To admire the beauty of this amazing plant, it is not necessary to live by the sea. Growing magnolia in the garden is quite possible. Saplings of different varieties successfully take root in many regions, grow in partial shade and are able to endure the cold winter without loss.
The smell of this flower has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, soothes and relieves stress.
But if it is too long to be where the magnolias grow, the head may ache. The fragrance of this plant is used by global perfume brands (Kenzo, Yves Rocher, Aqua di Parma).
Description and types
Magnolia name refers to deciduous or evergreen ornamental trees (less often to shrubs). Their height reaches 4–6 m (in some species up to 10–12 m). The bark is ashy or brown, smooth to the touch, with scales or grooves. Widespread due to the unusually beautiful large flowers with a pleasant aroma. They can be white, yellow, cream, purple. On one flower can form from 6 to 12 petals. The care and cultivation of magnolia is not complicated, and its flowering is a truly enchanting sight.
Species diversity and cold resistance
The most resistant varieties: Kobus, Siebold, large-leaved, large-flowered, ivolistnaya, Lebner.
Less resistant varieties: umbrella, white-color, nude, Sulanzha, liliavetvoy.
In Siberia, you can also plant and care for magnolia. In this case, selected varieties that stand cold well.
The plant belongs to the family of Magnoliaceae, which has more than 70 species. Magnolia trees can be with a wide pyramidal crown or spherical. The height of the plant depends on the variety, some specimens reach up to 20 meters, but more often the magnolia does not grow more than 5-8 meters.
The color palette of the plant is diverse, there are trees with white, purple, pink, red or lilac flowers. Of the most varieties in the conditions of central Russia, only some of them can be grown; the others really do not tolerate a harsh climate.
Photo and description of magnolia varieties for cultivation in central Russia
In nature, magnolia is divided into several varieties:
The second group of plants is not able to tolerate frosts, so its cultivation is possible only in greenhouses at a special temperature.
In the conditions of Russia, deciduous magnolias are grown, which react to temperature changes less painfully, only flowering periods are shifted. From this group of plants we can distinguish winter-hardy and conditionally winter-hardy varieties. In the latter, only part of the flower buds freezes in severe frosts.
Winter-hardy varieties include:
1. magnolia cobus.
These are trees up to 10 meters high. They have a very interesting crown, which in the first years of cultivation has a pyramidal shape and changes to spherical in the process of growth. The plant is considered one of the hardy and winter-hardy varieties. The tree blooms with white luxurious flowers in April-May. In the summer, the color of the leaves is dark green, by autumn it changes to yellow-brown. Leaf fall in this species occurs closer to the middle of autumn. It is rarely grown from seed, since the first flowering occurs only after 30 years.
2. Magnolia is stellate.
It is a shrub up to 5 meters high with an oval crown. Flowering is remembered very persistent aroma that envelops the entire garden. The first flowers bloom in March. After flowering, the shrub dissolves dark green leaves, which by the autumn acquire a bronze shade.
3. Magnolia Lebner.
This is a hybrid of the above varieties, which took over the best qualities of the parent plants:
Magnolia Lebner - a tree with a spherical crown, which reaches a height of 10 meters. White flowers with a light pink haze, bloom from April. The leaves are dark, by the fall - bronze.
The less winter-hardy varieties are the most common varieties on the market:
1. Magnolia Sulanzha.
This species is a tree up to 5-8 meters tall. It blooms in April, very fragrant pink flowers that look like tulips. The leaves, like all varieties, are green, but in the fall they acquire a mustard shade.
2. Magnolia Ash.
It is not only hardy, but also a very beautiful deciduous tree. Flowering occurs in the second year after the planting in the garden. Refers to late blooming species. As a rule, blooms in late May, huge cream flowers. The leaves of the plant are similar to tropical, reaching a length of up to 70 cm. This type of magnolia almost does not suffer from return frost, which makes it most attractive to gardeners.
Magnolia Cultivation: All About Planting (Photos)
Successful cultivation of magnolia begins with the selection of seedlings. It is better to give preference to plants with a closed root system.
When planting magnolia you need to take into account its features:
• The plant does not tolerate drafts and cold winds. Consequently, the site must be selected protected
• grows poorly in areas with lime soil. You can correct the situation by adding sour peat to the ground,
• does not tolerate heavy and waterlogged soil. Pick up a place without stagnation of groundwater.
The best place for planting magnolia - the southern side of the site, well lit, but without direct sunlight. The soil is prepared fertile and very loose.
Magnolia is quite an ancient culture. It appeared in the Mesozoic era, when the Earth was inhabited by various reptiles. Modern gardeners appreciate exotic magnolia for the interesting shape of the crown, wonderful leaves, unique flowers. The Queen of the Garden blooms from April to May, attracting the attention of thousands of people. Snow-white, mother-of-pearl, purple, scarlet flowers completely cover the trees. A breath of wind carries the delicate scent of flowers, giving joy and hope. It is impossible not to notice how magnolia blooms beautifully.
How to grow from seed n
To grow a magnolia from seeds is rather troublesome. This is far from a simple matter, as it may seem at first glance. It is preferable to sow magnolia seeds in the fall, since it is difficult to keep them until spring. Due to the fact that the seeds are covered with a durable oily shell, it is better to first scarify them, that is, to intentionally damage the seed shells so that they will sprout faster.
Seed scarification process is long and difficult. The simplest way to injure the shell is to sharpen the seeds with a file or make cuts on the seeds with a sharp knife, not allowing the shell to thin out completely. Many gardeners immerse the seeds in hot water for several days, maintaining the temperature not lower than 40 degrees, until the seed coat is sodden, or they place the seed for 90 days in a mixture of sand and fine gravel, occasionally stirring, thereby erasing the seed coat. Sometimes to destroy the shell, seeds are soaked for at least 3 days in a solution of potassium permanganate, wood ash, and baking soda.
After the process of scarification is completed, the magnolia seeds are washed with soapy water, removing the oily layer, then rinsed with clean water. Following this, the seeds are sown to a depth of 3 cm in a container with fertile soil and removed in the basement.
In the spring, the seed containers are placed on the windowsill, controlling that the earth does not dry out, and the emergence of seedlings is expected. Young seedlings grow slowly at first: for a year the plant hardly reaches 50 cm in length. A year later, the seedlings dive and planted on a permanent plot.
How to plant
A well-groomed garden begins with the purchase of high-quality planting material capable of quickly rooting. This is the guarantor of rapid growth and proper development of plants in subsequent years. It is extremely important that every plant is healthy: the diseased seedling will become a source of infection and will need treatment for the diseases and pests of all the crops planted in the garden.
Magnolia saplings are grown not in open ground, but in greenhouses, immediately in plastic containers, peat pots or plastic bags. As a result, the sapling root system is formed from a young age and becomes compact. Flower growers are always thinking about how to plant a magnolia so that it will delight with flowering from year to year, and how to overcome the main difficulties that arise when growing this tree.
When planting a plant with a seedling, it is taken into account that the area for planting should be protected from winds, the soil is not too calcareous, it is moistened. Before planting, they prepare an earth mixture: the earth is mixed with rotted compost and sand. Next, lower the seedling into the pit, without digging the root neck, fill it with an earthen mixture, so that a well is formed around the culture. Consolidate the soil, watered. After some time, giving the opportunity to absorb water, the trunk circle is mulched. Under the mulching understand the cover of the earth with natural materials, which eventually rot and therefore must be replaced from time to time.
The scheme of planting magnolias in the garden is determined by the fact that the plant will subsequently take up a lot of space (some specimens reach 10 meters in height and 5 in width). The distance between the magnolias is at least 5 meters. If the plot is small, then you need to plant magnolias in groups: one tree magnolia, and around it several shrubs.
As for the planting dates, the majority of growers are confident that it is better to plant a crop in the autumn before the onset of frost, when the young seedlings no longer grow. If we talk about the spring planting of magnolias, then there is a danger that in the spring there may be slight frosts that can harm trees.
The choice of the type of magnolia depends on what effect you want to get from planting it in your garden: create a garden of magnolias, grow one, but a spectacular tree or add an already existing garden with an exotic novelty?
I planted my first magnolia about 20 years ago. It was a 2-3-year-old Magnolia seedling Kobus, harvested by hook or crook in a botanical garden. And although the first flowering had to wait another 12 years, today it is a beautiful tree with a height of more than 5 m, regularly and abundantly blooming in late April - early May.
Magnolia Kobus (Magnolia Kobus)
Magnolia Kobus The most hardy type of magnolia, brought to us from Japan. This species is unassuming in care, therefore, it can be purchased by both beginner magnoliavods and those who want to have in their garden one tree that blossoms every spring.
Kobus magnolia can be grown from seed by collecting them in September in the botanical garden, or from seedlings that are sold in specialized stores.
Willow magnolia (Magnolia salicifolia) - a slender pyramid-shaped tree originally from Japan, blooms in April with white bell-shaped flowers, the leaves with aniseed aroma.
Flowers of magnolia wolf. Photo: accentgardendesigns.com
Magnolia is star-shaped (Magnolia stellata) also comes from Japan, where it is very popular in the design of gardens. Star magnolia is one of the first blooms, so it is at risk of spring frosts that affect delicate white flowers. Place for planting Magnolia stellate should be chosen only under cover from a strong wind, in the openwork penumbra.
Flowers of stellate magnolia. Photo: www.ogrodkroton.pl
Magnolia bare (Magnolia denudata) - one of the most beautiful Chinese magnolias, grows in the form of a tree or a tall bush in the shape of a wide bowl, blooms with large cream-white flowers.
Magnolia naked. Photo: australianseed.com
Magnolia lilium color (Magnolia liliiflora) also comes from China, blooms profusely with purple, goblet-shaped flowers.
Flowers of magnolia lilium color. Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Siebold magnolia (Magnolia sieboldii) mainly grows in Korea, China and Japan, rarely occurs in our gardens. Beneficially differs from other magnolias not only with its white drooping fragrant flowers, but also with long flowering (from May to July).
Trees large-leaved magnoliassuch as obovoid magnolia (Magnolia obovatafrom the Japanese islands, Magnolia officinalis (Magnolia officinalis) from China and the triple-magnolia (Magnolia tripetala) A resident of North America appear on sale quite rarely, despite the simplicity of care and high decorative effect. Due to the huge length of leaves (up to 50 cm), collected in “umbrellas” - whorls, large white flowers and pineal fruits, all of them are unusually exotic. In addition, these magnolias grow rapidly, giving an annual growth of 70-100 cm.
Hybrid for every taste
When purchasing and planting a magnolia sapling, it should be borne in mind that it will take at least 10-12 years from sowing seeds to the first flowering.
Those magnolia seedlings that are sold in stores, can conceal a trick. The fact is that merchants bring them from Europe: Poland, Hungary, Holland, Germany and even Northern Italy. The climate in Europe is much milder than in Russia or Ukraine, so you risk, as you are not sure that the “foreigner” will not freeze next winter, and considering that high prices for large seedlings, you can deeply give up on your purchase.
The compromise is this - you should buy plants with a height of about 1 m in containers, but without fail, with at least one or two flower buds. Such magnolia saplings are much cheaper, and using one or two flowers as an example, you will be convinced that your choice is correct.
Magnolias grow very quickly and are able to adapt well to local climatic conditions. Note that in young plants, the adaptability is significantly higher than in large-sized magnolia seedlings.
For example, 7 years ago I purchased a sapling of hybrid magnolia Sulanja Alexandrina (Magnolia soulangeana) about 60 cm high, the first time it bloomed the very next year and added 60–70 cm in height annually.
Today it is a slender tree about 4 m high, it blooms profusely, large pink flowers, fragrant. Flowering lasts about a month, and in September-October the fruits ripen, they also give the tree an unusual look.
Most magnolia seedlings that are commercially available are wild magnolia hybrids. Breeders brought hundreds of varieties with flowers of various shades and shapes.
Magnolia Yellow Bird
The most popular among gardeners are various forms of the magnolia of Sulange, obtained by crossing a magnolia with naked and color-leaved magnolia. Among them, the magnolia Alexandrina, Magnolia Amabilis (creamy white), the shape of Linne (white and pink large cupped flowers), Rosea (pink flowers) and my favorite Verbanika (flowers are large goblet-shaped, ivory).
For the abundance of bright colors and easy care, gardeners love hybrid magnolias such as: Susan, Betty, George Henry Kern, Leonard Messe (Lebner hybrid magnolia).
I recommend the Wadas Memori tree magnolia, which is a hybrid of the wolfish magnolia and Kobus magnolia. It blooms profusely with snow-white large flowers with the scent of citrus and anise.
Hybrids blooming with yellow flowers are becoming increasingly popular. In my garden, the magnolia of Yellow River with creamy yellow goblet flowers and the Yellow Bird with flowers of rich lemon-yellow color got well.
When choosing magnolias, it should be borne in mind that hybrids are more capricious, often freeze in harsh winters, although they are distinguished by a wide variety of shapes and colors.
Planting and growing
Despite their exclusivity, magnolias are quite unpretentious in their care, they grow quickly and are not subject to attacks by pests.
Choosing at your discretion the best plant, you need to properly plant it and learn the techniques of caring for it.In the special literature provides comprehensive recommendations on the choice of location, soil composition and time of planting magnolias. I will add to this only some advice from personal experience.
Everyone advises planting magnolias in the spring to allow the plant to adapt; I, on the contrary, plant magnolias in the late autumn when the plants have completed their growing season and entered a state of rest, and here's why:
- If you plant a plant grown in a container into the ground in spring, it begins to grow actively, gives a big increase in the first year and often enters the winter with shoots that did not have time to woody, and this almost guarantees their freezing in winter and then the long recovery process . If you plant a plant before winter, then you have the opportunity to choose and purchase a plant that was fully prepared for winter and laid the flower buds (they can be easily distinguished by their appearance)
- Due to seasonal demand, the prices for magnolias are unreasonably high in the spring, and in the fall they can be purchased even at a discount of 20–30%.
Do not overdry the earth com Magnolia seedlings, both before planting and during it. The magnolia root system is predominantly superficial, so refrain from vigorous activity under its crown.
Landing place Magnolias should be protected from strong winds and drafts that can force your plant in winter and dry in summer.
Do not save on rotten compost. If the soil is too dense, add sand or other baking powder. Avoid stagnation of water, if necessary - create drainage. Magnolia grows best on raised flower beds, arranged on the spot where the branches were burned after pruning, from which I conclude about the benefits of adding wood ash to the planting pit. Specialists from the United States strongly recommend that when landing, rotted horse manure.
Young magnolias try to plant in the penumbra, but not under the canopy of fruit trees, as falling fruits can seriously damage the magnolias growing under them.
Regular watering warm water is needed in the first days after planting. The soil should be mulched within a radius of 50 cm from the plant to reduce the evaporation of moisture.
Fertilize no later than June, in doses recommended by the manufacturer.
Cover the soil in magnolia to protect the roots from freezing in the winter months. To do this, after leaf fall (at the end of October - November), cover the ground under magnolia with fallen leaves, pine bark and needles (layer 20-30 cm).
Magnolias do not like pruning. Do not cut magnolia branches unless absolutely necessary.
Protect magnolias from chlorosis. Protect magnolias (especially large-leaved species) from chlorosis. At the first signs of chlorosis - yellowing of young leaves due to a lack of iron in the soil. At the first signs of chlorosis, immediately pour the soil under the plant and spray the leaves with a solution of iron chelate.
Magnolia planting pattern The garden should be subject to the rapid growth and development of plants. Remember that individual specimens reach a height of 10 m and a width of 4–5 m. It is recommended to maintain a distance between magnolias of 4–5 m, and with limited plot sizes, plant magnolias in groups of three or four plants according to the scheme: one tree magnolia and around it - 3-4 bush
Growing magnolias is a great pleasure and ineradicable interest. Having decided to plant a magnolia once in your garden, you will never stop and will look for all new species, hybrids and varieties.
I started 20 years ago with a simple magnolia Kobus, and today our whole family is engaged in expanding the collection of magnolias. Now we have more than 40 plants, 10 natural species and 25 hybrids and forms.
I wish all those who have not yet decided to plant their first magnolia to take this step in order to experience the charm of a blossoming magnolia in their own garden.
Magnolia is a deciduous shrub or tree. The bark is smooth grayish-ash or brown, may be scaly or furrowed. The height of such a plant can vary from 5 to 20 meters. On the surface of its stems are well distinguishable large scars from leaf plates, as well as narrow scars of annular shape from stipules. Kidneys are relatively large. Large leathery whole-leafy plates of greenish-emerald color have a slight pubescence on the seamy surface, and also, as a rule, elliptical or obovate. Fragrant solitary bimepole flowers can be axial or terminal, their diameter is about 6–35 centimeters, and color: cream, red, purple, white, pink or lilac. The composition of the flower includes from 6 to 12 wax elongated petals that overlap each other tiled. These petals are arranged in 1 or several rows. As a rule, magnolia blooms at the very beginning of the spring period, however there are species that bloom in the first summer weeks. This plant blooms so beautifully that every gardener would certainly like to decorate his own garden with them.
The fruit is a collective leaflet of a cone-shaped form, which consists of a large number of two-seeded leaflets. Black seeds have a triangular shape and red or pink fleshy prisymannik. When the leaflets are opened, the seeds hang on the seed threads.
Both shrubs and magnolia trees are very decorative plants. It looks most impressive in the springtime. A blooming magnolia is a most beautiful sight that every person who has ever seen it at least once could not forget. However, magnolia is a valuable plant not only because of its beauty. The fact is that in its fruits, flowers and foliage are essential oils that have a powerful antiseptic effect, they are used for hypertension, rheumatism and various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
What time to plant
You can grow magnolia is not in every region. When choosing a place for planting it should be borne in mind that this plant is very light-requiring. Choose a well-lit area away from tall trees and provide the plant with good protection from the east and north winds. In a small shade to grow magnolia can only be in the southern regions. The soil on the plot should not be too saline or calcareous, and excessively wet, sandy or heavy soil should not be suitable. The best suited organically weak acid or neutral soil. When purchasing material for planting, it should be remembered that the seedling height should be about 100 centimeters, it should have 1 or 2 buds. It is very good if the seedling has a closed root system, it will completely eliminate its drying out. Magnolia sapling with a closed root system can be transplanted into open soil in spring, summer and autumn.
Most experts advise planting magnolia trees in open soil in autumn in the second half of October. At this time, the sapling is already at rest. According to statistics, almost 100 percent of the seedlings planted in the fall take root. In spring, planting of a seedling in the garden is carried out in April, however, it should be remembered that even small night frosts cause significant damage to the trees that were adopted.
How to plant
The magnitude of the pit for planting magnolia must necessarily exceed 2 times the volume of the seedling root system. The upper nutrient layer of the soil, which remains after digging a hole, must be combined with rotted compost. In case the ground is too dense, then a small amount of sand should also be added to it.
First, at the bottom of the pit it is necessary to make a good drainage layer, the thickness of which should be from 15 to 20 centimeters, for this you can use crushed ceramic tiles or broken brick. A layer of sand of fifteen centimeters is piled on top of the drainage. And already on the sand poured a layer of pre-prepared nutrient mixture (the composition is described above). Then, the seedling should be installed in the center of the pit, and it should be noted that after planting, its root collar should rise 30–50 mm above the level of the site. Fill the pit with a nutrient mixture and compact the surface of the wheel circle slightly. Planted magnolia needs abundant watering. After the liquid is completely absorbed into the ground, the surface of the circle around the barrel should be covered with a layer of peat, and a layer of dry wood bark of coniferous wood should be laid on top of it. Mulching of the soil will avoid its excessive rapid drying.
Growing Magnolia in a Seed Garden
To buy the planting material of this culture today is not a problem. For growing in the suburbs often buy Siebold Magnolia. As a rule, the grains are covered with a protective sheath (sarcotest). Under it will be another layer in the form of a white oily substance. It protects the seeds from early germination. All these shells before planting need to be removed. Rinse the seeds well with clean running water. The next stage is to temper with cold (stratification).
Some gardeners sow the seeds of frost-resistant magnolias in the fall directly into open soil, covering them with leaves.
Wrap the grains in slightly moistened moss and leave in the fridge on the bottom shelf for about 3–5 months. The most suitable temperature is 0 °. If it is lower, the seeds and seedlings may die. Check the material once a week. As soon as the grains germinate, land in the tank. Take a pot deep enough (about 40 cm), fill it with fertile soil with peat.
Growing magnolia in the garden requires monitoring the condition of the soil. Acidification of the soil is unacceptable, it must be well drained in order to pass air to the roots. Lay the bottom of the pot 10 - cm layer of drainage of expanded clay. Soak the germinated seeds in the stimulator solution (as indicated in the instructions). Dip each grain into damp soil by about 2 cm. Place the container in a warm place with a lot of bright ambient light. If the air is very dry, take care of the greenhouse. After the emergence of shoots, the conditions of detention remain the same. When two pairs of leaflets form, pour a weakly concentrated fertilizer solution for seedlings.
Magnolia is best planted in the fall, when young seedlings stop growing. Depending on the region somewhere in the beginning or middle of October. That is, when there is no frost yet, but it is no longer hot outside.
Magnolia care in the garden
Magnolia is a moisture-loving plant, therefore it needs systematic watering. Saplings, which age is 1-3 years old, especially need abundant and systematic watering. It should be noted that the soil of the circle around the trunk should not be wet, but only slightly damp, and should be watered only with tepid water. Loosening the soil around the bush should be done very carefully and only with forks, as the plant has a surface root system, which is extremely easy to injure with other garden tools. To reduce the number of irrigations and loosening, experienced gardeners recommend to fall asleep tree circle mulch.
Magnolia also need systematic feeding. For the first 2 years, the young plant need not be fed up, because it has enough nutrients in the soil. Top-dressings begin only from the age of three; these procedures are carried out from the beginning to the middle of the growing season. Feed the plant should be a complex mineral fertilizer, with the package should be indicated dosage. If desired, you can make the nutrient mixture on your own, to do this, connect 1 bucket of water, 15 grams of urea, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and 1 kilogram of mullein. For 1 adult plant you need to take 4 buckets of this nutrient solution. They are watered magnolia 1 time in 4 weeks. Remember that it is very easy to overfeed. The “overfed” specimen begins to dry out the leaf plates ahead of time. If such signs appear, you should stop feeding and increase the abundance of irrigation.
Magnolia extremely negative reaction to transplantation. If you still need to transplant it, then try to follow the advice of experienced gardeners exactly. To get started, find the most suitable site for landing. Bush plentifully watered. Digging it out, remember that the clod of earth should be as large as possible, then the plant will transfer the transplant much easier and take root faster. To transfer the magnolia to a new landing site, you can use a sheet of plywood or a piece of oilcloth. Further, all manipulations with the plant should be exactly the same as during the initial planting. So, at the bottom of the landing pit make the drainage layer, which is filled with sand and groundwater. Then the magnolia itself is set in the center and the pit is filled up with soil mixture, while do not forget that the root neck after planting must necessarily rise above the surface of the plot. Excessively tamping the surface of the circle wheel should not be, it only needs to be pressed lightly.
The transplanted plant must be watered abundantly, and then the surface of the near-stem circle is covered with a layer of mulch. If the magnolia was transplanted in the fall, then its roots will need to be protected from the upcoming frost, for this purpose a mound of dry soil is created on the surface of the tree trunk circle. The branches and trunk of such a plant for the winter should be wrapped with a cloth.
Pruning magnolias in order to form the crown is not produced. Sanitary pruning is carried out only after the plant has faded. In this case, you need to cut out all the victims of the winter frosts and dry branches, as well as those that thicken the crown, do not forget to remove the faded flowers. Places of fresh cuts should be smeared with garden pitch. Pruning in the spring does not produce, the fact is that such a plant has a very intensive sap flow, and the resulting wounds can lead to his death.
Pests and diseases
For many years, it was believed that magnolia is not affected by any disease or pest, but it still may have many problems. For example, chlorosis may develop, from which yellowish spots will appear on the surface of the leaf plates, but the veins do not change their green color. Chlorosis suggests that the soil contains too much lime, which negatively affects the development and growth of the magnolia root system and often leads to the death of the whole plant. The soil can be corrected by introducing coniferous soil or sour peat into it. You can also use the chemical means available in any specialty store, for example, iron chelate.
Magnolia growth and development can become slower due to the fact that the soil is saturated with nutrients, which leads to salinization. To understand that the plant is overfed, you can carry out a thorough inspection in the last days of July, you can find the drying out edges of the old leaf plates. If there are signs of Magnolia pereormka, then it is necessary to stop fertilizing and increase the abundance of irrigation.
On such a plant, mealybugs, rosy thrips and peach aphids can settle, and during the drought period transparent or spider mites harm it. These pests feed on plant sap, which causes significant damage to the magnolia. So, the fall of its foliage may begin in July or August. In some cases, due to pests, the plant may be weakened to such an extent that next year it will have no gains at all. Also, these pests are carriers of viral diseases that can not be cured. To get rid of pests, you should use acaricides, for example, a bush can be treated with Aktar, Aktellik or other means of similar action.
In winter, rodents can damage the plant and gnaw at the root neck and roots. But to understand whether there are such problems, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil. Detected bites should be sprayed with a solution of Fundazole (1%). And remember, in order to prevent rodents from covering, the trunk of a magnolia should be covered for the winter only after the upper layer of soil is frozen.
When grown in mid-latitudes, magnolia can become infected with a fungal disease, for example: powdery mildew, soot fungi, scab, seedling rot, gray mold or botrytis. The affected bush can be cured only if the disease is detected quickly enough and at the same time the treatment of the plant with a fungicide solution is carried out as soon as possible. Do not forget to also reduce watering. In some cases, to obtain the necessary result, the plant must be sprayed several times. If the bush is infected with bacterial blotch, then it will have to be treated with copper sulfate.
Magnolia can be propagated by seed, as well as layering, cutting and grafting. But it should be taken into account in order to preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant; it must be propagated exclusively by vegetative means. However, when growing magnolia from seeds, it is often possible to obtain a new variety, form or variety. And still the generative reproduction method is the simplest.
Ripening occurs in September. Collect the seed heads and lay them on a sheet of paper. Then the seeds are shaken out and immersed in a container with water, there they should stay from 2 to 3 days. Then they are rubbed through a sieve, so you can remove the seedlings. Next, the seeds are washed in a soap solution, which removes oily deposits from them, and then they are thoroughly rinsed in clean running water. Seeds need to be stratified before sowing. To do this, they are folded in a bag of polyethylene, which must be filled with moistened sphagnum or sand (1: 4). Pack the package on the middle shelf of the refrigerator for at least 20 days.
Stratified seeds should be removed from the refrigerator, put them for a while in a solution of a fungicide for disinfection. Then the seeds are laid in moistened moss and wait until they are nested. If done correctly, the sprouts will give more than half of the seeds. If, however, to neglect stratification, there will be not so many shoots.
Make a groove with a depth of 20 mm and lay in it the seeds that need to fall asleep with a centimeter layer of substrate. This plant has a pivotal root system, so for planting it is necessary to take a high container, the depth of which will be not less than 0.3 m. Transplantation into open ground is carried out after the threat of return frost remains behind, while the seedlings must be gently transshipped in the holes. For wintering, young bushes should be “covered” with dry peat.
For harvesting cuttings, you need to choose young plants, while you have time to cut them before blooming. It is best if the lower part of the cutting is woody, and the upper part is green. The cuttings are planted in the last days of June, or the first - in July, for this they use a greenhouse, since it can maintain the necessary temperature and humidity of the air and the soil. Planting cuttings produced in the sand or a mixture consisting of peat, vermiculite, sand and perlite. The air temperature in the greenhouse should be kept at around 20-24 degrees, in this case, the cuttings will be able to take root within 5-7 weeks. If the cutting is taken from a large-flowered magnolia, then it should be noted that rooting can take 2 times longer. Try to keep the air temperature within the recommended range. The fact is that if it is cooler, the rooting of the cuttings will slow down significantly, and the temperature in excess of 26 degrees can destroy the plant. While the cuttings are in the greenhouse, do not forget to air it systematically, and also make sure that the soil in it is a little damp all the time.
Magnolia varieties for the Moscow region
Many varieties are quite hardy, so they can easily be grown in the Moscow region following our recommendations.
The most persistent varieties - Kobus (lat. Kobus), Lebner (lat. Loebneri kache).
Relatively resistant varieties - Wilson (lat. Wilson), Siebold (lat. Sieboldii) and Ash (lat. Ashei).
Even in severe frost, only some buds freeze in these varieties, which does not harm the whole tree. The longer the magnolia is in the middle zone of Russia, the higher its winter hardiness, a couple of years after the magnolia landing, shelter for the winter is no longer required.
Do not worry if in the first years after planting the plant blooms only 7-12 days, and the flowers are very rare - this is the norm for a plant that still adapts to the climatic zone of the Moscow region. It will take another couple of years, and your magnolia will delight the eye with its flowering for 30 days!
Landing pit preparation
A proper Magnolia planting pit should be three times the size of its root system. The soil is pre-mixed with compost and sand. Magnolia saplings are planted so that the root neck is above ground level. After planting, the plant is abundantly watered and must mulch the soil around it. To do this, apply peat, lapnik, sand.
If you bought a magnolia in a container or a pot, it can be transplanted from mid-March to late September. The method of planting a plant from a pot (container) is most preferable, since it is planted with a small amount of soil to which it is accustomed. In this case, the adaptation of the plant is much faster.
Experienced gardeners prefer autumn planting when the tree has already stopped growing. It is carried out in the middle or the end of October, until it is very cold, but there is no sweltering heat.
Good results show planting magnolia in spring. But there is a risk that return frost will destroy a young plant. Spring planting is carried out in April. If the weather is favorable, and frost is not expected, then you can try this method, but at your own risk.
Important!100% survival rate of seedlings occurs only with proper autumn planting!
How to properly care for magnolia
From the right care depends not only the beauty of the tree, but also its frost resistance.
Before planting the plant, you need to study the microclimate of the garden or the site where you are going to plant a magnolia. Lighting plays an enormous role in the successful cultivation of magnolias. As you know, these plants are quite thermophilic, but young plants do not tolerate the scorching sun at noon: the result of "overheating" can be light yellow leaves.
Planting a magnolia tree in the suburbs
If you plant a magnolia in a less sunny place, the level of green pigment increases. That is why the plant should be planted in the shade of another tree. In the image above, a magnolia tree was planted in the shade of pines in the floor, a successful solution, the pines will not only give shade to the floor, but also slightly acidify the soil with their fallen needles.
As for air pollution, the Kobus (lat. Kobus) and magnolia Sulanja (lat. Soulangiana) do an excellent job with a large percentage of emissions from enterprises and car exhaust gases.
The plant does not tolerate drought, especially in the early years of cultivation. It is necessary to water magnolia plentifully, but not too often. In extreme heat, the root system should not dry out. Mulching will help to preserve soil moisture. It not only warms the roots in winter, but also nourishes the plant, improves the soil structure.
Nutrition and feeding magnolia
Magnolia loves a variety of feeding. Fertilizers can be made from early spring to autumn. Applying nitrogen supplements, you need to exercise maximum caution, because its excess leads to a decrease in winter hardiness of the plant. Nitrogen fertilization is completed by mid-July.
Important!In the first two years of growing magnolia is not fertilized. Make feed start with the third season.
For fertilizing magnolia seedlings use ready-made fertilizers or cooked on their own. From the store can be considered mineral fertilizer "Kemira Universal" or specialized fertilizer for magnolias, for example, from AGRECOL "For magnolia".
You can prepare the nutrient solution yourself. To do this, use 25-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15-20 grams of urea, 1 kg of mullein. All components are mixed and diluted in 10 liters of water. The fertilizer is watered at the rate of 40 liters per plant.
Tip!If the plant is overfed, then you can notice it at the end of July. Old leaves begin to dry out ahead of time. The situation can be corrected by abundant watering.
Magnolia Wintering: Shelter
In conditions of central Russia, even winter-hardy magnolia varieties are better covered for the period of cold weather. Spring return frost will ruin flower buds on annual growths and flowering can not wait.
For shelter apply burlap. She wrapped a tree trunk in two layers, I try to avoid branch injuries. Pristvolny circle should also be covered for the winter, but it should be done on frozen ground. Use a thick layer of mulch. If you cover a tree earlier, then mice will inevitably settle in it.
Hardening and landing
When spring frosts are over, the pots can be put out into the penumbra in the shade. At night, it is necessary to put them in the room anyway. As soon as a stable, even above-zero temperature is established at night, the containers with magnolia can no longer be entered, but, for example, can be buried in the garden.
Seedlings - first year should winter in the room. You can store them in the cellar. The main thing is that they do not freeze. Over the next year, the conditions of detention remain the same.
In the spring, take out the magnolia seedling to the garden, water it regularly and apply additional fertilizer fertilizer. But in the third year, you can safely transplant your magnolia in the open ground. First, it has already passed the quenching period. Secondly, when transplanting on the roots, it is imperative to keep an earthen room. Thus, the plant will experience less stress, and the roots will be protected from damage. But before you plant a magnolia, you need to choose the right plot. The place should be sunny, protected from the north and east winds. In the south, where the sun is particularly hot, partial shade is permissible.
For the propagation of magnolia is also used cuttings. Cut them with young copies closer to the end of July. At the top, 2 - 3 leaflets are necessarily left, and the cut is treated with a root formation stimulator.
Put the stalk in a container with sand, cover and contain at a temperature of 19 - 22 degrees from 5 to 8 weeks. In the open ground cuttings are planted no earlier than one year. If you decide to arrange immediately in the garden, take care of good shelter.
Soil and watering
The soil for magnolia should be light, slightly acidic, fertile. Also a mandatory requirement for the land is that it must pass air well. In addition, the moisture in the area should not stagnate. Heavy, long drying soil is not the best option for growing magnolia in the garden. The pit by volume should be about three times the root system. In the quality of drainage at the bottom fill gravel and broken branches. Top with fertile soil (you can mix it with rotted manure and small coniferous bark).
Planting and caring for magnolia in the Moscow region is no different from other regions. The main thing - take care of the roots.
Therefore, the top layer of the earth is not recommended to strongly condense. Be sure to mulch with coniferous bark. So it will be easier to maintain the necessary moisture and acidity of the soil. If there are new leaves and shoots, then everything is done correctly, and the plant stuck.
In hot weather, water the magnolia regularly with warm, soft water. Do not allow any drying or over-wetting the ground.
Top dressing and other secrets
You can get from the plant lush flowering, if you follow certain rules:
- For stable growth and beautiful flowering fertilizers are needed. The first feeding magnolias held in spring. In order for the plant to bloom beautifully, it is better to add mineral compounds with a high content of nitrogen to the soil (excellent growth stimulation). When buds are tied and during flowering, it is better to use special complexes designed for flowering plants. Dosages count strictly according to the instructions. July is the time of the last feeding. Since the end of August, the magnolias gradually enter a period of rest and prepare for wintering. Any growth stimulation at this time is contraindicated.
- The bottom of the trunk and the roots for the winter must necessarily cover. To do this, use a special cloth, straw or fir branches.
- Care must be taken with transfers. Superficial root system is very easy to damage. Therefore, if it is clear that the tree is good in the selected area, it is not necessary to transfer it anywhere.
- It is believed that the culture is resistant to diseases and pests. But for prophylaxis, it is still worth periodically processing special biopreparations.
- Planting and caring for magnolia in the open field includes pruning. But this should be done only when necessary: for example, if there are branches crossed inside the crown. They need to be cut. This procedure will improve the growth and decoration. Dry branches and frozen buds remove after flowering. All sections must be processed with a garden bar. Magnolia shrubs trim to give them a compact and beautiful shape.
Do not be afraid to experiment. Create favorable conditions in your garden, and you will definitely make friends with this exotic beauty.
How to propagate by layering
Reproduction by layering is suitable only for shrub magnolias. In spring, you need to choose a branch that grows very close to the surface of the soil. At the base you need to pull the copper soft wire, then bend the branch to the ground and fixed in this position. In that place where the branch adjoins to the soil, it needs to be sprinkled with soil so that the small hillock turned out. In order to approximate the moment of appearance of the roots, it is necessary in the place where the branch touches the ground, make an annular incision on it.
For breeding and sometimes use air layouts. In the last spring or first summer weeks, it is necessary to select a branch and make a circular cut of bark on it, the width of which should be from 20 to 30 mm. Cutting must be done carefully so as not to injure the wood. Next, the section is processed with Heteroauxin, and then the wound is covered with moistened moss and wrapped with cling film, which needs to be fixed below and above the point of the cut. After that, this branch is tied to adjacent branches, which will allow to avoid its injury due to strong gusts of wind. Moss should be a bit wet all the time. To do this several times a month it is necessary to “inject” water through a syringe. Roots should appear after 8-12 weeks. In the autumn, the cuttings should be detached from the parent plant, and grow it in room conditions.
Where to plant magnolia
Choose a place for magnolia protected from the wind, especially from the cold winter winds, Mon.-Zap. direction. Magnolias do not like open sunny places. They prefer diffused light or light partial shade. Magnolias grow well on well-drained, moist (do not tolerate stagnant water, loose, rich in organic matter, acidic (Ph 5.5-6.5) soils.
Note. One of the reasons for the poor growth of magnolia is the presence of lime in the soil. Avoid places with stagnant moisture, calcareous and saline soils. When choosing a place for this plant, you need to take into account the growth of a tree or bush in adulthood.
How to care after flowering
Magnolia blooms in spring or early summer. Magnolia, covered with flowers, is the queen among the garden trees. After the plant has faded, it will be necessary to prune it for sanitary purposes. To do this, cut off all the withered flowers, as well as the branches and stems injured and frost-damaged, as well as those that grow inside the crown. The colorless magnolia is also very decorative, as it has beautiful leathery sheet plates.
Preparing the plant for the winter should be done in late autumn. The shelter should be good and reliable, because even if you grow a winter-resistant type of magnolia, it can freeze slightly, especially if the winter is windy and snowless. To exclude freezing of the plant, its trunk should be wrapped with a sacking cloth in 2 layers, while at the same time try to prevent delicate branches from being injured. After the first frost, the surface of the circle of the circle should be mulched.
How to plant Magnolia
Young magnolia seedlings need to be planted immediately to a permanent place, magnolia does not tolerate transplants. Magnolia is not very whimsical to the soil, but it will grow better in poorly saturated organic soil. For planting seedlings you can prepare a mixture of the following components: turf ground, peat, compost (2: 1: 1). The soil for planting should be loose, moderately wet. If the soil is too dense, it should be mixed with sand, vermiculite or perlite.
The pit for planting a magnolia should be 3 times larger than its root system. After we have planted the plant, the soil around it needs to be heavily rammed and watered. Pristvolny circle must be covered with bark of coniferous trees (mulch) so that the moisture evaporates more slowly.
Important. Make sure that the roots of the plant are not dry before planting. To avoid this, buying seedlings is best in a container. Thus the magnolia will transfer landing to an open ground easier.
General landing rules
Magnolia should be planted in light and slightly moist soil.
The soil should include turfy land, peat and compost in the proportion of 2: 1: 1, respectively.
In order not to spoil the root system, dig a hole three times the size of the roots. Do not compact the ground from above, so as not to harm the roots.
The soil under the seedling must be covered with coniferous bark - this technique will help maintain the water balance in the soil.
To the roots are not dried when planting, be sure to buy seedlings in special containers.
When to plant magnolia
Magnolia, which was bought in a pot, can be planted in open ground throughout the warm period, but it is better to do this in the fall (no later than October). It is at this time of the year that she is at rest. Sapling is better to choose the one on which there are flower buds.
If you plant a magnolia in the spring, the plant begins to actively stretch, the sapling will give a good growth and, often, it starts wintering with shoots that did not have time to silt. In this case, those shoots will freeze in winter.
Care and preparation for winter
Magnolia is a very rare plant in central Russia and many will tell you that it is impossible to grow it, and if it did, it will cause a lot of trouble. - Do not believe it!
If you picked the right places for planting and planted it in the “right” soil, the first flowers will appear on it very quickly.
Magnolia should not be transplanted from one place to another.
not deep, it is not recommended to cultivate the soil at the trunk of the tree, shrub any garden tools, inventory - can damage the surface root system.
if the summer is very dry, do not forget about watering the bushes. Watering should be 1 every 2-3 days (volume of about 2 buckets of soft water with low lime in the composition). Do not overdo it - if a swamp has formed around the tree, you should stop watering until the soil is completely dry.
during the leaf growth period, magnolia is fertilized with a mineral complex, but not earlier than two years after landingThis will allow the leaves to grow much faster and deal with weather conditions.
The composition of the fertilizer to 10 liters of water: 15 grams of urea (carbamide) + 20 g of ammonium nitrate +1 kg of mullein. Fertilizer consumption for a medium-sized single tree is 30 liters.
You can use ready-made fertilizers, such as Agrecool or "Kemira - Universal" (apply according to the instructions).
The last dressing is done at the beginning of the second half of summer (July 15), because very soon the plant goes into calm mode and begins to prepare for winter.
the plant does not need cutting of excess branches. Dried branches should be removed at the end of flowering.
If the plant has branches that intersect inside the crown, it is best to remove them immediately in order to improve the decorative effect and speed up the growth of the neighboring branches.
Preparing for the winter
Within 2-3 years after planting, be sure to cover the roots of a plant with straw, coniferous branches or sawdust with peat. In the first 2-3 years, the trunk should be wound with agrofabrics up to the first or second tier of skeletal branches, as in the image below.
Preparing Magnolia for Winter
Also, it will not be superfluous to cover the tree from the cold winter winds with the same agrofabric, winding its plant around and securing it with thread, wire or a regular stapler, this method is shown in the bottom photo.
Magnolia Shelter for the Winter
insects and other pests are not afraid of these plants, so there are no “special secrets” to protect the trees.
For residents of the Moscow region and nearby regions, magnolia is a very rare plant. And all because of unreliable rumors, we consider it very thermophilic and vulnerable.
In fact, magnolia is one of the most beautiful plants with excellent endurance, including temperature differences in central Russia.
Now, having learned about the main features of planting and care and after reading our guide to actions, you can safely experiment in growing magnolia in the Moscow region.
Siebold Magnolia (Magnolia sieboldii)
The height of such a deciduous tree is about 10 meters. However, most often this species is represented by shrubs. The sheet plates have a broadly elliptical shape, and in length they reach 15 centimeters. On a thin pubescent peduncle there is a slightly drooping fragrant white cupped flower. Flowers in diameter can reach 7-10 centimeters. This species is one of the most winter-resistant, it is able to transfer short frosts to minus 36 degrees. Cultivated since 1865
Magnolia obovata (Magnolia obovata), or white-colored magnolia
This species comes from Japan and from the island of Kunashir, which is located on the Kuril Islands. The height of this deciduous tree is about 15 meters. Color smooth bark gray. At the ends of the stems are collected leaf plates of 8-10 pieces. The diameter of the spectacular white-cream flowers is about 16 centimeters, they stand out because they have a spicy scent. The length of the saturated red fruit is about 20 centimeters. Such a plant looks spectacular all year round, it is shade-tolerant and frost-resistant, but it is demanding on the level of humidity of the air and soil. Cultivated since 1865
Magnolia officinalis (Magnolia officinalis)
Homeland of this type is China. This plant is considered to be an analogue of Magnolia drug, but its leaf plates are larger. Large fragrant flowers are externally similar to water lilies, however they have narrower petals, sharpening to the top. At home, this species is used as a medicinal plant, and in middle latitudes it can be found extremely rarely.
Magnolia acuminata (Magnolia acuminata), or cucumber magnolia
It comes from a plant in central North America. Under natural conditions, it prefers to grow in deciduous forests at the mountain foot, as well as along the rocky shores of mountain rivers. This deciduous tree in height can reach about 30 meters. The young plant has a pyramidal crown shape, but it gradually becomes rounded. Elliptical or oval sheet plates in length reach 24 centimeters. Their front side is painted dark green, and the back is painted greenish gray, with short pubescence on its surface. The diameter of the bell-shaped flowers is about 8 centimeters, they are painted in greenish-yellow color, in some cases on the surface there is a gray patina. This type is the most frost-resistant of all. Such a species has a shape with rounded or cordiform at the base of the leaf plates. Canary-colored flowers are not as large as in the main species. In the USA, specialists received hybrid magnolias by crossing a magnolia-lily magnum and a pointed magnolia, they are united under the name of the Brooklyn magnolia.
This type is one of the most beautiful and elegant. He comes from Japan. The plant is a shrub or not very big tree, whose height can reach 250 centimeters. The branches are bare brownish-gray color. The shape of the leaf plates is narrow elliptical, their length is about 12 centimeters. The diameter of unusual flowers is about 10 centimeters, they have a large number of snow-white petals of elongated ribbon-like shape, they depart in all directions, which is similar to the rays of a star. There are 2 decorative forms: Key and pink. Still popular with gardeners enjoyed several varieties and hybrids. For example, magnolia Susan is a variety with flowers, the outer part of which is painted in a dark red-purple color, and the inner part is in a paler shade. This variety is part of a series of hybrids with female names: Betty, Pinky, Jane, Judy, Anna, Randy and Ricky. This series was born in the fifties of the last century.
Magnolia lilia color (Magnolia liliflora)
This type is very popular among gardeners. Presumably the birthplace of such a plant is eastern China, in Europe it turned out to be in 1790. The flowering is lush, The diameter of the flowers with a subtle scent is about 11 centimeters, the shape of them is very similar to the lily. Their inner surface is white, and the outer one is purple. The decorative form of this type of Nigra (Nigre) deserves special attention: the outer surface of its flowers is red and ruby, and the inner one is lilac-white, flowering begins in the last days of April or the first - in May.
Magnolia Kobus (Magnolia kobus)
The homeland of this plant is South Korea, as well as central and northern Japan. It came to New York in 1862, and from there it was brought to Europe in 1879. Under natural conditions, the height of a tree may be 25 meters, but in culture it does not exceed 10 meters. The broad leafy plates of obovate form have a pointed apex. Their front surface is saturated green, and the purl is colored a paler shade. The diameter of the fragrant white flowers is about 10 centimeters. The first flowering of such magnolia can be seen only when it turns 9-12 years old. This type of frost, dust and gas resistant. The northern form is a plant with larger flowers, which is even more frost-resistant.
Originally from southeast North America. Slender barrel has a cylindrical shape. Crohn has a very spectacular form. The color of the large glossy sheet plates is dark green. The diameter of white flowers is about 25 centimeters, they have a sharp spicy smell. The fruits are also highly decorative, they are very bright and have a cone-like shape. While the plant is young, it is characterized by slow growth, for example, the annual increment is only 0.6 m. It has low winter hardiness and is able to withstand frosts not lower than minus 15 degrees. This species grows well in the conditions of the city, it is durable and highly resistant to pests and diseases. Main decorative forms:
- Narrow-leaved. Sheet plates are narrower than the main view.
- Lanceolate. The form of foliage is elongated.
- Famous. The leaf plates are very wide, and the diameter of the flowers is about 0.35 m.
- Round leaf. The sheet plates are painted in a very dark green shade. The diameter of the flowers is about 15 centimeters.
- Early. Flowering begins earlier compared with the main form.
- Exon. This tall tree has a crown shape narrow-pyramidal. The sheet plates are oblong and have pubescence on the bottom surface.
- Traterti. The shape of the crown is strictly pyramidal.
- Hartvis. The shape of the crown is pyramidal, wavy foliage.
- Dragon's. The krone is lowered very low. Arched branches touch the ground and quickly take root.
- Gallison. It has a greater frost resistance compared to the main view.
Magnolia Sulange (Magnolia x Soulangeana)
This hybrid was born in 1820 thanks to the Frenchman E. Sulange, who was a scientist. At the moment, there are more than 50 forms of such a hybrid, and all of them are very popular in almost every country. The height of such a deciduous shrub or tree does not exceed 5 meters. The length of obovate leaf plates is about 15 centimeters. The diameter of the goblet-shaped flowers can vary from 15 to 25 centimeters, they are fragrant, and in some cases they have completely no smell. They can be colored in various shades from purple to light pink. A plant with white flowers can be seen very rarely. This magnolia is resistant to the adverse effects of the environment and is not demanding on the composition of the soil. The most popular garden forms:
- Lenne. The inner surface of the fragrant flowers is white, and the outer one is purple-pink.
- Alexandrina. Magnolia is about 8 meters high, it is resistant to drought. The outer surface of the flowers is dark purple and the inner is white.
- Rubra (red). The outer surface of the flowers is red-pink.
- Nemettsa. The shape of the crown is pyramidal.
Also, this hybrid has a large number of varieties.
In addition to the above-described species, gardeners cultivate the magnolia of a wolfberry, large-leaved, Lebner, nude, trekhlepestnuyu, or umbrella, etc.
After flowering, during the development of leaves and fruits, magnolia must be fed with complex mineral fertilizers - this will help develop better, be more resistant to weather conditions. The last dressing should be done no later than July, because at the end of August the magnolia goes into a state of rest and begins to prepare for wintering.
Shelter for the winter In 1, 2, 3 years after planting the plant in open ground, the lower part of the trunk and the root system should be covered for the winter (in November), with a special agro-cloth, coniferous branches, straw, a layer of mulch should be 20-30 cm .