds of cattle (Kholmogory, Yaroslavl, etc.) with German and Dutch. Intra-pedigree types bred in Central Russia (Moscow, non-medicin and Baryba) were bred in 2003–2004.
Breed of black-and-white cows in the Urals
These animals are distinguished by a lighter type of constitution, they are very harmonious and have a rather dry constitution. The color is predominantly black with white spots of various sizes located throughout the body in a chaotic manner. Basically, by crossing the Tagil breed with variegated Baltic cattle, this black-and-white breed of cows appeared in the Urals. The characteristic of milk production is somewhat different: with high fat content of milk, reaching 4.0%, milk yield cannot be called very large. Even in the tribal state farms, they rarely exceed 5,500 kg. In 2003, the breeders created an interbreeding type, the Ural type, by crossing Holstein bulls and black-and-white cows.
Black-and-white cattle in Siberia
The result of the crossing of Dutch and Siberian cattle was the appearance of large and massive animals, whose weight reaches 560 kg. Milk yield varies from 4,500 to 5,000 kg, and cows in breeding farms can produce 8,000 kg. Milk has a high percentage of fat. Intra-pedigree types created in Siberia (Oka, Ilmen) are well adapted to the Siberian weather conditions.
Due to the genes of the Holstein cows, the features of the exterior and the milk productivity become more and more common, which the black-and-white breed of cows possesses. Photos of animals that can be found in the special literature are not much different; it is sometimes impossible to determine from them - the breed is bred in Siberia or in the Urals. They all have a very similar constitution and a predominantly milky type of addition.
Improving the black-and-white domestic breed of cows, breeders used the Holstein breed in their work. Hailing from Holland, these animals, thanks to their best qualities, have spread throughout the world, becoming especially popular in Germany. The breed was officially registered in 1983 in North America. Today it is there 90% of the total number of cattle bred in the territory. A strong constitution and high productivity have become distinctive features that the Holstein cows are famous for. The black and motley color of these animals is predominant, but there are representatives of a completely black and even red and motley color. White markings are most often located on the stomach, on the limbs and on the tip of the tail.
Cows have a strong backbone, developed muscles and well-defined milky forms. Cup-shaped udder has a large capacity. During the day, milk yield may be more than 60 kg, and the productivity per lactation - 8000 kg. With a height of 150 cm, the weight of cows can reach 700 kg, bulls - over 1100 kg. When providing animals with quality nutrition, these numbers can be even higher. Calves are born weighing from 38 to 47 kg. The representatives of the Holstein breed are very demanding to the conditions of detention, therefore it is necessary to approach this issue extremely responsibly. They do not have high stress resistance, but at the same time they are very affectionate and clean. In the summer, the grass that cows get for walking is enough as feed, but in winter it is necessary to use hay, soybean meal and corn in the diet.
Yaroslavl breed of cows
It was bred in the Yaroslavl province by the method of selecting local cattle, for which it received its name. This breed is one of the oldest in Russia and today it is increasingly being supplanted by others with higher productivity. It is a black-and-white breed of cows, distinguished by a slightly angular physique, narrow chest and underdeveloped musculature. The peculiarity of the Yaroslavl breed is the predominant black color with small white spots in the head, abdomen and limbs. Animals have short stature, not exceeding 127 cm at the withers, and a mass rarely exceeding 500 kg. A well-developed round-shaped udder provides high milk production - up to 6000 kg, the fat content is 4.2-5.2%.
Today, the Yaroslavl breed, due to its weak characteristics, is no longer of such economic importance as it used to be. Her livestock is declining, but despite this, it is of great value for breeding work. So, thanks to the crossing of Yaroslavl with the Holstein bulls, a new type of Yaroslavl breed, the Mikhailovsky, has a high milk yield. In addition, these animals are distinguished by precocity, longevity, and easily adapt to local conditions.
And in the private sector today, black-and-white breed of cows is increasingly common. Reviews of the owners point out a number of its advantages over all others. Breeding work, which is constantly carried out today with this breed, aims to create large animals with higher productivity and to correct all the shortcomings of the exterior.
The history of the breed and its most common populations
To obtain cows with such high milk productivity, a very long breeding selection was carried out, as well as the crossing of local Russian breeds with black-and-white cows of Dutch origin.
As a result, a large number of regional groups of these animals were created, and the differences between some of them are significant.
The main difference is that they were produced from different parent species, as well as under different climatic conditions of the content and feeding characteristics. After all, the main goal of the breeders was to breed a new polyzonal breed of black-and-white cows from bulls of one Dutch breed.
Among the local maternal breeds of cattle for crossing were used:
Today, the five largest populations of black-and-white cows are known, namely: the largest one is central (derived from Central Russian cows), Baltic, Siberian, and Ural.
And the fifth population is made up of representatives of different climatic and regional zones - Belarus, Ukraine, Central Asia and parts of the Transcaucasian territories. We draw your attention to features the three leading offspring of the livestock described:
- Black-and-white cows of the central group are considered the largest in size and are the most common.
The weight of females ranges from 550-650 kilograms. Such large indicators of the mass of animals are more characteristic of representatives of the meat type of productivity than of milk, which includes black and motley.
This fact suggests that the central group is also strong in meat productivity. In the build, the group described is rather compact, has a very beautiful exterior.
Particular attention is attracted by short legs, which is not surprising with such a large weight. But apart from weight, the group also has the highest yields, which can be 5500-6500 kilograms per lactation period.
But the disadvantage of this offspring of black-and-white cows is the low fat content of their milk - only 3.6-3.7%.
Representatives of the Ural offspring of the black-and-white breed are lighter in weight and build.
Their bodies are rather dry and dense, their weight is from 500 to 600 kilograms. The meatiness of these cows is comparatively lower, as indicated by higher legs.
Milk productivity is also a little behind the previous group (5000-6000 kg), however, in terms of fat content, the milk of the Ural cows is of higher quality - 3.8-3.9%.
The Siberian group of black-and-white cattle is even smaller by carcass weight - only 450-550 kilograms.
Such a small constitution is still capable of bringing large quantities of good beef meat.
Although milkiness lags behind in terms of the levels of the two previous groups, it remains high: during the period of one lactation, on average, 4500-5000 kg of milk are obtained, the fat content of which is 3.7-3.8%.
Two groups of black-and-white cows, which were not described, are intermediate in their qualities, although they are in no way inferior to those mentioned above in their milkiness and meat productivity.
All the features of black-and-white cows: what else is different about the breed?
In addition to those described above, this breed also has such features that are characteristic of absolutely all of its members, regardless of the regional group. First of all, it is an udder and its characteristics:
- Udder has a cup shape, which indicates its large size (at least 120 centimeters in girth) and tight attachment to the body of a cow.
It is also quite wide, has a horizontal bottom, but at the same time it is convenient for milking and does not interfere with the animal when moving.
The udder skin is very elastic, which allows it to stretch during milk accumulation and decrease after milking.
Due to the nipples placed at different distances from each other, the udder becomes asymmetrical. In particular, a pair of rear nipples is more closely spaced to each other than a pair of front ones, which does not affect the milking process with both hands and the apparatus.
The udder index is very high - 43-45%.
This indicator is one of the most important for dairy cows, because it indicates the ratio of the amount of milk produced from the two front nipples to the total amount of milk produced by the cow.
Such a high figure, as in this breed, indicates a uniformly developed quarter-share of the udder and high milk productivity of representatives of the breed.
Externally, the black-and-white cattle can be distinguished by a fairly strong physique. Backbone in animals also very durablealthough relatively easy. Limbs strong and stable, properly set.
Most likely, this feature was transferred to representatives of the breed from their local Russian ancestors. Also, you should pay attention to a very flat back and a wide rear part of the body, lower back and cross. The chest of animals is also wide and deep.
The belly is rather voluminous, which is typical of almost all representatives of the dairy type of performance. The very body of these cows is rather long, but proportional.
The color of these cows is naturally black and motley. For the most part, their coat and skin color is black, with a white lower torso, a tail tip and a white spot in the area of the clavicles. The skin is rather rough, under it by the winter period a thick layer of fatty tissues usually accumulates.
Description of the parameters of representatives of the black-and-white breed
In almost all animals, the parameters of the male-type individuals are higher than those of the female-type individuals.
So, if the mass of the heifers of this breed can vary from 450 to 650 kilograms, then the mass of bulls - from 650 and more than 1000 kilograms. In the withers, the height of the first usually does not exceed 130 centimeters, and the height of the second is on average 132 centimeters.
Among other important parameters worth noting:
- The depth of the chest is on average 67 centimeters.
Breast width - from 39 to 41 centimeters.
Chest figure in girth is 178-182 centimeters.
The length of the body is from 153 to 158 centimeters.
In Maklak the width of the body is 45-46 centimeters.
The main advantages that must be known to future owners of black-and-white cows
Of course, it is better to see once than to hear many times, but still a detailed acquaintance with the virtues of the breed will allow you to be convinced of its uniqueness.
Undoubtedly, the most important advantage is milk production and suitability for keeping in large and individual farms.
But, more concrete features representatives of black-and-white cattle:
- Good adaptability to different breeding climatic conditions.
A mixture of genes from local representatives of different regions allows keeping and breeding this cattle in both southern and northern regions. This was what the breeders tried to achieve when breeding black-and-white breed.
However, it is not allowed to keep representatives of the breed on free grazing all year round, since they are poorly adapted to frosty temperatures. In hot weather, they will need a lot of water and special shelters, sheds.
Stability of immunity to the effects of various diseases.
This characteristic can be attributed to the most important, since it is especially important for dairy cows. The fact is that whatever disease affects the animal, it always affects milk production.
Black-and-white cows are quite resistant to common viral diseases, as well as to incurable cow leukemia.
Mastitis and respiratory diseases are tolerated by individuals rather tenaciously, usually without complications. Immunity stability is also manifested in young animals that are fed by mother's milk.
Good use of green fodder for large areas of pasture, silage and haylage.
For a good milk yield cows must be very good feed, using as much green vitamin feed as possible. Therefore, in summer, animals are best grazed on open pastures, which they will practically “clean out”.
At the same time, such feeding will be enough for them for normal milk accumulation. In winter, silage and hay should form the basis of the diet, although adding vegetables and concentrates will also have a good effect on overall productivity.
The ability of individuals to easily acclimatize for weight and milk loss.
This factor is very important for those who are going to purchase a cow of the described breed in another region. This will not create any difficulties for you, as the animal will be able to transfer adaptation without any problems and will fully develop.
Also, representatives of the breed easily get used to and adapt to abrupt changes in weather conditions, prolonged periods of rain and prolonged droughts.
This breed of cows is not only very quickly gaining its weight, but also very quickly becoming ready for insemination and hatching calves.
Reaching a weight of more than 400 kilograms by the age of one and a half years, the heifers are already beginning to show sexual activity, so the first calves usually start 2-4 months earlier than those of other breeds.
At the same time, they show very good maternal qualities, incredibly caring attitude towards their offspring. Calving is usually easy, without help. Burenka remains active in this regard even after 10 years, while not reducing milk production.
It is also worth noting that the cows described are very well suited for machine milking. This contributes to convenient arrangement of nipples and their optimal length for the device.
Also, convenient for this is the distance from the udder to the floor, which averages 61 centimeters. Moreover, due to the use of the milking machine, the milking process is reduced to the minimum amount of time, since milk comes out of the nipples very quickly and easily.
Also contributes to this and calm nature of animalsthat easily adapt to artificial noise. When manual milking also does not arise difficulties, because the nipple just fits comfortably in your hand, because their length is 5-6 centimeters.
Milk begins to run from the slightest pressure, especially if the udder is full. Due to this peculiarity, a non-responsible attitude to milking animals of this breed leads to the occurrence of such a disease as mastitis much less often.
Breeding and breeding work in relation to this breed are still ongoing. They are mainly aimed at increasing the fat content of milk. When crossed with other breeds, black-and-white cows are sources of the milk-generating gene, adaptability and a strong immune system.
Milk productivity as the main criterion for demand for livestock
If we take into account that among all dairy cows in Russia, it is the black-and-white cows that occupy a large share (which is 53%), then we can conclude that the productivity is very high.
If we summarize the results of milk production of absolutely all offspring of the breed, then on average the milk yield indicators are 5.5-8.5 thousand kilograms of milk.
At the same time, fat content usually ranges from 3.4 to 4.2%, and the indicator of protein content in milk varies from 3 to 3.4%.
It is also important that the black-and-white cows have a very good milk yield intensity. When milking with the help of a special apparatus in one minute you can get from 1.2 to 1.4 kilograms of milk.
Features of meat productivity of the breed
It is clear that any animal in the first place is of high value in terms of getting good meat, and especially when it comes to cows. Therefore, despite the high milkiness of the chicks, black-and-white bulls are used either for insemination or for slaughter.
The value is even the meat of those cows that reach maturity.
The fact that the meat productivity of this breed is high can be understood by the weight of individuals, the indicators of which we have already indicated above. But it is also worth mentioning that the young of the black and motley breed is able to gain weight very quickly.
So, if at birth, calves have a weight of 35-40 kilograms, then when feeding with breast milk with the addition of nutritious feeds by 15-16 months their weight already reaches 420-480 kilograms.
If you apply the usual fattening to the young, the increase will be from 600 to 800 grams per day, and with intensive fattening it will be about 1 kilogram.
Already at the age of 1.5-2 years, bulls are usually allowed for meat. Slaughter output from a single carcass may be from 50 to 60%. This indicator contributes to the very light bones of animals.
The quality of beef received from black-and-white cows is considered satisfactory. It is quite fat and juicy, but according to the main criteria for the taste characteristics of this type of meat, it still does not reach the desired indicators.
AT USSR since 1931 work began on the breeding of high-breed cattle. The basis was taken by the local black motley cows with good performance. Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Simmentalsky breeds and Dutch, Swiss, Ostfrizian animals. The result was decent.
AT 1959 black-and-white dairy cows received the status of a separate breed, 53% the dairy herd of our country are pestrus.
Characteristics of Black Pestroy
Breed representatives have black and motley color, individual for each animal, elongated, slender body, medium-sized head with a long facial section, horns have pointed dark ends, the udder is cup-shaped, the back pair of milkings is located closer to each other than the front one, the skin of the udder is smooth and elastic, the legs are strong.
Our country is very large and the climatic conditions in its territory are very different from each other, because of this, breeding work in animal husbandry relies on local breeds that are well adapted to the natural conditions.
For this reason the black-and-white breed is divided into 3 groups: Central European, Ural, Siberian.
- AT central part country Yaroslavl, Kholmogory, Kostroma breeds served as the basis for breeding work.. They are distinguished by large size and high yields, therefore, when crossed with Dutch and Swiss animals, the new breed has inherited remarkable qualities, high productivity and high mass.
Bull may have weight 1000 kg, cow significantly less - up to 650 kg., calves are born large and gain weight up to 1000 grams. in a day. Average productivity ranges from 4 to 6 thousand liters during lactation, fat index: 3.5-3.7%,
Photo "Black Motley" breed cows:
Conditions of detention
The breed has excellent health and good adaptation to new conditions.but there are features in the content, which can not be neglected:
- The room for cows should be dry, have good ventilation,
Attention! Draft is not allowed.
Regime and feeding
For normal growth, development and growth, maintaining high productivity are not only important conditions of detention, but also clear schedule. Feeding and milking must be done at the same time.. Violation of the regime leads to a decrease in milk yields.
There is a saying that the milk of a cow is on her tongue, in other words, milk yield depends on whether our cow is full. The diet of the animal should be treated carefully. In winter cow need 3.5 kg. hay per 100 kg. weights. For high yields you will need succulent feed at the rate of 2 or 3 kg. per liter of milk.
On the desired liter of additional milk yield will require 150-200 grams. flour or bran, do not forget about the lick - salt is necessary, and add it to the diet in a crushed form is not so convenient.
Flour and salt are included in the summer diet. - It has a good effect on milk yield. In the summer, the cow gets everything you need from plants, including the necessary vitamins.
AT winter period the content of vitamins in the diet is sharply reduced, for their compensation the industry produces vitamin complex feed additives.
For the sake of maintaining stable milk yield you should not neglect them. For normal cow digestion need plenty of water.
In case automatic watering is absent, animals should be watered in the morning and in the evening with fresh water at room temperature or slightly warmed.
At least once a week need to clean the cow with a special metal brush. This must be done to keep the hides clean, to destroy possible parasites. The general state of health of an animal depends on the condition of its hooves., it is necessary to cut them in time. Attention! Timely and fully implemented prevention measures will reduce the risk of disease.
Breed of black-and-white cows distinguished by good natural health. This is an important quality - often ill animals with weak immunity are not able to keep the milk yield at a high level, but to avoid diseases in general is not possible.
Proper care, rational feeding, timely vaccination reduces the risk of disease. Disease prevention is much cheaper, takes less time and effort compared to treatment.
Diseases of cattle can be divided into 2 groups: infectious and non-infectious.
- TO contagious relate infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and invasive ones caused by ticks and internal parasites,
- TO non-communicable diseases include diseases of young animals, poisoning, diseases of organs and systems that are of an individual nature.
Widespread among animals tuberculosis, salmonellosis, leishmaniasis, trichomoniasis, leukemia, brucellosis, dermatofibrosis. The country's veterinary service conducts blood sampling to identify diseased animals, this measure reduces the risk of epidemics and protects consumers of dairy products from possible re-infections.
To obtain highly productive cows with good milk yield and a harmonious exterior, good health characteristic of the breed, offspring of animals with planned traits are selected.
All these qualities of cattle are perfectly transmitted through the maternal line. If there are few animals, it is easy to choose the best.
And in large farms, records are kept immediately after birth. calves are sorted by health and breed, only healthy animals with signs of breed and highly productive parents are allowed to breed.
Inbreeding is undesirable; it increases the risk of weak offspring.
The popularity of the breed of black-and-white cows is well deserved, the animals have proven themselves in large complexes, private farmsteads, high yoy animals are replacing unproductive livestock. This wonderful breed has a great future.
History of breeding this breed
The ancestors of this dairy breed were Dutch and Ostfrizian cattle. The Dutch mild climate, pastures with lush vegetation, increased interest of farmers in the production of dairy products and led to the development of a new species of cows at the end of the XVIII century.
At first, the cows with a spotty coloration, although they were distinguished by high yields, were too susceptible to the main diseases affecting cattle. Also, representatives of this breed are characterized by an unstable immune system, a weak physique. But thanks to the efforts of breeders, in the early twentieth century, black-and-white cows acquired the following positive qualities:
- body build has become more powerful
- improved immunity
- increased meat value.
Separate individuals of this species were imported into our country at the beginning of the XIX century. Breeding cows engaged in landowners farmsteads. However, only after the 20s of the last century, scientists became interested in representatives of this species, black-and-white individuals began to spread more and more in farms of various regions of our country.
In the middle of the last century, scientists of the USSR proposed to allocate representatives of this category into a separate breed of cattle.
The main characteristics of the breed
The main properties of this species were formed not only among the representatives of the breed as a whole, but also among the representatives of each type separately.
The color of the skin of the individuals fully corresponds to the name of the breed: the main color is black, and on it in disarray there are spots of bright white color.
The following signs are characteristic of cattle of this breed:
- body structure is powerful and proportionate,
- the casing is elongated (this is typical for dairy cows),
- the head is more than medium size, has an elongated shape. The horns have a characteristic gray tint, their ends are of a dark color,
- the neck is medium in size, its muscles are poorly developed, the skin of the neck is in folds,
- chest in medium size, usually reaches 75 cm,
- the back and loin make a straight line, the sacrum of medium width,
- limbs powerful, straight, stable,
- The belly of the animal is wide, the udder is of the correct bowl shape, but its lobes are uneven, therefore the rear nipples are closer to each other than the front ones.
- In height the adult animal can grow up to 1.32 m.
There are three types of black-and-white cows:
- Cows, bred in the central regions. They are characterized by a large body structure.An adult individual can weigh 600–650 kg, and a breeding bull can weigh up to 950–1100 kg. Therefore, this breed provides not only milk, but also a sufficient amount of meat.
- Individuals from the Ural regions. Their constitution is more dry than that of animals from central regions, so they look more harmonious.
- Cows from areas of Siberia. Representatives of Siberian black-and-white cows are much smaller than their more southern "relatives". The mass of these animals does not exceed 550 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages
The cows of this breed bring good profits to their owners due to the sale of milk. However, many farmers also rely on the rapid increase of body weight by gobies and also have profits from the sale of meat of black-and-white animals.
This cattle also has a number of advantages:
- strong immunity, developed by centuries of breeding,
- quick addiction to different climatic conditions
- average precocity, coupled with rapid muscle building during a diet with a minimum of concentrates,
- good product quality: high fat milk and lean meat.
In addition to the merits of animals have some disadvantages. However, breeders are working to eliminate them to improve the black-and-white breed. Currently, scientists face the following tasks:
- eliminate the main differences between animals of different types,
- to breed larger and taller representatives of the breed,
- improve yields,
- increase fat content and protein content in products given by different types of dairy women.
Representatives of this breed respond well to quality care - they are distributed faster, increasing milk production. However, the black-and-white cows require a lot of space in the barns, as well as a large amount of grass and hay. Therefore, before the establishment of cows of this type should be aware of these nuances.
Black-and-white breed of cattle
In our country, farmers breed different types of dairy breeds that have long been positively proven. And among them, the black-spotted cows enjoy a constant recognition - a breed that appeared relatively recently, but has already shown itself well.
Bred in the Soviet Union in the middle of the last century, in Russia, the cattle of this breed has widely spread in the regions and is now the third in the total number of cattle after the red breeds of cows and simmental cows.
Moreover, individuals of this species can be found in all regions of the country from east to west.
Black-and-white breed of cows is in demand among farmers throughout Russia. There is a conditional separation of the breed, depending on the place of cultivation.
- Central areas. The animals are large, the weight of an adult bull is 900-1000 kg, an adult cow is 550-650 kg.
- Ural regions. Black-and-white cows are characterized by a dry type of constitution, compared with compatriots from other regions look harmonious and light. Productivity is average.
- Siberian region. The cows are small, the average weight of one individual is 500-560 kg. Milk gives little compared with representatives of other regions, but the fat content of the product is quite high.
What do farmers say about black and motley cows? Burenkas are fastidious in food, but with a properly selected diet they will be thanked with high yields. Very calm and unhurried. Good go on contact, peaceful.
The cow actively responds to the attitude to itself. It is necessary to talk with her gently and calmly, to stroke the sides and udder. Burenka feels the mood of the owner, she can be transferred to his nervousness.
Harsh hails, injuries and shocks have a negative effect on milk yield.
Any changes in the animal's health, mood, and habits may indicate the onset of the disease or the hunting period. Therefore, the farmer should carefully monitor the behavior of the cows. If she is provided with high-quality care, the animal will give high milk yields. Farmers noted this feature: the more a cow gives milk, the lower its fat content.
Housing for the animal should be spacious enough (at least 23 sq. M.), Well lit, without drafts, with a dry, soft bedding and a good ventilation system. Comfortable temperature in winter is 6-12 ° C. The leash should not restrict the bore in movements. The room where the cow is located must be kept clean.
For animals, the following activities should be carried out:
- regularly brush wool with special brushes,
- trim hooves,
- daily before and after milking wash the udder,
- bathe in the warm season.
Only with the observance of the norms of feeding and a properly formulated ration, black-and-white cows will be pleased with high milk yields. The basis of nutrition in cattle should be high-quality hay of legumes and cereals.
silage - no more than 20% of the total feed. To increase milk production, it is necessary to add root vegetables (beets, pumpkin), concentrates, mineral and vitamin supplements in accordance with the norms.
The animal is fed twice in the morning and in the evening.
In the summer, cattle are grazing. To pasture the animal should be taught gradually, over 7-10 days. At this time, avoid overeating juicy food in order to avoid stomach problems in the animal.
The main condition for high productivity is watering with fresh water, at least 3 times a day. Salt is also a guarantee of animal health.
This mineral supplement compensates for the lack of sodium and chlorine involved in the process of neutralizing acids and promoting the formation of gastric juice.
Lack of sodium in the body of an animal adversely affects appetite, contributes to growth retardation, reduces protein and fat synthesis. Table salt is fed with succulent and rough feed in a crushed form (55-60 g / day per 1 head).
Calves are born weighing 30-35 kg. Average daily gain of 650-800 grams, provided that the feeding is properly organized. By the age of 1.5, they reach a weight of about 480 kg.
Being precocious in nature, they actively increase the meat relief and quite early acquire impressive size.
Heifers weighing between 320 and 350 kg are recruited in 18 months, which is when they can be used for reproduction.
Juveniles are characterized by high survivability. Diseases, including dyspepsia and pneumonia, are very rare in black-and-white cows.
What are the advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the breed include:
- good health - cows easily tolerate diseases, are characterized by high resistance to infections,
- high productivity
- excellent adaptability to climatic conditions
- high quality products - lean meat and full-fat milk,
- early maturity - by the age of one and a half, the heifers are capable of fertilization, and the posterity is treated with care and tenderness.
- significant differences between intra breed breeds,
- requirements for conditions of detention
- low fat milk.
The primary value of the breed lies in its almost perfect milk production. Cows of the black-and-white breed in breeding farms with proper maintenance and full feeding give milk yield up to 8000 liters of milk per lactation period per head. The fat content of the product is 3.7%.
Good performance in the Siberian representatives of the breed: about 6 tons of milk, but at a higher fat content: up to 3.9%. According to the indices, they are inferior to Ural cows, giving 5,500 liters of milk with fat content, also about 4%. Under normal conditions, black-and-white cows, as a rule, produce 3000-3500 kg of milk.
You can buy such an animal in any region of the country.
Black and Motley Cow
Russian cows of the black-and-white breed, relatively recently developed, occupy one of the leading lines in terms of prevalence in the country.
They appeared in the USSR by crossing domestic and foreign individuals. The value of this livestock is high productivity.
Today, 53% of all dairy cows in Russia belong to the black-and-white type. Cows are grown on large farms and in private households.
The history of the breed
The interest of breeders to breeding new types of cows has appeared long ago. Scientists have worked hard to create such a breed of cattle, whose milk productivity would exceed well-known standards. Heavy and painstaking work led to success, and at the beginning of the 19th century a new species was created that brought dairy cattle to a higher level.
According to the results of the crossing, carried out in the 1930s, black-and-white cows appeared, which became the “symbol” of Russia's dairy cattle breeding. The yield from animals was so great that the farmers could not believe in such a great success. But breeding dairy cows was only the first stage in the development of black-and-white breed.
The Dutch and Ostfrizian species were the ancestors of the black-and-white cows. The first selection steps were not entirely successful, - the cows were distinguished by poor immunity, fragility and high mortality. But the experts still achieved positive results. Today, cows of this type are bred throughout the country.
Black-and-white cows are divided into several large groups, each of which has certain features.
The first is the central group, the ancestors of which are Central Russian cows, characterized by large size.
The second group is the Ural cows. They are significantly inferior to the first in size and performance, but their milk is considered the highest quality.
The cows of the third, Siberian group, are distinguished by their even smaller size and small milk yield. But they get a lot of meat, which is rare for dairy breeds.
The fourth group is called the Baltic. And the fifth is mixed. Both are considered intermediate links. This is due to the average size and average productivity of cattle. But for the territories in which they are distributed, these species remain the best options for breeding.
The development of young
Despite the fact that the breed is dairy, the weight of calves born is comparable to the weight of young meat species. Chicks at birth reach 37 kg, bullheads can weigh up to 42 kg. Young calves are not indifferent to food, so it happens that per day they gain up to 800 g. If you pay particular attention to feeding, the animals can gain 1 kg in weight per day.
With normal feeding, a young bull of a motley breed reaches 480 kg by the age of 1.5 years. With such a weight, animals can compete even with meat breeds specially grown for meat. Attracts the fact that farmers do not have to make any special efforts for intensive weight gain in calves.
Variegated cows are of early ripening type, which means early ripening and rapid growth. Already at a young age you can get a large amount of high-quality meat from steers.
About breed productivity
Despite the fact that it is a dairy breed, adult bulls can grow up to a ton of weight. Yes, and female spotted individuals are a little inferior in weight to beef cattle, reaching 650 kg.
When slaughtering a black-and-white cow, you can get 50-60% pure meat.
the peculiarity lies in the fact that animals reach such weight on the most usual feed, and farmers do not have to spend money on supplements.
Dignity of the form was and remains high yield. Depending on the group, the farmer can receive from 3500 to 8000 kg of milk. The fat content of products depends on the type of animal and is in the range from 3.4 to 4%.
Advantages of motley cows
Black-and-white cows are excellent representatives of dairy breeds in Russia. Growing their farms receive a good profit from the sale of milk. Some also rely on good meat productivity. This is possible due to the fact that cows of the motley type differ:
- excellent health
- a high degree of acclimatization and good adaptability,
- moderate precocity and high rate of mass increase,
- high meat productivity, achieved without food additives,
- high quality of the products.
The variegated breed is one of the main achievements of breeders in breeding new types of cows. It’s easy to prove, because animal meat is moderately fat, and milk, on the contrary, has a high fat index.
Scientists continue to improve the breed
It is not safe to say that a black and white cow has serious drawbacks.
But there are a number of drawbacks with which breeders continue to struggle in pursuit of perfection, the main of which is the difference between groups.
Therefore, experts strive to create an even larger and more enduring cattle, which is not inferior in composition to beef breeds, but retains high milk productivity.
Milk spotted cows have a high fat content and a good protein content, but in this direction, scientists are working to improve the parameters. However, now the breed is very popular among Russian farmers.
According to the observations of experienced livestock breeders, the black-and-white breed of cows reacts sensitively to their attitude to themselves, which is clearly noticeable by the amount of milk given.
Proper feeding is the basis of high breed productivity
The need for feed depends on the mass of the cow, its age and the amount of milk produced. In the feed of black-and-white cows must be present high-quality hay. The daily rate of hay is calculated according to the formula: 3.5 kg for every 100 g of weight.
To increase the yield, you can add to the diet juice feed: potatoes, turnips, feed watermelons and corn silage. The number of these products in the diet of cows is calculated on the basis of daily milk yield: 2-3 kg of feed per 1 kg of milk. If you add to the diet of cattle juicy feed, then do not forget to reduce the amount of hay so that the animal does not overeat.
The volume of milk produced must be constantly monitored. If the milk yield in cows is high, then concentrated mixtures such as bran or oilcake should be added to their diet. And always make sure that the animals get enough fresh water.
Features of maintenance and care
Breeders should be aware that white and black cows require careful care. It is important to strictly observe the description of the recommendations relating to the conditions of detention. The main rule: animals of this breed love open space, so their pens should be at least 20 square meters.
In rooms where motley cows are kept, it should always be clean, warm and dry, and all windows and doors should be located only from the south or east side.
In winter, when animals do not receive sunlight, it is necessary to monitor the lighting of the pens.
During this period, special attention should be paid to the quality of ventilation in the stalls and to maintain the temperature in the region of 5-12 degrees above zero.
Care and maintenance
The correct content of a black-and-white cow is to follow a few rules in the aggregate:
- timely milking,
- good food quality food
- feed preparation
- cleaning the room where the animal is.
Any farmer should know that this type of cattle is very picky about the listed conditions.
The correct content of black-and-white cow
The cattle should be only in a large room, where there is a lot of space, and it should be warm and rather dry. Ideal when any openings (windows and doors) are located on the south or east side.
In winter, the room must be well lit and create effective ventilation. The most suitable temperature for a cow in the cold months is from 5 to 12 degrees Celsius. Do not forget about the timely cleaning.
Pros and cons of breeding breed
The main advantages of the breed are as follows:
- great profit from milk
- rapid mass buildup
- good health,
- adapts quickly to weather conditions
- obtaining high-quality products: lean meat along with fatty milk.
Many farmers say that the breed has its drawbacks, which they would like to correct or correct:
- breeding larger cattle
- increase the yield,
- make the milk more fat and also increase the amount of protein in it.
Description of black and motley cow
Black-and-white breed of cows has a recent history, it took a leading position among the dairy breeds, but did not become a record holder.
Black and motley breed of cows emerged relatively recently
Initially, the breed had low levels of external data and endurance parameters. But in the process of working on the improvement of the species, breeders were able to achieve the desired results.
The Belarusian cow is common among cattle breeders due to its endurance, disease resistance, ability to adapt to all climatic conditions and abundant milk yield.
Breeding of the breed justifies itself in connection with small amounts of costs for their maintenance. It is enough to provide a warm and dry stall, grazing on pastures and integrated nutrition, and the cow will provide a large yield of milk annually.
A cow has a poorly developed body structure, which describes the minuses of its type. Their high immunity is close to the insufficient level of milk fat and protein content.
Black-and-white cow gives milk low fat
Negative traits stand in a row with high qualities of milk and milk yield.
The breed is common among breeders as one of the best cattle species. The subdivision of a species includes the differences between them, which are extensive and bring discomfort in the choice of individuals of this species for breeding.
Initially, the species had an exclusively dairy orientation of cultivation, but in the process of selection, the quality of meat rose in terms. Now the black - and - white cow provides the farmer with high quality lean meat, satisfying the demands of the market.
At this point in time, measures are being taken in the Belarusian lands to restore integrity in terms of the breed in order to create a pure rock.
This is due to the fact that in the process of breeding and farming, it was mixed with other representatives of cattle, thereby losing the exceptional features of this species.
Breeding of representatives of the breed will ensure a decent amount of milk yield annually, along with the high quality of demanded meat. Given the lack of need for enhanced nutrition and care for individuals.
Characteristics and productivity of black-motley cows. The history of the development of cows and the distribution area. What are the weight parameters of these animals? Features breeding and maintenance of black-and-white cows, reviews of farmers.
Cows of this breed were bred relatively recently, but have already earned popularity and have taken an honorable third place in the number of cattle in Russia. Let's take a closer look at the characteristics and productivity of this breed.
External signs of the breed
There are three types of these cows, and each of them has its outward signs. The largest are individuals from the central regions of the country. Here the cows reach 650 kilograms, they give a lot of milk and meat.
In the Ural region, the black-and-white breed of cows has a drier type, which gives the cows a more harmonious look. The smallest individuals live in the Siberian regions, where the weight of one cow rarely exceeds 550 kilograms.
Despite the fact that within the breed there are three types of constitution, they are united by common external features. Here is a characteristic of the black-and-white breed of cows:
- color black with large white spots throughout the body,
- the body is slightly stretched, typical of dairy cows,
- a long head with an elongated muzzle and dark gray horns,
- folded neck with poorly developed muscles,
- the chest is not very wide (depth up to 75 cm),
- the back is flat with a wide sacrum and straight loin,
- smooth and strong legs
- the udder is cup-shaped, the rear nipples are close to each other,
- height of an adult animal reaches 132 cm.
The black-and-white breed of cows is distributed throughout Russia. It can be found anywhere in the country, even in the smallest farms. The number of livestock began to grow in 1935, and by 1980 there were about 18 thousand cows in Russia, which accounted for 27% of the total population.
These cows are kept in all zones, from the Far East to the western regions of the country. Black-and-white cattle are found in Germany, Holland and the Baltic States, from which the first representatives of the breed were taken.
Ksenia Napalkova, expert
These cows are very productive and bring good profits to livestock farms. Like any other breed, the black-and-white cows have their advantages and disadvantages. The benefits include:
- very strong health and immune system, these cows are resistant to infections and quite easily tolerate mastitis and other diseases,
- Black-and-white cows perfectly adapt to any climate, they tolerate low and high temperatures well, but still they cannot be kept in the cold for long, and in strong sunshine, animals should be given plenty of water and a shaded place,
- good appetite and quick weight gain on grass, these cows feed on pastures in the summer and do not require concentrated supplements; in winter, cattle are fed with hay and silage,
- Black-and-white cows are fast-growing; by the age of 15 months, the heifers are capable of fertilization, and they treat their offspring with special tenderness and care.
The disadvantages of this cattle are not many, besides, farmers are trying to deal with them. By cons include:
- strong differences between intrabreed types,
- small size and small yield of some individuals,
- low fat milk.
Black-and-white cows require good care. Cattle contain in large and dry rooms, the area of which is not less than 20 m2. Windows and doors are placed on the south or east side so that the cows will not blow.
Constantly air the room in which there are animals. In winter, comfortable temperature for cows is 6-12 degrees. Regularly clean the room and feeders. Give the cows fresh water, in the summer, they change it every other day, in the winter - every day.
Animals are regularly brushed and washed udders. In the summer, bathing the cows, do not forget to cut the hoof. Watch that the leash allows animals to move freely.
Features breeding black and motley breed
The main purpose of breeding black and variegated livestock is to improve the animal constitution and productivity. For this, breeders use purebred individuals of the same line, which allows transferring the best qualities to the progeny, which include:
- reproductive improvement
- decrease in mortality of young stock due to deviations along the lines of the mother or father,
- resistance to infections and diseases, including mastitis.
Experts cross different lines and because of this increase some qualities of animals. Inbreeding is less commonly used, since it reduces the viability of calves, but with its help improves some hereditary qualities.
Average breed description
Breed of the dairy direction. Animals are quite large. The weight of adult cows from 480 kg in the mass population to 540 in breeding farms. The weight of bulls ranges from 850 to 1100 kg.
The average height of black-and-white cows is 130-135 cm, the growth of bulls is 138-156 cm, slanting length is 158-160 cm.
Exterior characteristic of dairy cattle:
- light graceful head
- thin long neck
- long body with deep breasts and poorly developed dehydration,
- topline is far from perfect. There is no single flat line. Well stands out withers. The sacrum is raised,
- croup straight, long
- legs short, powerful. With the right position,
- udder well developed, cup-shaped.
The black-and-white cow is well adapted to machine milking, which is one of its advantages. Udder almost perfect shape allows the use of milking machines without restrictions. But in this case there is one peculiarity: the more Holstein blood in an animal, the more regular the shape of its udder.
Color spotted. Black and white spots may occupy an approximately equal area of the cow’s body or one of the colors will prevail.
Average breed performance
The milk productivity of a given type of livestock often depends on what offspring and type the particular animal belongs to. The average milk yield is 3,700–4,200 kg per year in the mass population. In breeding farms, milk yield may be 5500–6700 kg per year. Milk fat can range from 2.5 to 5.8%.
Often, a cow can produce very low-fat milk. When such milk is diluted with water to the required fat content, the milk yield from the cow is greater than from the record holder in milk yields.
Protein in the milk of black and variegated cattle 3.2-3.4%. When machine milking milk yield is 1.68 l / min. That is, in one minute, the machine pumps out 1.68 liters of milk from a cow.
Spotted cattle also have good meat characteristics. Beef, obtained from the bulls, has a good taste and texture.
Early cattle. Heels go into mating at 18 months. The first calving in the breeding farms in 29-30 months, in the mass population the average terms of calving - 31 months. Cattle quickly fatten muscle mass. Newborn calves weigh 30-35 kg. By the time of mating at 18 months chicks are gaining from 320 to 370 kg. The average daily weight gain of this cattle is 0.8-1 kg. Replacement young animals by the age of 16 months are gaining 420-480 kg of live weight. On average, the slaughter yield of beef from the carcass is 50 - 55%.
The photo of the breeding bull clearly shows the muscle mass that animals of this breed possess.
After weaning the calf, the self-repairing chick cannot be overfed. If it receives as much feed as calves receive for fattening, the udder will germinate with connective tissue. Milk from such a cow will not be available anymore.
Initially, the group was bred by absorbing the crossing of Simmental cows with black-and-white bulls. Later Holstein blood was added. Today, the cattle of this group has some degree of blood content in the Holstein breed.
On the photo is the old-type Altai cow of the offspring of the Katun gas processing plant in the Biysk district
In this individual, the elongated forms of meat and dairy Simmental cattle are still visible.
The yield of Altai cows is 6-10 tons of milk per year. But only under the condition of proper feeding and maintenance. Slaughter meat output from the carcass 58-60%.
The cattle of this group was formed by crossing Ostfrizian and partially Baltic black-and-white producers with the local Tagil breed. The average yield of animals in this group is only 3.7-3.8 tons per year. Low milk yield is compensated by relatively high fat content of milk - 3.8-4.0%.
The photo shows a cow of the Estonian group - one of the founders of the Ural cattle.
Great Russian offspring
Formed in the European part of Russia by crossing the Dutch black and white cattle with the womb of Yaroslavl, Kholmogory and other local breeds of cattle. An insignificant amount of blood of Schwyz and Simmental rocks was added. Representatives of the group - large animals with high milk production. Cows in this group can produce up to 6 tons of milk per year. But this group has the lowest milk fat content of all offspring: 3.6 - 3.7%.
In the photo, the bull is a producer of the Great Russian cattle group bred in the central regions of the Russian Federation.
This cattle is bred today even in Tajikistan.