Scab is the fear and scourge of every gardener who grows apples or pears on a plot. This fungal disease affects trees in conditions of high humidity - especially dangerous in wet and rainy summer. Scab does not cause the death of trees, but the crop is reduced and deteriorates. If you do not apply control measures, apples and pears on sick trees will give birth to small, ugly and tasteless. In order not to harm the fruits even more, experienced gardeners recommend fighting scab without chemicals. For beginners, you need to read special articles and even watch a themed video.
Description, signs and stages of scab
Fungus venturia unequal - the causative agent of the disease called scab. It spreads from fusicladium (Fusicladium dendriticum) - asexual form of the fungus. The scab most often “attacks” fruit trees in early spring with raindrops. In a humid environment, spores of the fungus are attached to young leaflets by mucous membranes and germinate in them.
This fungal disease most often affects seed trees, such as an apple tree and a pear tree. Lemons, oranges, potatoes also suffer from it. Less commonly, scars suffer from cherries, cherries, plums, beets and bulbous flowers.
It is noteworthy that the fungus that develops on an apple tree will not switch to a pear. Although, according to the signs and methods of dealing with them, these disputes are very similar.
The development of scab occurs in 3 stages:
- 2 weeks after the buds have opened, olive-colored spots appear on the leaves of the infected tree. These are the breeding sites of fungal spores.
- At the next stage, scab infects young branches and the apples themselves. Damaged tissues appear on them - dark areas, under them the fruit pulp quickly deteriorates.
- The last stage of the season comes in the fall, when the tree sheds foliage. During this coprotrophic period, the fungus hides in the bark, fallen leaves and fruits, to overwinter. And in the spring of waking disputes will lead to a new infection.
Scab does not affect the photosynthesis of trees, so the apple trees continue to grow and develop even when infected. And this, in turn, contributes to the further development and maintenance of the fungal spores.
Scab of agricultural plants - know the enemy in person
This harmful fungal disease attacks the surface tissues of leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, tubers and shoots. You can distinguish it by the characteristic peeling of the skin, the appearance of black or olive-brown spots, ulcers and warts. With a very strong lesion leaves and fruits fall off.
The most dangerous scab for apple, pear, citrus and potatoes. Also often affects cherry, beet, peach, celery and other crops. Fungi are activated in wet weather with a moderate temperature of 15-20 degrees.
How to avoid scab infection
- The scab pathogens can winter in leaves that have fallen from affected trees. In the spring, when the weather is favorable, they can cause new outbreaks of the disease. Therefore, be sure to collect and destroy fallen leaves.
- The spread of fungi occurs in wet weather, so it is necessary to improve the lighting and air circulation around the plant. To do this, thin out the crown of the trees so that the foliage and fruits dry out faster after the rain.
- Choose disease resistant varieties of plants, especially in regions with high humidity.
- When planting potatoes, pay attention to the pH of the soil. If it is above 6.5, add ammonium sulfate and avoid calcium.
- It is not a fungus that causes potato scab, but an actinomycete microorganism in the soil. It develops in dry, light soil, so when drought requires abundant watering.
How to deal with scab
If you notice the characteristic spots on the leaves and fruits or on the potatoes during the harvest, it may be too late to take any measures. Therefore, in the spring it is important to carry out preventive spraying with sulfur and 5% urea solution.
Infection usually occurs in early June in warm, rainy weather. The affected plant, most likely, will have to be sprayed repeatedly. The consultant will help you choose the appropriate drug and regimen. Sulfur preparations can cause skin irritation, so be sure to wear a mask and protective clothing.
Most prone to scab:
- Apple tree - during flowering leaves appear gray-red spots, then the fruits are covered with dark spots. It is necessary to remove the fallen apples and leaves, process the spring with a fungicide.
- Pear - has the same symptoms as an apple tree, branches also dry up and bark falls. Remove fallen leaves and fruits, use a fungicide.
- Rowan - leaves are covered with brown spots, and berries - black round specks and divorces. It is necessary to remove the affected leaves, trim and spray in the spring.
- Peach - a velvety black bloom appears on the fruit, but the leaves are not damaged. Destroy fallen infected fruits and leaves too, use a fungicide.
- Potatoes - on the tubers rough brown spots are formed. Feed and water the potatoes, and next year plant them in a new place. Eating such potatoes can be, most importantly cut spots.
- Celery - on the leaves appear red-brown spots, and on the rhizomes - spots and cracks. The plant will have to be destroyed, and next year plant celery in another place.
Although scab is a common disease, apples and pears can and should be protected from this fungus. Moreover, prevention is less time consuming and more simple than treatment. You need to do this in the fall and in the spring.
In the autumn, as soon as the harvest of apples or pears is gathered, it is necessary to remove all dried and spoiled fruits. Then you need to cut dry branches and clean the trunk of the old bark. Place pruning branches and peeled bark should be covered with whitewash. All “waste”: fruits, leaves, bark should be removed from the garden and, preferably, burned outside the backyard. After that, the bare crown of the apple should be sprayed with a 5% solution of copper sulphate.
Council If it is impossible to destroy the foliage for some reason, it should be treated with 7% urea solution, it will destroy the infection.
In the spring, apples and pears are prevented from being prevented until the buds have blossomed on the trees. That is, it must be March. This month, gardeners spray trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Also suitable solution of kuprozan, captan, zineb.
After flowering, if necessary, you can repeat the procedure. The third time the tree is treated again after 2 weeks. But you need to be very careful, as Bordeaux liquid can burn the leaves.
Treatment of scab without chemistry
Very often, scab is recommended to be treated with chemicals. But these funds can be absorbed into the apples and pears themselves. Consequently, with the fruits chemistry will enter the human body. Therefore, in the treatment of this fungal disease, it is first necessary to turn to the folk methods of struggle.
- Trees can be treated with regular saline. At 10 liters of water you need to take 1 kg of salt, which is sold in any store. You need to process trees in early spring, when apple or pear trees have not yet moved away from wintering. True, fruit trees treated in this way may linger in the growing season. But this should not frighten the gardener.
- Another effective natural solution for scab control is 1/3 of a horsetail bucket in 10 liters of water. Insist means for 3 days, and sprayed fruit trees during the foliage.
- The scab can also be cured with a solution of mustard.10 l will need only 80-100 g of dry mustard powder. In this case, it must first be diluted slightly with warm water. Trees need to be treated immediately after the rain. Best of all, the solution will work until the beginning of summer, while the disease has not yet entered its full strength.
- Experienced gardeners recommend treating tree branches with fire. Of course, this is not very convenient and rather dangerous. Processing is carried out in the fall, when the foliage is completely fallen.
Attention! If the fruit trees of the neighbors are sick with scab, it is imperative to persuade them to also treat seedlings. Otherwise, fungal spores will constantly fly over to the site, and prevention and treatment will be wasted.
A scab is a fungal infection that can destroy a crop before the owners get there. Therefore, this common disease needs to be closely monitored, prevented and the scab treated at the first signs.
Fruit diseases: how to identify a scab on a pear. All methods of treating scab: chemical and folk remedies
Scab is a fungal disease that affects fruit trees. In a pear, the lesion extends to the flowers, fruits, shoots and leaves of the plant. It causes great damage to the crop, to cope with the disease, it is necessary to know the first symptoms of its manifestation.
Signs of the disease - scab on pear
To properly diagnose a disease, you need to know all its symptoms. Scab on a pear is more pronounced than on other plants and is easier to identify.
• One of the signs of the disease - brown spots on the fruit of pear. They immediately catch the eye, it is impossible not to notice them.
• With the development of the disease, brown spots appear with an oily coating on the surface of pear leaves.
• In the affected tree, the fruits become ugly, no longer develop normally.
• A diseased tree sheds ovaries, flowers, leaves.
• On the affected shoots of young trees, the parasch appears as a result of crust cracking and swelling. In these places mycelium of the fungus develops, which begins to multiply in spring. Therefore, all damaged pear shoots must be destroyed.
Photo scab at various stages
Why pears are sick with scab
Scab spores wake up only under favorable conditions, beginning to actively proliferate.
The development of the disease is favored by damp and cold weather in spring. With increased humidity on summer days, there may also be an outbreak of the disease. Moreover, not only the rains affect the humidity of the environment, but also the loss of abundant dews.
Symptoms of the disease: how does the scab on pear
Pear scab, like apple, is a fungal disease of nature. The disease begins to develop on the upper leaves of the shoots, affecting the lower part of the leaf plate. First, the lesions have the appearance of chlorotic spots. Then the spots darken, there is a touch of olive color, which gradually becomes brown.
From the leaves, the infection spreads to the shoots, flowers and fruit stalks of the pear ovaries. As the fruits ripen, the fungus infects their skin. On fruits, scab appears as dark, dry surface spots. The flesh beneath them becomes coarse, slab.
In some cases, the lesions on the fruit are very small, they are few and harmless. However, some time after the collection and storage, you can find that the spots on the fruit have grown and covered the entire surface. To keep storing such pears does not make sense, and the harvest is lost.
Pear fruits do not have a wax coating like an apple tree, and scab damages them more strongly, causing cracking.
General description and life cycle of the scab pathogen
The causative agent of pear scab is the marsupial fungus Venturia, or rather its variety, Venturia pirina Aderh. In its life cycle, it passes through two stages - sexual and asexual reproduction.
- The fungus winters in the fallen leaves in the form of so-called pseudothecias.
- Early in spring, spores ripen in fruit bodies and dissipate as soon as the humidity and temperature regime suitable for them occurs.
- With microscopic drops of water, spores rise up and settle on the blooming leaves.
- Spores germinate under the cuticle of the leaves, and those same olive spots are formed.
- At the beginning of summer, venturia forms conidia - motionless “asexual disputes”. During rains, drops of water wash them off into downstream leaves, shoots and ovaries.
- In the fall, the fungus forms new pseudothecations on falling leaves.
Sexual reproduction of venturia occurs only in early spring, but the asexual reproduction stage can continue all summer, contributing to the massive defeat of all parts of the plant. In a hibernating fungus, negative geotropism - it germinates and disperses spores, even if the fallen leaf turns over by the other side.
Causes of scab and regions of distribution
In the epiphytotiology of the disease, the main role is played by prolonged high humidity. A cold and damp spring, prolonged rains or abundant dew in the summer contribute to the development and spread of venturi spores. The longer the drip-liquid moisture is on the leaves and fruits, the higher the risk of defeat pear scab. This weather situation is especially dangerous from May to July. During this period, there is such a stage in the life cycle of the fungus as the dispersion of ascospores and the development of conidia.
Thus, scab much more often affects pear orchards located in areas of excessive and sufficient moisture, and this is practically the entire territory of Russia. In the southern regions — the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the North Caucasus, the Astrakhan Region, the Lower Volga Region — this problem is much less common.
The consequences of pear scab disease
A feature of venturia is that it does not penetrate into the deeper layers of the leaf and does not harm its photosynthetic apparatus. As a result, the tree does not die, continues to live and bear fruit. But this does not mean that the scab is harmless.
The pathogen of black cancer can penetrate through the damaged cortex.
Besides the fact that this disease reduces the quality of the fruit and ruins the crop, it reduces the resistance of plants. Pear scab infects shoots, causing bark cracking. Another infection easily penetrates into the “entrance gate”, which can be more harmful and even deadly. ".
Methods of dealing with scab on pear
In 2009, in the Grodno region (Belarus), a production experiment was conducted in a fruit-bearing pear orchard. Two groups of trees were identified. One was a control, and the other received treatment from scab.
Before harvesting, the prevalence of the disease on plants of the control group reached 90%. On processed - 25.4%. And such a significant difference was recorded in a very wet and rainy summer. Conclusion: with a scab on a pear can and must be fought. Plant protection products against infections are divided into two groups - chemical and natural.
One of the largest categories of diseases of apple trees. Disputes are very viable, do not die even in frost and drought. Begin to multiply actively in a humid environment at a positive temperature. They overwinter in fallen leaves, unpicked fruits, move easily through the air, fall on the tree from infected garden tools. External symptoms vary depending on the specific disease.
Factors contributing to the development of fungal diseases in the apple orchard:
- high humidity of air and soil
- last year's untidy foliage in which disputes overwinter,
- dense crown, impeding uniform illumination and ventilation of the leaves,
- planting infected seedlings, diseased crops growing near apple trees.
Most diseases are treatable. The main thing is to recognize the “enemy” by sight and take action in time. Consider the common diseases of apple trees.
The first symptoms of a lesion are marsh spots that appear on the leaves.Over time, the diseased areas darken and become covered with cracks. The leaves retain the shape and color of healthy tissue, as the scab practically does not violate photosynthesis. Subsequently, the spores are spread to the bark and fruits of the tree. Apples form similar spots with a dense structure. Productivity decreases due to underdeveloped, deformed fruits.
Methods of treatment and preventive measures:
- Spraying with fungicides for apple trees during budding, re-treatment after flowering. Recommended drugs - Chorus and Strobe. They are not washed away by rain and retain protection even at low air temperatures.
- Alternation of fungicides with biological products - Gamar (1 tablet per liter of water) and Fitolavin (20 ml per bucket). During the season it is desirable to spend 2-3 spraying trees.
- Removal of diseased leaves, fruits and branches after harvest. Scraping damaged bark areas to healthy tissue.
- Conducting autumn processing of copper sulfate.
- Top dressing with fertilizers containing boron during fruit set.
Apples, ripened on a diseased tree, can be safely eaten. It is enough to clean the damaged areas of the peel.
A common disease of the foliage of apple appears after the blooming of the shoots. Small yellow spots are found on the surface of the sheet. With the development of the disease, the color of the affected tissues becomes bright red, with black dots in the center. On the back of the leaves, growths resembling hairs are formed.
The disease mainly affects apples and pears. The juniper growing next to it can serve as a source of infection, on the cortex of which the pathogenic mycelium lives. In warm weather with an abundance of moisture, spores spread over the leaf surface, reduce the immunity of the fruit tree and adversely affect yield.
The fight against rust is in the preventive and curative treatments of the culture. It is recommended to use contact and systemic fungicides (Strobe, Topaz, Poliram) to chain them together to avoid addiction of fungal spores. An effective control measure is spraying apple trees with copper-based preparations. Well helps to get rid of rust Bordeaux liquid, Kuproksat, Blue Bordeaux.
Recognize the fungal disease can be a characteristic plaque on the surface of leaves and young twigs. The disease has several stages with different manifestations:
- at the initial stage, a young sticky white color forms on the young shoots, which is easily erased from the surface,
- as the disease progresses, the plaque becomes more dense, changes color to ashy with dark dots inside,
- sick leaves curl in the boat, dry out and fall prematurely,
- reduced number of ovaries due to deformation of the petals and stamens,
- on the affected fruits, the fungus leaves a rusty-colored net trail.
The yield of the diseased tree is decreasing every year. Spores overwinter in the bark and buds of apple trees and continue the life cycle with the onset of heat. Powdery mildew can be cured by treating the trees with colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux liquid and Topaz.
Disease of apple bark, which manifests itself in early summer. The fungus disrupts the movement of juices, shoots no longer receive food from the roots and dry out. External signs to determine the disease can be described as follows:
- On the surface of the cortex, small tubercles are formed in which spores mature.
- Flowers and leaves dry up, but do not crumble.
- Hillocks swell, crack, become red-brown in color.
- Us boundaries of healthy and diseased tissue appear cracks, of which gum stands out.
- In the advanced stage, the fungus penetrates deep into the wood.
Damaged areas of the bark are not restored, they must be cleaned and burned. You can remove growths with a brush, stepping on a healthy tissue of 2-3 cm.The stripping place must be treated with iron sulphate (50 g per liter of water) and wound the wound with woven material.
For the prevention of cytosporosis, it is recommended to remove old and diseased branches in time and to cut the sawdust with garden pitch. It is advisable to spray apple fungicides before flowering.
In the early stages, the disease of the apple trunk can be seen only with careful examination of the surface of the bark, sometimes it requires a magnifying glass. It is necessary to study areas with mechanical damage to the trunk. If there are small black dots around the wounds along the contour, the apple tree is infected with cancer. Gradually, the skeletal branches become covered with growing spots with a violet tinge, resembling a charred burn.
On the leaves, clusters of spores form brown circles that spread over the entire surface and lead to premature leaf fall. Symptoms of black cancer on the fruit appear as dark spots of putrefaction. On one apple grows only one lesion, which captures the entire fruit.
Cure the disease can be in the early stages, when the lesions affected no more than 30% of the trunk:
- in the beginning, they smooth out all diseased parts of the cortex,
- branches, completely encircled with cancerous growths, saw off,
- wounds are treated with antiseptic and covered with garden pitch,
- The apple tree and the soil around the tree are sprayed with a fungicide.
Medical and sanitary activities are carried out in early spring or late autumn, when the apple tree is at rest.
Moniliasis or fruit rot is a common ailment of apple and pear trees. The active stage of the disease falls on the second half of the season. High humidity and temperature above 25 ° C provoke mass reproduction of spores. Most often, the fungus penetrates the fruit through mechanical damage to the skin.
Spores get into the wounds left by birds or pests, and a week later the ovary completely rotted right on the branch. The disease is one of the reasons why apples fall off early from the apple tree.
Chemical fungicides effectively prevent the growth of the fungus, but the drugs can be used only if there is at least 4 weeks left until the harvest. A more gentle way to eradicate a disease is to treat wood with biological products that are safe for humans. It is recommended to spray an apple tree with a solution of Pentafag-C and Lipos preparations.
An apple tree disease that affects the entire land part of the culture. The fungus is activated as a result of mechanical damage to the trunk and the attack of the aphid. Juice released from wounds, sticky waste products of sucking insects, become a breeding ground for spores. On the shoots formed coal bloom in the form of small patches of various shapes and sizes.
A black fungus on an apple tree leads to a quick drying of the leaves, the loss of the commercial appearance of apples covered with dark spots. The harvest does not have time to ripen, the fruits stop developing. The treatment of fungal disease is carried out with Fufanon, Iskra-D and Decis chemicals. For prevention, it is important to treat trees from pests and apply antiseptic to wounds in time.
Bacterial and viral diseases
Infection of apple trees occurs through mechanical damage to the root or ground part of the culture. Bacteria and viruses enter the plant tissues and with the onset of favorable conditions begin to multiply actively. To protect the orchard from such ailments, it is important to observe a number of mandatory conditions:
- inspect seedlings before planting, discard specimens with signs of disease,
- timely conduct antiseptic treatment of damaged areas of the bark and trunk,
- destroy harmful insects that contribute to the spread of infections,
- use clean garden tools, disinfect the surface after contact with diseased plants,
- form the crown, avoiding excessive thickening of the foliage,
- provide nutrition for the apple throughout the life cycle.
A description of the symptoms of various bacterial and viral diseases will help recognize the problem in time and take steps to eliminate it.
At the initial stage, the disease is diagnosed by the appearance of inflorescences. Petals turn brown and fall off quickly. Young leaves are covered with dark spots that instantly grow from the tips to the base. Patients shoots twisted, bent down. The fruit, which has started, becomes black and dry in a short time.
The bark on the trunk and branches softens, becomes covered with bubbles, from which a sticky liquid of dirty milky color is emitted. Insects on the legs spread the infection from the exudate throughout the tree. In dry weather with high air temperatures, discharge ceases.
Treatment of a bacterial burn involves spraying apple crown with Gamar and Fitolavin. The soil around the trees is treated with blue vitriol.
The most effective ways to treat scab on a pear
To cure the disease can only complex measures. Scab develops rapidly and requires a peculiar approach to treatment.
Among all methods, the most effective are highlighted:
1. Spraying wood. This is one of the effective methods that are used in the fight against scab. It is necessary to carry out processing several times a season.
2. Regular inspection and destruction of affected parts of the tree. Especially carefully inspect the young shoots of the plant.
3. Disposal of infected fruit.
The combination of these methods with preventive measures helps not only to restrain, but also to prevent the spread of the disease.
How and when to spray pears
Wood processing must be carried out at least five times. How to do it right?
• The first treatment is carried out in early spring, when the buds swell.
• The second one is sprayed with a pear in the period of laying the flower buds, shortly before flowering.
• Subsequent processing takes place immediately after flowering, before the formation of fruits.
• The fourth time the pear is sprayed two weeks after flowering.
• Final processing is carried out only for winter pear varieties that are intended for long storage. It is carried out in the late summer or early autumn.
Important! Treatment preparations must be changed regularly. Spraying the same drug can not be.
Prevention of scab on pear
Scab is common in almost all regions, so disease prevention must begin long before planting the seedling.
1. Place for landing must be chosen according to all the rules. It should be well lit.
2. When laying the garden you need to observe the density of planting trees. The less plants are planted, the better for the gardener. Thickened planting leads to an increased risk of disease. Regular pruning contributes to the rapid blowing of the crown after the rains.
3. Cleaning fallen leaves. Every gardener should know that the causative agent of scab overwinters in the leaves, so careful cleaning the garden in the fall will help avoid an outbreak of the disease. They dig up the soil under the trees.
4. Regular spraying of trees.
5. Proper soil nutrient enrichment.
It is necessary to begin the fight against the disease in the fall, when the last harvest has been harvested. During this period, carry out preventive spraying. If the weather is rainy, then spraying is repeated on drier and more serene days.
Scab on a pear is very dangerous, it covers large areas in a short time, which hurts the gardener. From the disease may die the entire crop. The combination of therapeutic and prophylactic methods gives good results in combating the disease.
How to spray a pear against scab
It is necessary to begin processing with preventive autumn spraying. It is carried out after leaf fall. 50 g of urea is dissolved in a liter of water and the garden is sprayed.
Experienced gardeners are advised to carry out early spring spraying of copper sulphate. For 1 liter of water use 30 grams of the drug with the addition of 40 grams of lime. And in the fall to process wood with iron sulfate, dissolve 30 grams of the drug in a liter of water.
Also the following drugs do a good job with scab:
At the first signs of damage, good performance is seen after zircon treatment.
How to use system tools when dealing with scab
Quite good results were shown by the drug “Skor”, which was sprayed on the plant at least four times. About 2 ml of the drug are dissolved in a bucket of water.
Drug "Strobe" used to combat scab and powdery mildew on pear and apple. During one growing season no more than three treatments are carried out with this preparation. The interval between spraying at least two weeks. The effect of the drug lasts up to one month. It is allowed to use Storby mixed with other fungicides.
"Horus" - an effective drug for scab, which operates at low temperatures, is not washed off by rain. The treatment is carried out until the buds bloom, then repeat at the end of flowering. The effect of the drug lasts up to one month.
How to treat a scab on a pear with mineral fertilizers
Experienced gardeners advise equally effective methods of treating scab with mineral fertilizers. In this case, not only medicinal sprays are carried out, but also foliar fertilizing of the tree, which have a positive effect on its condition.
Pears are sprayed with solutions of the following drugs:
• ammonium nitrate, the concentration of the working solution is not more than 10%,
• ammonium sulfate, concentration up to 10%,
• potassium chloride, the concentration of the drug from 3 to 8%,
• potassium nitrate, working solution from 5 to 15%,
• potassium salt, solution concentration up to 10%.
Treatments are carried out throughout the season.
During one growing season, up to five outbreaks of the disease are observed. The first to suffer are young plantations, which are more susceptible to fungal diseases. Older plants are resistant to scab. For stable yields, it is necessary to conduct all measures to combat the disease.
Experienced gardeners are advised to grow more scab-resistant pear varieties, which will save labor costs and ensure good yields. These varieties include:
Important! Scab affects pears as well as apple trees. But it does not move from one tree to another, since the causative agents of the disease are various fungi. However, scab control methods are the same on all fruit trees.
The most dangerous diseases of pear (descriptions, photos, methods of treatment)
Diseases and pests of pears are capable of destroying the plant in a short time and leaving the gardener without a crop. To avoid this, you need to give preference to resistant varieties. And it is also useful to know how to treat a pear from diseases.
Both stem and leaves, and ripening fruits can suffer from fungi and viruses. Most of the diseases of pear and apple are identical. And the fight against them comes down to proper care, regular preventive spraying and timely treatment when the first signs of the disease are detected.
To know what and how to save the tree, you need to correctly identify the disease by symptoms. In our material we describe the most dangerous diseases of the pear and their treatment.
Scab disease - description
Each plant species has its own scab pathogen, and the potato scab is unlikely to spread to the apple tree, and the scab on the apple tree is not caused by those pathogens that scab on a pear. But the symptoms of the disease of different types of scab are similar. External signs of the disease - peeling of the skin, spots, pustules, ulcers and warts on the surface of fruits, leaves, tubers, stems, shoots and flowers. With a strong defeat, the leaves dry up and fall off, the water balance of the plant is disturbed, which negatively affects the fruiting not only of the current, but also of the next year.Affected buds and flowers also fall, and the scab leaves them ugly. In addition, during storage, fruits are exposed to rot, the pathogens of which penetrate through cracks in the peel, resulting from the development of scab.
Scab damage occurs under certain conditions. For example:
- - at too high soil moisture. The presence of moisture is a prerequisite for the development of the disease. The activity of the fungus is manifested in the spring when the air temperature is 12 ºC under conditions of melting snow. In summertime, frequent dew, fogs and rains contribute to the development of scab,
- - when too dense landing. In gardens where trees of the same species are located close to each other, scab on plants spreads rather quickly, especially when grasses are tinned between rows, serving as a bridge for transferring spores from one tree to another,
- - with genetic monotony, that is, when trees of the same species grow next to each other. If a pear or plum tree grows near the apple tree, the scab that hit the apple tree may not harm the neighboring trees, but if there are several apple trees on the site in close proximity to each other, contamination of the neighboring trees with a scab is a matter of time,
- - at a susceptibility of a grade. It has been observed that some varieties and hybrids are more susceptible to scab than others. Thanks to the breeders, scab resistant varieties have been developed today.
How to get rid of scab? The most effective, rapid, and sometimes the only way to combat the disease is the treatment of plants with chemical preparations. Treating trees from scab with fungicides - Bordeaux liquid, on the other hand, Home, Fast, Fitosporin and many other preparations.
Scab treatment takes place in several stages, and it is very important to choose the right treatment time. And for this you need to know when the fungus ascospores begins and when it ends. The first treatment of scab is carried out in the green cone phase, the second - in the pink cone phase and the third, the most important treatment - after the petals fall. In the summer spraying of scab is carried out with an interval of 2-3 weeks. In years with high humidity will have to spend five or six treatments of trees from scab.
Scab disease - prevention.
Of great importance for combating the disease is protection against scab - in time carried out preventive measures. How to deal with scab using agrotechnical techniques? It is necessary to remove fallen leaves from under bushes and trees in time and dig up the soil in tree trunks. During the growing season, inspect the trees as often as possible so as not to miss the onset of the disease. Remove suspicious leaves and fruits immediately. Do not miss the annual thinning pruning of bushes and trees, as the scab develops much faster in thickened crowns. Conduct foliar fertilizing plants with fertilizers based on potassium carbonate, phosphorus and silicon, for example, Opty Sil and Solfan PK, and in the fall, after falling leaves, trees, bushes and the soil beneath them, treat with a 7% solution of urea, 10% solution of nitroammofoski or 10% solution of ammonium nitrate. The treatment is carried out at air temperature not lower than 4 ºC. This measure will allow your plants to get additional food, and at the same time and will destroy most of the pests and pathogenic microflora.
Scab apple trees.
Most often scab infects apple trees. At first the scab of leaves appears - on their upper side there are olive-colored spots covered with velvety spore of the fungus spores. The leaves begin to fall off. Then comes the turn of the fruit: brown spots appear with a lighter rim and a velvety patina, which gradually disappears, and underneath the cork fabric is found. These cork spots grow, crack and often merge with each other. Fruits acquire ugly forms, poorly stored.More often than other varieties are infected with scab Grushovka Moscow, Slavyanka, Borovinka, Antonovka, Papirovka, Bellefle-Chinese. Resistant to the disease are the varieties Pepin saffron, Jonathan, Kitayka anisova, Rodnichok, Soyuz, Fortuna, Juno, Dawn, Fairy, Red Amber, Golden Summer, Lyubava, Vasilisa, Orpheus, Margo, Nocturne, Talida, Yekaterinodar and others.
How to treat a scab on an apple tree? Combining agrotechnical measures and chemical treatment of plants. Affected shoots need to be cut, fallen leaves and fruits should be collected and burned, weed grass should be weeded out - tree trunks should be kept clean. In the fall, dig up the soil under the trees. In early spring, they carry out sanitary and thinning crowns.
Preventive treatment of apple scab is carried out before the start of sap flow with DNOC (100 g per 10 l of water) or with a solution of Nitrafen emulsion (200 g per 10 l of water). Curative treatment of apple trees for scab begins in the green cone phase with a one-percentage Bordeaux liquid, and in the rose bud phase, the tree is processed with the drug Scor, dissolving 2 ml of the product in 10 l of water. If you missed the moment and did not treat the apple tree with DNOC or Nitrafen for dormant buds, then in the green cone phase you can do a “blue” spraying - not with one percent, but with three to four percent Bordeaux liquid, and you can skip the treatment in the rose bud phase.
The following scab treatment of apple trees is carried out at an interval of 2-3 weeks, alternating the preparations of Cineb or Kaptan in the form of an emulsion (50 g per 10 l of water), colloidal sulfur in the form of a suspension (100 g per 10 l of water) and Chom (40 g per 10 l water). Stop processing no later than a month before harvest. In the years when scab hits trees on a massive scale, it is necessary to carry out another treatment of trees after harvest with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture or a half-percent solution of Zineb.
Scab on a pear.
Symptoms of scab on a pear are the same as on an apple tree, only spots on the leaves appear not from the upper side, but from the lower side, and except for leaves and fruits, like on an apple tree, scab on a pear also affects young shoots. The causative agent of scab overwinter on pear branches and on fallen leaves under a tree. The first signs of a scab on a pear can be detected 2-3 weeks after bud break. If the infection with a fungus occurred early, in spring or early summer, the spots on the fruits and leaves will be large, and with a later infection the spots are small. Late scab appears in those years when there is wet weather before harvesting - the spots in this case may be almost invisible, but they will appear during storage. This fruit is called "warehouse pear".
On scabbed shoots, the bark is covered with small bubbles, becomes rough and peels off. Most often affected by scab varieties of pears Forest Beauty, Bergamot Mlievsky, Sapezhanka, Bere Ligel winter. Bere Gardi, Bere Ardanpon, Bere Bosch, Mliyevskaya Autumn, Favorite Clapp, Vrodlyva, Vyzhnitsa, Etude, Trembita, Zolotovorotskaya, Stryiskya and others have relative resistance to the disease.
How to deal with scab on a pear? First of all, collect and burn the fallen fruits and leaves. In the spring, trim the crown of the tree, not allowing it to thicken and after burning after cutting all dry and scab-affected shoots. In the autumn, rake and burn the fallen fruits and foliage. To destroy scab pathogens wintering in bark and soil under trees, in late autumn and early spring, soil digging is carried out in the near-stem circle and the tree and the soil beneath it are treated with a one-percent solution of DNOC or a 3% Nitrafen solution. For one weave you need 20 liters of solution.
Spring processing from scab of scab-affected pear trees begins at the same time as the treatment of apple trees: in the green cone phase, “blue” spraying with a 3% Bordeaux liquid is carried out.In the pink bud phase, the treatment is carried out with the drug Scor (2 g per 10 l of water), after flowering the treatment with the Short is repeated. 10-14 days after the pear leaves become rough, and then three weeks later, the plant is treated against scab with one of such preparations as Skor, Khom, Tsineb, Kaptan, colloidal sulfur or another chemical of a similar effect.
Scab on apricot and peach.
Scab stone trees are not as frequent as the seed scab, but, nevertheless, they can cause significant damage. The risk of scab disease of scab in the conditions of high humidity against the background of moderate air temperature increases. As soon as the temperature rises to 30 ºC, the development of the disease slows down significantly. The first signs of scab on apricot and peach fruits appear as brownish-green spots with a fuzzy contour. With the development of the disease, the spots darken, increase, an velvet velvet is formed on them of olive or black color, their borders become clearer. With a strong defeat scab spots, merging, form a crust. The growth of the fruit slows down, cracks and sores appear on them, which are penetrated by fruit rot pathogens. Sick fruits often showered.
The shoots struck with scab are lagging behind; leaves on them from the bottom side become covered with brown or pale green blurred spots.
The most sensitive to scab are varieties of apricots Red-cheeked, Shalah and the whole "pineapple" group.
For the prophylactic treatment of apricot in dormant buds, three-four-bordeaux liquid or any other copper-containing drug is used. In the first decade of June, apricot is processed directly from the scab with Chorus, Skor or Kaptan preparations in accordance with the instructions. After two weeks, the treatment is repeated. Further spraying of apricot will not bring the result, except that after the leaf fall you will treat the tree with one-percent Bordeaux mixture. The best drugs for apricot scab - copper-containing fungicides.
And do not forget to hold all agrotechnical measures for the care of the tree.
Scab on plum.
The scab affects the plum under the same conditions and manifests the same symptoms as in the case of other stone-seed cultures. Therefore, the treatment is carried out on the same principle as the treatment of apricot: a “blue” spraying is carried out on the sleeping buds, and in the first decade of June the plant is treated with Skor or Horus. After two weeks, the treatment is repeated. The following spraying is carried out after leaf fall with one percent Bordeaux mixture.
Scab on cherry
Cherries, like other stone fruit types of fruit trees, are not so often affected by scab, however, if this happens, the plant is not as badly damaged by a scab as penetrating into cracks in the fruit produced by the development of the disease, pathogens of various rot. That is why measures to combat scab on cherries should be carried out from early spring in the same manner and using the same methods as we described in the section on scab on apricots.
Scab on fruit trees.
The scab often infects not only pome fruits and stone fruits, but also citrus fruits, but in our latitudes neither lemons, nor oranges, nor mandarins grow in gardens, but how to save homemade citrus from scab, we will tell in another article. With regard to crops such as peach, cherry plum, and quince, then they can be saved from scab in the same time frame and by the same methods as apples, pears and apricots. By the way, and preventive measures to improve the health of your garden for all fruit trees are the same.
Scab on gooseberry.
Powdery mildew is often called scab on gooseberries, although these are two different diseases, so before taking action, compare the symptoms of these two diseases and make sure that gooseberry is really a scab. How to treat gooseberries for scab? In order to minimize the risk of gooseberry disease with scab, in the form of prophylaxis in early spring, treat the still dormant buds with a 7% urea solution, trying to moisten the leaves, branches and soil under the bushes with the preparation. In the autumn, after leaf fall, remove fallen leaves from under the bushes, dig the tree trunk and carry out the same treatment with urea. As a treatment for scab-afflicted gooseberry bushes, the swollen buds are treated with a two or three percent Bordeaux mixture or a mixture of the Aktar preparation with the Chorus preparation. After a month, the treatment with Horus and Aktaroy is repeated.
The currant is not affected by the scab to the same extent as the gooseberry, but in order not to risk the harvest, measures to combat the disease must be taken already in early spring. Since currant and gooseberry crops are related, the scab on currants is destroyed in the same way as the gooseberry scab, you just need to make sure that you are dealing with scab, not powdery mildew.
Potato scab most often affects the surface of tubers, causing the appearance, seeds and taste of potatoes to deteriorate and their ability to be stored for a long time. With a strong defeat, the potato becomes unsuitable for eating. In areas infected with scab, you can not grow potatoes for at least 4-5 years.
Potatoes affect these types of scab: common, lumpy (oosporosis), black (rizoktonioz), silver and powdery. The common scab is manifested by small and shallow ulcers of irregular shape on the surface of the tubers. With the development of the disease, the spots grow, and sometimes merge, and become covered with cork formations. When digging up potatoes on tubers, you can see spider webbing, which disappears as soon as they dry out.
Powdery scab occurs when the pathogen is infected by tubers, roots and stolons through the eyes and wound areas. On the roots, galls form in the form of white outgrowths of irregular shape, darkening with time, and the surface of the tubers becomes covered with warty pustules, which, when ripe, turn into potatoes with a dusty mass of brown color. During storage, diseased tubers are often affected by late blight and dry rot.
Silver scab can be recognized on tubers during harvesting or already in storage. It looks like unobtrusive matte light brown spots of various shapes and sizes. The development of the disease occurs closer to spring: the affected tissue becomes as if depressed and acquires a metallic luster. In case of severe damage, the skin is wrinkled due to loss of tuber.
Lumpy scab, or oosporosis affects the potatoes in the field, during the growth of tubers, but the symptoms of the disease can only be detected during storage. On the surface of tubers are formed round pustules, not differing in color from the peel. They may be depressed, bulged or flat. Pustules grow and form areas resembling the defeat of late blight, but only without rot under the peel.
Black scab, or rhizoctoniosis - the most dangerous of all types of potato scab, causing a decrease in yield by 20%. It destroys the tubers, twists the apical leaves, molds the root parts of the plant with mold and causes decay and subsequent death of the shoots.
To avoid contamination of potatoes with scab, you should use only high-quality and healthy planting material, which should be treated with Phyto Plus, Rovral or Aquaflo before planting. If you add boron, manganese and copper to the soil, this will greatly reduce the risk of potato scab. Crop rotation is an important preventive measure: alternate the cultivation of potatoes in the area with the cultivation of legumes, and if you do not have the opportunity to change the area for potatoes, then at least do not use fresh manure as a fertilizer.
The soil with a shift to the alkaline side must be acidified with a solution of 2 tablespoons of ammonium sulphate in 10 liters of water - this part is watered the plot with potatoes during flowering, spending on each bush a liter of solution. Two weeks before harvesting potatoes, mow the tops - this will allow the tuber skin to become stronger.
In order to increase yields and suppress the development of scab, during the budding period, process the potatoes with Zircon solution. After two or three weeks, spray the potatoes with a solution of one packet of Phyto Plus drug in 3 liters of water - this will reduce the degree of tuber infestation with scab.
And, of course, it is better to grow varieties resistant to the disease: Aspia, Skoroplodny, Alpha, Lady Rosetta, Mentor, Nicolas, Prevalent, Patrons, Element, Glade, Yavir, Vesta, Dara, Rakurs, Tiras, Riviera, Favorite, Reserve, Spring, Herald, Varmas, Ramensky, Vilnya, Vyatka, Zhukovsky Early, Bezhitsky, Bryansk New and many others.
For the treatment of plants from scab, fungicides that belong to the third or fourth class of danger are used, since they do not form persistent compounds that penetrate through the skin and accumulate in the fruit. Which one to choose depends on many factors, so everyone decides for himself this question on his own. We remind you that in the fight with scab they use drugs Horus, Scor, Raek, Strobe, Abiga-Peak, Fitoflavin, Bordeaux mixture and copper sulphate.
Disease trees - a terrible dream of every gardener. They are able to cause great damage to the crop or completely destroy it. In this case, all the efforts of a person are reduced to zero.
To protect against such diseases, and help your plantings in time, you need to know the symptoms of the disease and its weak points.
What is scab?
Scab- common fungal infection of pears and apples.
However, besides them, it easily affects other fruit trees.
It is so common that there are practically no areas where this disease is absent.
It is caused by the fungus Venturia pirina Aderh, which specifically affects the pear.
The apple tree also suffers from this disease, but the causative agent is another fungus.
Interestingly, the scab of a pear cannot be transmitted to an apple tree, and vice versa.
The danger is that it can completely destroy the crop.
For the early diagnosis of plant diseases, it is important to know their symptoms. The disease on a pear has clear, isolated from other diseases, manifestations, not only on the leaves of the tree, but also on the pears themselves. It can be determined with high probability correctly.
How to get rid of the disease?
Combating any plant disease requires comprehensive measures. It is important to combine all methods of struggle, otherwise the disease will continue to spread.
So how to get rid of scab on a pear?
Among the most effective ways:
The combination of prevention and control measures gives good results. A disease is always easier to prevent than to cure. It is important, before planting trees or detecting the first symptoms of the disease, to remember about its threat.
When to do processing?
Special attention to the gardener should be paid to the processing schedule of trees. Spraying is carried out several times a year, depending on the weather and the degree of infection of the plants.
The most severe development of the disease requires about 5 procedures per year:
It is important to remember that the alternation of drugs of different directions gives a good result in the fight against the disease. It is inefficient to use the same throughout the entire treatment period.
Prevention should be carried out long before planting trees. The probability of the disease depends on the choice of the place of the future planting.
Among the main preventive measures:
- careful selection of the location for the future garden,
- observance of planting density. The thicker the trees are planted, the more likely the spread of the disease,
- collection of fallen leaves.The disease is experiencing winter in the fallen leaves, so they must be destroyed,
- spraying pear trees with Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride,
- proper full fertilization of the soil.
Already in the autumn, after the harvest, you need to start fighting. The first spraying for prophylaxis is carried out immediately after the final harvest.
The weather should ideally be windless, dry. If it has rained after spraying, it is worth repeating it by choosing a sunny day.
Thus, pear scab is a disease that covers vast areas. It is dangerous for all gardeners, because able to completely destroy the crop.
The disease will recede only if to influence it with therapeutic and prophylactic measures. At observance of all rules of processing of trees, constant care for them, any disease will disappear, and the pear harvest will be rich.
Watch the video where you see a pear infected with a scab and immune to it.
Scab of fruit trees is a colony of microscopic fungi - conidia, they multiply by spores. The greatest damage occurs in years with high rainfall. During the flowering of the garden colonies of fungi are found on the kidneys, ovaries, flowers. Scab most severely affects plants in thickened plantings, as well as old trees. With a strong spread of this disease, you can completely lose the crop.
Tree scab damage occurs at a young age and causes the greatest harm. During this period, small swellings appear on the cortex, which then burst, allowing the fungus spores to scatter unhindered. And the damaged branches dry up, the whole tree can die. On the fruits appear small patches of velvety plaque of olive color, then they increase in size, the tissue of the fruit or the leaves under the spots dies. Strongly affected fruits are showered.
If the garden is badly damaged by a scab, the trees should be sprayed immediately after flowering with “Skor”, “Horus”, and “Ditan”.
Agrotechnics fruit cultivation
There are developed rules for planting fruit plants. If you strictly adhere to them, you can reduce the likelihood of scab in the garden. To do this, you must carefully choose a place for garden planting, carry out, if necessary, reclamation measures (to divert excess water), before planting fruit trees, cultivate the soil and fertilize it.
The most important thing in this list is the requirement to use plantings of plants resistant to this disease and healthy intact seedlings for planting. It is necessary to remove fallen leaves and dig up the top layer of soil, as well as thin out the crowns of adult plants for better ventilation and light.
Relatively resistant to scab varieties of apple trees are varieties "Jonathan", "Pepin saffron", "Antonovka", "Topaz" and others.
Use of chemicals
To get a good harvest of apples, you need to take care of this in advance. In the autumn, after harvesting and before the leaves fall, process the trees and the soil beneath them with a solution of urea (carbamide). Dosage - 10 liters of water 600 grams of urea. Spraying repeat the following year, in early June.
In conditions of high humidity during the budding period, fruit trees can be sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. The second time in the phase of flower bud formation is sprayed with 1% copper oxychloride solution or with Kuprosil and Rubigan preparations.
Using a combination of agrotechnical and chemical methods of dealing with scab, one can be sure that the harvest will be saved.
Scab . Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint. . in our gardens is the danger number one. Microscopic fungus affects not only petioles, leaves (covered with green-brown bloom, dark spots, they fall off earlier) and flowers (do not form ovaries). In pears, shoots and branches are often affected (their thickening with peeling and cracking of the bark is clearly visible).Some shoots die off. Fruits of apple and pear scab from black, crack, become corky and deformed.
It's time to spray apple trees and pears from scab
True story of one pear
We grow apples and pears on the plot. The story of one of the pears is very interesting. The tree did not want to bear fruit for a long time. For many years on a huge pear there were neither flowers nor fruits. I had to scare her. This old technique, which gardeners from different countries successfully use, has been very productive. In the fall, we lucidly explained to the tree that if it does not produce a pear next year, then we will cut it down for firewood. For confirmation, they showed an ax and a saw. When spring came, the tree first blossomed. All branches were covered with flowers, and by the end of the summer and fruits. But the sly pear beat us: almost all the fruits were affected by scab. Prior to this outbreak of the disease in the garden was not observed. It was foolish to be offended: we got what we demanded. Unfortunately, they forgot only to add that the fruits should be tasty and without any flaws.
Mass appearance of scab
Outbreaks of scab are more common after a cold and long spring. The chances of trees getting sick also increase during warm rainy spring and summer weather. The first affected young leaves. The most dangerous is the first month of their life. It is during this period that the light green translucent "oily" spots that are visible on the emerging leaves should be alerted. Most often they are concentrated near the veins. After some time, the spots crawl and become covered with a greyish-brownish down. Due to the strong bloom, the leaf turns black and dries out. The defeat of the scab of the sepals, petioles and stalks leads to abscission of the ovaries and foliage. Immature scab affected fruit are usually not kept on the tree. Larger and mature fruits can stay on the branches for a long time, but they quickly lose their qualities. They become ugly and barely stored.
The marsupial fungus, the causative agent of scab, overwinter on fallen leaves. In the spring, black bumps are visible, which are bags with spores. Fruit bodies are formed on them. The mycelium is preserved in the cortex of affected shoots. In the autumn, be sure to remove all the blackened fruit from the branches of the tree. Spring - the time of the beginning of the maturation of the dispute, which lasts up to two months. It all depends on the weather in a particular year. In wet weather, especially after rain, the fruit body throws spores that fall on the leaves, shoots, fruits. Moisture promotes their germination. Especially at air temperature plus 18 - 25 ° С. In the summertime, several generations of fungus, the causative agent of scab, appear.
Preventive measures such as the collection and destruction of fall foliage in the fall, spring digging of the soil under the trees, the treatment of all wounds, fertilizing with phosphate-potassium fertilizers, etc., reduce the risk of scab on trees. Leaves infected with scab can be buried in the ground to a depth of at least 10 cm. Or spray them with 10% ammonium nitrate or 7% potassium chloride. When spraying try not to soak the trunk and branches of the tree. Fallen leaves can be used to obtain compost, if from all sides to cover them with earth, compost or peat.
Old (age) trees are much more vulnerable than young ones. Many of the wonderful old varieties of fruit trees suffer more from scab than modern varieties.
Some varieties are considered initially resistant to this scourge. In former times, preventive measures were the only crop salvation. Trees did not grow too close together. Information about the gardens surprise us with their "standards": for apple trees - a distance of 8 meters from each other. For Antonovka and other varieties with a spreading crown required a distance of 10 meters! For a pear - 7 meters.Such thinned plantings did not contribute to the spread of scab and were often the only way to avoid it.
A hotbed of infection on the pear, left over from last year
Resistant apple varieties
There are no varieties that are 100% resistant to scab. There are only more resistant varieties that are considered practically sustainable. Disagreements often arise over individual zoned varieties.
Aelita, Bessemyanka Michurinskaya, Bogatyr, Buninskoe, Asterisk (regular pruning required), Winter Saffron, Cinnamon New, Kulikovo, Lomonosov, Lyubava (Swan Song), Malinka (not affected by diseases), Medunitsa, Moscow winter, Popular (excellent grade), Noris, Ostankino (columnar type of crown), Pavusha, Memory of Michurin, Pepin Orlovsky (Reliable), Pepin Saffron, Gift to gardeners, Rennet Chernenko, Sinap Orlovsky, Sovkhoznoye, Spartan (Canadian), Student, Wellsi (high resistance, immune to parshee , Flashlight, Anniversary of Moscow s (immunity to scab), Apple Spas and some others.
Medium resistant varieties:
Augusta, Anis striped (Anis gray), Antonovka Ordinary, Aport, Babushkino (separate types and varieties with his participation), Velvet, Veteran (during wet years), Zhigulevskoe (above average stability), Winter MOSVIR, Winter striped, Ray (intensive type, promising for the southern regions), Orlik (skoroplodny, high yield), Autumn striped, Papirovka (White filling, Baltic, Alabaster), Pepin saffron, Rossoshanskoye delicious (Amazing), Northern synapse, Slavyanka, Terentyevka (variety of national selection), Titovka (Titovka painted I), and others. Interestingly, the resistance of Antonovka vulgaris to scab in certain growing regions may be higher or lower.
Antonovka white and polutorafuntovaya, Babushkino (depends on the type), Bellefle-Kitayka, Borovinka, Grushovka Moskovskaya (Skorospelka), Golden Autumn, Calvil Snow (conflicting reviews about the degree of scab damage), Quinti, Lobo (leaves and fruits, especially in wet years ), Mekintosh (and Mekintosh red), Pepin saffron, Reinette bergamotny, Reinette Simirenko, Rossoshanskoe striped (productive, but strongly impressed), Skryzhappel (found in old gardens, excluded from the State Register), Amber and some others.
When a scab appears on an apple tree, how to deal with this disease, you need to understand as soon as possible. This will get rid of the infection forever. It is only at the early stages of the development of this fungal disease that fruit damage can be avoided.
The first signs of the disease appear in late spring or early summer, if the weather is favorable for these microorganisms. In no case it is impossible to postpone treatment, since the treatment at this time with modern means allows to avoid the spread of infection. Considering that during this period a flowering of a plant can occur, it is best to use biologically active drugs to treat this fungal disease.
A good effect can be achieved if the scrub apple trees are treated in a timely manner. Phytosporin . This drug is remarkable in that it can be used at any stage of the growing season, even if only a few days are left before harvesting. This product contains special bacteria that feed on fungi. However, Fitosporin can be used only in cloudy weather or after sunset. This is due to the fact that the bacteria contained in this tool are extremely sensitive to direct sunlight.
Temperature does not affect the effectiveness of the drug. This tool can also be used for pear scab. It is better to carry out simultaneous processing of this drug and growth accelerator. Zircon . This will greatly enhance the effect. Just before use, add a small amount of liquid soap to the solution.In this case, the tool will act more efficiently and stay longer on the leaves. It is advisable to spend several treatments with an interval of 3-5 days.
If manifestations of this fungal disease are expressed intensely, scab control on apples and pears should be carried out by fungicides. Copper-based products are commonly used. The most commonly used drugs for treating scab on apples are:
Copper-containing products should be used very carefully, as they can cause burns on the leaves. The Bordeaux liquid is considered the safest. It can process apples all summer except for the last 15 days before harvesting. A solution of copper sulfate is recommended to use only in early spring before bud break. The drug HOM is also safe for plants, as it does not have a phototoxic effect. However, it is not recommended to use during flowering. Its use can be detrimental to bees.
Folk remedies to eliminate scab on apple trees
Many gardeners do not trust various chemicals, fearing that harmful substances will accumulate in ripening fruits. In this case, you can get by using safe folk remedies. In the fight against scab, they are effective. To eliminate this fungal disease, you can apply mustard powder . Independently prepare such a tool is easy. Approximately 4 tbsp. l dry mustard powder should be dissolved in a small amount of warm water. Next, the resulting composition must be mixed with 10 liters of liquid. Processing is best done after the rain. This will get the maximum effect from this procedure. The first spraying of apple trees with mustard solution is best done at the end of May, when activation of the pathogenic fungus is observed. Repeat treatment with this tool should be performed in a month.
Coping with scab on apples helps potassium permanganate . The first treatment solution can be carried out even before the foliage blooms. In the summer it should be made less strong to avoid burns. Spots in which foliage is painted when using this agent do not cause any harm to the plant. Treatment of scab in the summer with potassium permanganate can be carried out at intervals of 3 weeks. It is necessary to process infected tree at least 3 times.
When the leaves on the apple tree just begin to blossom, you can use infusion of horsetail . This medicinal plant contains substances that contribute to the suppression of the growth of fungi. To prepare an effective drug, about 1/3 of the bucket should be filled with horsetail and pour 10 liters of boiling water. The tool must be insisted for at least 3 days, after which they are treated all shoots.
Technical methods of dealing with scab on apple trees
Young leaves and shoots are primarily susceptible to this fungal disease. Considering the question of how to get rid of scab on an apple tree, you need to take this fact into account. In addition, the condensation of shoots contributes significantly to the spread of spores. Thus, some technical methods can be used. They will reduce the rate of spread of this fungal infection. Around the beginning of July, tops begin to form on the apple tree. They become the cause of the thickening of the crown.
It is best to just open the spinners immediately break open. They are completely useless for the further formation of the crown and at the same time contribute to an increase in green mass. They will not form an ovary. It is best to break the pups with your hands in the places of their attachment to the skeletal branch. This procedure is completely safe for the apple, as the remaining wounds are small and dry quickly. However, if desired, you can use garden pitch to process them. Proper removal of the tops allows the crown to thin out, so that the foliage will dry out faster after the rain.This will reduce the spread rate of the fungus.
Fighting apple scab in the fall
Many gardeners prefer to leave leaf cover on the ground for the whole winter. This not only promotes the release of nutrients into the soil, but also can protect the roots from freezing in the event that there is little snow. However, this is often the reason for the spread of scab. Pathogenic fungus overwinters on infected fallen leaves and fruits. To reduce the risk of spreading infection next year, it is better to carefully collect all plant residues and burn them. It is desirable to dig up the earth under a tree.
If this is unacceptable, for example, if there was too little snow for several winters in a row, it is quite possible to solve this problem differently. Some fertilizers can disinfect the leaf cover remaining on the ground. When the question arises how to deal with scab on apples, it is necessary to treat the entire area under the tree with a 10% solution of ammonium nitrate or urea. These tools can be used for spraying the trunks and branches of apple trees. Trees it does not hurt, but will reduce the risk of spreading the fungus in the next year.
In addition, in the fall it is imperative to cut unwanted branches. This helps to avoid crowded condensation. Healthy trees are rarely affected by scab, so you can use special preparations to strengthen the immunity of apple trees. Such means include Zircon, Appin and potassium HUMATE.
The main signs of infection of pear
Having noticed spots on the lower part of pear leaves, you should take a closer look at them.
- At first they are whitish, then they begin to darken and become covered with an olive coating.
- The color of the spots gradually acquires a brown tint.
Photos of pears affected by scab are presented below.
Fungal infection does not linger only on foliage . Actively spreading along the shoots, the scab reaches the flowers and pear ovaries. At this point, we can assume that the harvest is already lost. Pears with scab have a non-marketable appearance, and their taste varies considerably. Spots on the skin not only spoil the appearance, but also lead to the stiffening of the pulp under them.
Scab can also infect pear fruit, then the crop will definitely not be.
Even if the spots on the harvested pears are few and harmless, after harvesting and storing it turns out that the spots begin to grow and cover the whole peel of the fruit. Storage of such pears is inexpedient, the harvest can be considered missing.
The defeat of pears by a fungus leads to the appearance of cracks in the fruit. Pears do not have a protective wax coating, so the cracks are significant, and the fruits are small.
Scab life cycle
Fungal disease develops in two stages - marsupial and conidial.
To the occurrence of scab on pears involved a fungus of the genus Venturia pirina aderh . Its life cycle is quite simple and goes through 2 stages:
The leaves in the garden are not collected in the fall - a great environment for wintering the fungus in the form of pseudo-events.
- With the first rays of the spring sun occurs spore aging and dispersion . Humidity contributes to the transition of the dispute appeared gentle foliage. The fungus begins to germinate inside the leaves and there is a noticeable spotting.
- Asexual motionless disputes appear with the arrival of the first summer days.
- Rainwater contributes to the spread of spores on the lower leaves, ovaries and shoots are affected.
- With the arrival of autumn on the fallen leaves appear pseudo-movements.
- The life cycle is repeated in the above scenario.. Human intervention can break this vicious circle and rid the tree of the disease.
Prevalence of scab
The condition for the development of the fungus is the increased humidity of the region.
The fungal infection is contagious and can affect other plants in your garden.
With scab in Russia are found almost everywhere.The exceptions are the following regions: North Caucasus, Stavropol, Krasnodar Territory. Dry summer prevents the spread of scab. Fungal diseases are also rarely found in the Astrakhan region.
With damp spring and heavy rains (from May to July) the risk of dispersion of fungal spores increases.
When choosing a seedling, it is necessary to take into account not only the resistance to diseases, but also the recommended growing conditions, otherwise you can not wait for the harvest.
The most effective method of dealing with scab will be the use of broad-spectrum chemicals.
- The broad-spectrum fungicides include Poliram D F, produced in granules. The drug is not toxic to trees, as well as bees and bumblebees.
- Another granular complex composition Tridex It is widely used to combat scab on fruit trees. The drug is harmless to bees. Components (manganese, zinc) in the processing of trees provide them with additional feeding.
- To combat scab there are special tools. One of them - Merpan . Use in a complex with other system structures is possible. The drug does not cause resistance in the fungus.
- Chorus refers to a wide range of active agents. Processing is allowed even on cold and wet days when the air temperature is about 10 ° C. The drug does not adversely affect the plant and is safe for insects that make pollination.
It is recommended to carry out treatment alternately with various drugs. Therefore, you should purchase several types of fungicides. Before harvesting (approximately 3 weeks), chemical treatment is stopped.
Ordinary dry mustard - the most affordable means to fight scab on a pear.
Many gardeners essentially do not use chemicals to process the garden. Indeed, excessive accumulation of chemistry adversely affects human health. And from your own site you want to collect everything fresh and natural.
There are several effective folk remedies that are successfully used in the fight against scab:
- Dry mustard powder . It will take 10 liters of warm water and 80 g of dry raw materials. Mustard is diluted in water and the tree is sprayed with the resulting solution. It is recommended to make several treatments: in the spring when the buds are blooming, during budding, after the flowers fall, during the ripening of the fruit (the pear pouring phase).
- Medicinal plant - field horsetail will help to cope not only with human diseases. It is also used to treat the garden for fungal diseases. Freshly harvested grass is put in a bucket and poured with water (horsetail volume - 1/3 of the bucket). Insist 72 hours. Processing is done in the spring, after the appearance of foliage.
- Saline solution use even before the appearance of buds on the trees (in early spring). For 10 liters of water use 1 kg of salt.
- Manganese solution (per 10 liters of water - 5 g of potassium permanganate) process pears several times per season. The first time - during the blooming of the foliage, the second - after the fall of color, then the scab is treated in summer - during the ripening of the crop. For prevention, it is recommended that in spring, even before the kidneys awaken, the ground should be treated with the same composition in the near-trunk circle.
Spraying in the summer is done in dry weather in the morning or evening.
You can make a treatment plan for infected pears, so that the fight against fungus is effective. It is recommended to act as follows:
- Emerging leaves and shoots with scab pruned and burned away from the garden.
- Prepare a solution of any of the above chemical preparation and process the wood.
- After 2 weeks, re-treatment is carried out (you can use natural remedies).
- After 10 days, carry out complex treatment with several drugs.
- After the fall of the foliage (autumn), it is imperative to collect it and burn it so that the spores of the fungus cannot overwinter.
As an effective preventive measure, it is recommended to process the garden in early spring before bud break.
Timely preventive measures will help get rid of the extra hassle and costs associated with the treatment of fruit trees.
Prevention is carried out even when the trees look healthy and bear fruit well.
The probability of being infected with a fungus is very high. Indeed, in the area a lot of trees, for which they do not care. Wild plantations contribute to the transmission of disease.
Disease of apple seedlings, which can be detected when examining the root system. The main signs - the appearance of growths on the root neck and processes. Soft formations gradually harden and begin to rot. At this time, many pathogenic bacteria enter the soil, which inhibit the development of fruit trees.
Bacterial root cancer is one of the most difficult to treat apple diseases. You can only improve them at an early stage. To do this, the soil around the trunk is disinfected with formalin (100 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water). The procedure is carried out in the autumn, using 20 l of solution per 1 m 2.
The main danger of viral diseases of the apple is that the pathogen can not be completely destroyed. As a rule, affected trees uproot and replace with new ones. Mosaic virus appears on the foliage of an apple tree. On the surface there are characteristic spots of pale color.
Spread the disease eating insects infected with juice. The virus enters the site with sick seedlings or at the time of vaccination. Growth of infected trees slows sharply, leaves fall ahead of time. The varieties most vulnerable to mosaics are White Filling, Autumnal Striped and Golden Ranet.
Apple tree processing schedule
Disease prevention is carried out in several stages per season. The processing time of apple trees is determined not by the calendar, but by the growing season of the fruit:
- before the appearance of flower buds (destruction of overwintering spores, larvae of pests and bacteria with chemical preparations),
- after the fall of flowers (prevention of rot, the treatment of insects with biological preparations),
- during fruit ripening (foliar dressing to improve immunity),
- after leaf fall (destruction of fungal diseases, pests using fungicides and insecticides).
Apple trees, which receive proper care, have high immunity. For the prevention of viral, fungal and bacterial diseases, it is desirable to plant resistant varieties at the site, remove and burn diseased branches and shoots, fight harmful insects.
The causative agent - the fungus Fusicladium pirinum - affects many garden and garden crops. This is the most common disease of the fruit of pear, but often leaves of the tree also suffer.
At the initial stage of the disease, spots of olive and yellowish colors with a velvety patina appear on the underside of the leaf plate (this is an accumulation of fungal spores). After that, the disease passes to the fruits: they are covered with dark putrid spots, and in these places the peel cracks. Fruits deform and become tasteless.
Control and prevention measures
For the prevention of scab, trees are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid 3 times per season: in the spring when the leaves are blooming, in buds and after flowering. In addition, the crown of trees is punctured in a timely manner so that the plants are well ventilated. The gooseberries are cleaned regularly, and the fallen leaves are burned. If the trees are heavily infected, they are sprayed with the fungicide Scor (according to the instructions).
Such varieties of pears as Muratovskaya, Rusanovskaya, Yanvarskaya are relatively resistant to scab.
The rust pathogen is a pathogenic fungus Gymnosporangium sabinae.This leaf leaf disease is characterized by yellow, orange and rusty-brown bulging spots that most often appear in the second half of April - early May. Damaged leaves lose their ability to photosynthesis. With a strong infection, rust passes on to the fruits of the plant.
What is dangerous and where does it come from
Scab - A common fungal disease, often found in trees of temperate climate. The causative agent of the disease is the marsupial mushroom Venturia pirina. The danger is that the flowers of the plant with this disease can not form the ovary and fall.
If you miss this signal and do not treat the pear, the scab moves to the leaves of the tree and they also crumble. All this negatively affects the quality of the future harvest, because the fruit buds are laid incorrectly. If the plants that bear fruit are infected with the scab, then dark stains with bloom appear on the fruits, spoiling the taste of the fruit.
Signs of defeat
Signs of the disease can be seen on all aboveground parts of pear - shoots, fruits, flowers and leaves.
When the disease is just beginning to develop, small round spots appear on the leaves, which eventually darken and fall on other parts of the plant. The photo below shows what the disease looks like.
With the further development of scab, the plant is covered with large brown spots, and the surface of the fruit is cracked. As a result, fruits grow small and with deep cracks.
How to deal with the "scourge"
Any disease in trees requires complex measures, and scab is no exception. In order to once and for all get rid of this disease should:
- spray the plant with blue vitriol in combination with lime. To hold such an event should be several times a year. Also, good results are obtained by alternately spraying Bordeaux liquid (you can also use copper oxychloride or colloidal sulfur) and copper sulfate,
- regularly get rid of the affected parts of the tree (especially if it is young shoots),
- destroy spoiled fruit.
It is not enough to know what to treat pears from scab, because there is also a certain tree processing schedule. In severe cases, the tree requires 5 treatments per year:
- When the kidneys are just forming and swelling. Copper sulphate treatment is recommended.
- When buds begin to form. Well-suited fungicide "Skor".
- When the plant ceases to bloom. Again, the fungicide "Skor" is ideal.
- Half a month after the last treatment.
- This spraying is carried out on winter pear varieties at the beginning of autumn or at the end of summer.
Important!Remember that it is necessary to alternate drugs, because unidirectional spraying is ineffective.
Diseases of pears and their treatment - bacterial burn, scab, gall mite, blackening of leaves, control measures, photo, video
A fruit garden requires all-season worries, and it is better if it is prevention than the treatment of diseases and the destruction of pests. Especially annoying gardener pear and apple.
Summer 6 acres are breeding grounds for many diseases. It is necessary to graft leaves on a tree from the neighbors, after a week all gardening is discussing the attack.
Only a common fight against diseases and pests will preserve the harvest of sweet, expiring juice, pears.
The problems that arise when growing pears
What ailments lie in wait for the pear orchard and how to deal with them:
- weather cataclysms weakening the tree
- fungal diseases of the crown and fruit,
- bacterial and fungal diseases of the trunks and root system,
- viral diseases
- insect pests.
Rarely, when the disease comes to a pear one. On the weakened tree of misfortune pour in the complex. Agrotechnical measures for the care of the garden can eliminate many of the causes of disease.
Why is it necessary to remove plant residues in autumn and spring? To overwintering in the leaves of disease and pests have been destroyed.Why whiten tree trunks? To protect the bark from sunburn.
The cracks are cleaned and covered with garden pitch so that the spores of the fungi do not penetrate into the wood, and insects do not multiply there. Timely feeding, spraying fungicides - and the disease does not threaten pear.
The garden will be fragrant with flowers, show off healthy foliage, bestow honey fruits.
Symptoms and treatment of the most common diseases of pear
An unpleasant surprise is the appearance of scab in the garden. It affects many fruit trees, but each plant has its own mushroom - Fusicladium pirinum develops on a pear, striking the entire green growth. If leaf diseases are noticed on the pear, as in the photo, treatment is started immediately. Following the leaves, the fruit becomes covered with unpleasant scabs, cracks and rot.
The treatment consists in the immediate removal of the affected shoots. All wood is treated three times with 1% solution of copper fungicide. In the period of budding, after flowering, and again after 2 weeks.
If the garden is heavily infected with a scab, the control measures include the treatment of the tree trunk.
In the autumn, after harvesting and harvesting plant residues, the ground around the fruit tree should be wetted with ammonium nitrate at a 10% strength. Do not splash onto the barrel!
Another terrible disease of the gardens is brought from infected trees by insects, wind. Mushroom Erwinia amylovora just waiting for the spores to fall on the legs of insects. The signs are black or brown leaves in the crown.
This is a pear blister, the treatment of which should be started immediately. The fungus is embedded in the depths, passes the cambium and can destroy the tree. Therefore, you first need to cut out all lesions to healthy tissue. Do not forget to disinfect the knife after each cut.
If most of the branches are affected, it is better to uproot the tree in order to save its neighbors from infection.
What should I do if the pear leaves turn black under the bloom of a black fungus? First, the fungus is infused on sheets affected by aphids, on its sweet discharge. But the pear itself is attractive to the fungus. It is not introduced only in the cathedral variety.
Very soon, the lesion area captures the entire crown, depriving the tree of photosynthesis. It is necessary to dilute the soap solution of 0.5% copper sulfate or oxychloride. On the bucket of the solution you need to nastrogat and bring to a uniform state 150 g of soap.
Every time when the pears turn black leaves and fruits due to illness, you need to find the cause of the disease and fight it.
Not less damage to the garden causes rust, which is not confused with other lesions. Orange spots affect not only the leaves, but also the fruits.
The fungus infects the plant at the beginning of summer, and by autumn spores in the papillae ripen on the back of the leaves. The tree is losing vitality.
The fight against the scourge is to remove the affected parts, processing fungicides, ash extract, urea. A mushroom is born on coniferous trees, and then moves to an orchard.
Trees can cause cytosporosis of pear as much harm to trees. Cytosporosis is caused by the causative agent of Cytospora leucostoma, a fungal disease. But the pathogen is embedded in the damaged bark of the tree. The primary cause may be sunburn or freezing. In this case, the bark dries, exfoliates, acquires a red-brown color.
Powdery mildew at first forms a bloom, leaves are as if sprinkled with flour. Then the leaves turn red, fold along the middle strip and dry out.
Follow the need for young plants, while they have a delicate leaf plate. Exterminate the fungus by treatment with penicillin and tetracycline antibiotics.
It helps well spraying fresh, “from under the tail” with mullein, and a solution of soda ash with liquid soap.
Diseases of pears, described with photos, and their treatment are varied, but they all lead to death or a significant decrease in yield, tasteless fruit.
The appearance of abundant dew is a time when you should be especially vigilant.In the thickened crown of trees, where moisture is stored for a long time, the fungus’s mycelium feels comfortable. In order not to understand why the pear leaves turn black, how to heal, how to heal, you need to keep the garden right.
But pear wood, its bark, roots are the abode of diseases of another group.
Root cancer, a bacterial disease spread by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Appears on the site with infected planting material. In the land is saved for several years. Detect the germs of the disease can be a careful inspection of the root system of planting material. It is necessary to remove doubtful places before planting, to sanitize the roots in the copper sulphate.
Pear can become infected with black cancer when the trunk begins to crack and overgrow with bright brown secretions. There are many reasons for cracking bark, even too deep landing. But each crack is a gateway for infectious and fungal diseases. And the struggle for the life of a tree knows no rest.
Quite a few hunters eat pear leaves and fruits in the world of insects and arthropods. The gardener is forced to carry out preventive processing of pears during the period of mass invasion of pests But quietly, gradually, imperceptibly, arthropods, ticks, are implanted in the green cover. For pears, the pear, or gall mite is considered the most terrible pest.
A tiny creature up to 1 mm in size, with 4 legs, gets into the garden with the wind, or on clothes and shoes, create colonies. A gardener can populate a pest by planting plants inhabited by a tick.
If there is bloating on the leaf, then these mite colonies have begun their reproduction. Drops are called galls, they are obtained by changing the leaf cells under the action of poison. The pest sucks the juice out of the leaf cells, dies off the tissue, the leaf turns black and is discarded.
Measures to combat gall mite on a pear are:
- systematically harvesting fallen leaves with colonies of arachnids,
- planting varieties resistant to colonization of the pest,
- digging pristvolnyh circles in the fall.
Chemical treatment against gall mites is the use of sulfur and phosphate preparations. From ready insecticides will approach Vertimek. All of these drugs are hazardous to health, and you need to use them in the means of protection.
A pear filer, an insect of up to 6 mm in size, is waiting for flower buds to open, so that one egg can be laid in each flower. The caterpillar in the developmental period damages 4 fruits. Control measures - digging, the destruction of spider cocoons, which housed the future offspring.
It is impossible in one article to list all the pests of pears. But the implementation of preventive measures will help get rid of many problems.
Pear: treatment of diseases, prevention
Diseases of pears and the fight against them are something that almost every gardener has to face. If you do not find the disease, do not cure it in time, the garden may die. Therefore, we take a closer look at what are the diseases of pears and their treatment.
It is worth noting that the diseases of apples and pears are in many ways similar, therefore the information given in the article is also suitable for treating apples.
Phyllosctosis (brown leaf spot)
Another disease is phyllostiktosis. Its manifestation can be seen in July. The first manifestations of the disease are small brown dots on the leaves. Over time, they turn black, covered with spore-spots. The color of the spots is brown, edges are pronounced. Sometimes the leaves turn black completely.
The fungus overwinters in fallen leaves. High humidity of air promotes its fast distribution. Trees that in the past were treated with too strong chemicals, causing chemical burns of the leaves, are at particular risk.
Brown pear spotting
On black leaves spotting is easy to distinguish from other diseases. But her treatment is almost the same as with scab. The same means and spray pattern will be effective.
Pear septoria, white spot
Pears often suffer from white spotting (Septoria). This is manifested in the occurrence of round light spots with a dark border on the leaves. You can notice the signs after flowering. In the middle of such a spot there are pycnids with spores. The pathogen easily survives the winter, and in the spring infects the leaves.
Prevention is important. It is necessary to remove fallen leaves, fruits and twigs in time, as well as dig up near-stem rings. If you grow pears in a region with high humidity, it is better to choose varieties that are resistant to white spot. In the spring and in the autumn it is worth carrying out thinning of krone.
If the disease has already taken over planting, it is necessary to process the trees with fungicides. The first time sprayed pears before blooming buds, the second - when blooming, and the third - after flowering. In advanced cases, the treatment must be repeated during the summer.
What if the pear started crying? Perhaps the cause is homosis. The disease is usually attacked by a tree that has suffered during the wintering season or has already been infected with a fungus, as well as those pears that grow on acidic too wet soils, or are satiated with fertilizers.
For the disease is characterized by the release of gum on the branches and trunks. Such a phenomenon badly affects the general condition of the pear; it weakens the tree greatly and can lead to its death.
In order to save a tree, the main thing is to heal its damage.
"Crying" area must be cleaned and wiped with a solution of copper sulfate 1%, and then several times (every 10 minutes) rub with oxalic leaves. After - inflict garden wounds on the wounds.
Most often, seedlings die due to improper planting. A tree simply cannot take root unless normal conditions for this are created.
To make winter-hard pears easier to settle down, it is worth planting them in the fall, until mid-October. The distance between the trees depends on the variety (usually 3-5 m). Planting pits are dug out with a diameter of 1 m and a depth of half a meter. Take care of the quality of the land with which you fill the pit. Make sure that when planting the root neck of the seedling is not buried. Pristvolny circle need to mulch.
It is also bad to plant trees in areas where groundwater lies close to the surface. Also important is the timely pruning of the seedling, if it is not carried out, then the branches will grow wrong. The tree in the future may break.
Proper care is also needed. Young trees pears watered abundant than other trees. It is also important to bear in mind that pear seedlings do not tolerate transplantation. They are easily frozen and can get sick.
It is not always possible to protect the pear from wind and snow that can harm a tree. If a young pear on your site is broken, it can be saved. It is necessary to cut the seedling at 3 cm below the place of breaking, thoroughly clean the cut, disinfect and cover with garden pitch.
If the pear broke down in autumn or winter, then in the summer new shoots will start growing on it. They need to be cut off, leaving the most powerful of them at the top. He needs to give a vertical position, tied to a peg. This will be the new barrel of pear.
Pear dries up
If the pear suddenly began to dry out, perhaps the reason is improper care. The most obvious violation with such symptoms is insufficient watering in dry weather. The reverse is also true - waterlogging of the roots. The reason for this is too frequent watering or close to the groundwater.
It is also worth asking, and didn’t you have a mole on the site? In this case, you need to thoroughly water the pear and start fighting it. Here will help noise makers, digging in grids, special traps.
Pear can dry due to infection with fungal spores. For example, non-disinfected instruments were used when pruning branches. In this case, you should fight the disease itself and continue to prevent such an error.
For the same reason, a bacterial burn occurs, which has similar symptoms.The leaves of the pear begin to dry off the tips, and then the entire plate twists and dries. In this case, with the beginning of the growing season, multiple Bordeaux treatments are carried out, but before processing the pear, sanitary pruning is carried out.
Also see if pests have started in the tree. They can cause pears to dry out and must be fought appropriately. If nothing helps, and the pear dries anyway, it is considered that it is too weak for normal growth.
Pear grows poorly
It happens that the planted pear for some reason does not grow. The problem may be in vyprevaniya root neck. For the same reason, often pear does not give growth, and the leaves turn yellow prematurely. Young plants are most susceptible to this phenomenon, especially when they are fed too much with fertilizers.
Under the trees a lot of snow accumulates, which falls on the thawed soil. The neck stops. It is almost impossible to struggle with vyprevanie, but you can pay extreme attention to the choice of a place for landing.
Also, the problem may be in the label, which some gardeners forget to remove from the sapling when planting. A rope with a label on a growing tree retracted the trunk and stopped the movement of juices.
The next reason why the pear does not grow may be damage to the seedling by the larva of the May beetle. It is important to have a good look at the plant and the soil beneath it and, if a pest is found, take measures to destroy it.
How to process a tree from diseases
In order for a pear to grow and develop normally, the treatment of diseases and their prevention must be carried out in a timely manner.
The first treatment is carried out in the spring, when the temperature reached + 5С. Spray need and trunk, and crown, and pristvolny circle. All damages should be inspected; pests and fungus often hibernate in them. Before you spray, you need to mechanically clean the trunk of lichen.
Cleaning the trunk from lichen
Spray better in 3 stages: in March, in April before flowering, in May after flowering.
It is also important to do pruning on time.
In the spring, treatment is most often carried out with blue vitriol. Also, depending on the situation, you can apply the appropriate fungicides, urea or biological products.
In the autumn, before the beginning of leaf fall, prophylactic spraying with 5-7% urea solution is carried out. Fallen leaves are removed and digged near-stem circles. Also spend whitewashing special paint.
Bordeaux Pear Liquid
The Bordeaux liquid is very popular in the treatment of pears from diseases and pests. It includes lime, blue vitriol and water. For the processing of fruit trees, including pears before bud break, it is proposed to use 3% Bordeaux mixture (liquid), during the growing season only 1% Bordeaux mixture can be used.
Prepare the Bordeaux mixture in plastic or enamelled containers. For a 1% solution in 1 liter of warm water dissolve 100 g of copper sulfate. Separately, 100-150 g of lime is dissolved in 5 l of water. The solutions are filtered, and then the solution of copper sulfate is brought to a volume of 5 liters and poured into the lime mixture, stirring.
Checked by scientist agronomist Alexander Zharavin
Manifestation of scab
- To recognize scab at an early stage, you need to examine the leaves of the affected tree. If they have oily yellowish spots, and they eventually become covered with a velvety greenish-brown patina, then this is a scab. When the disease appears in the autumn, the spots are small - 2-3 mm, but in the spring they are larger - up to 1-1.3 cm in the most part.
- If you do not take urgent control measures, the disease affects the flowers, fruits, and on the pear and branches. A scab on a pear can appear as early as spring, because harmful fungi hibernate on fallen leaves and branches. On fruits, signs of disease are round, dark gray spots. The site of infection is dense.Due to corking, the growth of the fetus is delayed, therefore, infected pears and apples are formed by crooked.
- The appearance of scab promotes rainy cold weather. The process of the disease and its degree depends on the temperature and humidity. More influenced by moisture. Even in dry and hot summers, scab can appear if heavy dew falls on nights.
Features of treatment
- One of the measures that help in the fight against scab is the treatment of soil in the spring of the pristvolnom circle with solutions of mineral fertilizers of high concentration, before budding on the trees.
- 165 g of urea or 250 g of ammonium nitrate, or 250 g of potassium chloride is dissolved in 2.5 l of water. This amount of solution will be enough for 10 m². The soil is treated only in pristvolnom circle. To prevent burns of the tree you need to make sure that the tool does not fall on him.
- To fight the scab of pears and apples, make spraying. The first is made before bud breaks or when buds are advanced. In a liter of water, 40 g of lime and 30 g of copper sulfate is diluted. If you do not have time to process within the specified period, before flowering, spray wood with a Bordeaux mixture - 20 g of lime and 20 g of copper sulphate are diluted with 2 liters of water. This amount is enough for a young tree, an adult and a fruit bearing will need 4-5l solution. The second treatment is carried out at the end of flowering. The following composition is used: 2 ml of the drug “Skor” or 40g of “Abig-Pick” is diluted in 10 l of water. Bordeaux mixture of a concentration of 1% or other drugs that have a similar effect can also be used. The third treatment is carried out 2-3 weeks after the second, and the same preparations are used as for the second spraying.
- Better than other fungicides, the Bordeaux mixture, which can protect a tree for up to a month, is held in the cultivated areas. During the period of fruit development, preparations containing copper can cause burns on the fruit, especially at high humidity.
- More recently, long-acting drugs have appeared that protect trees for up to 30 days. This, for example, is Chorus, which, among other things, is not washed off by rain. Especially effective at low temperatures - 3-10 ° C. Processing is done twice per season, when buds bloom and after flowering.
- The drug "Strobe" is valid for a total of more - up to 35 days. In addition to treating scab of apple and pear, it also helps with powdery mildew. During the growing season is carried out up to three treatments with an interval of two weeks. This tool can be used together with other similar fungicides.
Gives the best results. After harvest, before autumn leaf fall, trees are sprayed with ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate. These drugs are used in a concentration of 10%. For potassium chloride and potassium sulfate, the concentration should be 3-10%. Potash saltpeter and potash salt should have a concentration of 5-15%.
Processing is performed at air temperature not lower than 4 ° С. This measure contributes to the destruction of scab, and other dangerous fungi and various pests, increases productivity.
There are varieties of pears and applesresistant to scab. Know that early varieties of apple scab are more likely to hit.
Among the early varieties of apple trees include:
- Grushovka Moscow,
- Pink filling
These varieties are well resisted by scab:
- Cinnamon new
- Pepin saffron, etc.
More resistant to the disease varieties of pears:
With timely measures of prevention against scab on pears and apples, at the first signs of the disease, the disease will recede.
In rainy summer, a large amount of nutrients is washed away from the topsoil. In such conditions, trees are stronger affected by disease and less tolerate frost. Continuing fertilization will help prevent this.
The fungicide contains copper sulphate and lime.The drug is available in powder form, which is diluted with water and applied to the affected areas of the plant. Gardeners are advised to prepare an aqueous solution in such concentrations:
- 3% treatment solution in very advanced cases before flowering,
- 1 percent solution after flowering.
During the season, pear is processed no more than four times. If the agent does not protect well enough, the fungus is not afraid of copper and multiplies, up to seven chemical treatments are allowed.