In the world there are many varieties of plum, which differ among themselves in size and number of fruits, ripening, as well as a number of other qualities. One of the best among them is the cherry plum variety Kuban Comet, a description of which can be found below.
The variety Kuban comet was removed by G.V. Eryomina and S.N. Zabrodina at the Crimean Experimental Breeding Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry named after N.I. Vavilova.
He was born thanks to the crossing of plum Skoroplodnaya and Cherry plum Pioneer. First, in 1977, this variety was taken for state tests.
And after 10 years it was entered into the State Register of the North-West, Central Black Earth, North Caucasus and Lower Volga regions.
Cherry plum Kuban comet appeared as a result of the crossing of the plum Skoroplodnaya and the plum Pioneer
The fruits are large. Their maximum weight is about 45 grams. They are rounded ovoid. The skin on the fruit, although thin, but dense, also has a small wax coating.
When the fruits begin to ripen, they first become yellow-red in color, which gradually turns into burgundy. Bones may be small or medium. The flesh has a yellow color and a fibrous texture.
It is juicy, with a good ratio of sugar and acidity, so it has a sweet-sour taste that resembles apricot.
Over-grown fruits do not crumble for a long time, and also have good transportability. If they did not get the desired burgundy color on the tree, then they will get it in the store. You can keep them in the fridge for about 25 days.
The variety of this tree is frost-resistant, can tolerate frosts up to 30 degrees. But the frost resistance of the buds of flowers is below average, but even when they are very cold, the harvest will be good anyway. Flowers also easily survive the spring frosts.
This tree is especially undemanding to the soil and can perfectly adapt in different regions from the Transcaucasus to the Non-Black Earth Region and the Southern Urals, to the south, to Primorye. Still, clay and loamy soils do not quite fit her.
Alycha tree Kuban comet
Pollinator for the Kuban comet is not needed, since This variety has a rare quality of self-fertility for cherry plum., but in order to improve fertility next to them it will be useful to plant other varieties of cherry plum or Chinese plum. For example, such as Mara, Traveler, Red Ball and others.
Saplings bear fruit very early, 2 or 3 years after planting.. They begin to bloom in late April, and in mid-July - early August, fruits are already appearing.
Trees each year bring many fruits. For example, about 10 kg can be collected from a small tree, and about 50 kg from a large one.
The Kuban comet variety has its advantages, here are some of them:
- fruits are large,
- high yield,
- frost resistance
- partial self-fertility
- resistant to disease
- if the fruits perespeyat, they still do not fall for a long time and do not crack,
- fruits are delicious.
But the variety is not perfect, it also has its drawbacks:
- the bone is very badly separated from the pulp,
- to ensure the large size of the fruit, they need to be cut off, leaving them more space next to each other,
- fruits ripen unevenly.
Trees of this variety are planted in early spring or early autumn.. First you need to choose the right seedlings. It is best to select them with a closed root system.
Cherry plum saplings Kuban comet
A good seedling has the following indicators:
- height from 1 to 1.20 meters
- the root consists of many small roots with good ramification,
- there are swollen buds,
- bark should not be damaged, stains and traces of pests
- it is necessary that the cut was wet, yellow-green.
When the seedling is selected, are determined with the landing site.
The best option would be a plot on the south side. Kuban comet does not like shadow, drafts and strong wind. Perfectly put her where she will have a shelter in the form of a wall.
Alycha will like sandy soil with low acidity. It is reasonable to mix the planting soil with humus (12 kg), superphosphate (250 grams) and potassium sulphide (50 grams). The pit should be dug up to 80x80x80 cm.
- In the hole poured a bit of land in the form of a small hill.
- Insert a wooden stick.
- The root neck is placed 6 cm higher from the ground.
- Rammed the ground.
- A sapling is tied to a fixed stick.
- Watered with 2 or 3 buckets of water.
- At the end of the top pour chips.
In the case of planting several trees, you need to stick between them a three-meter distance.
This variety loves moisture, because it must be additionally watered during the growing season. Do it in June, July and September. One tree requires up to 40 liters of water. After watering, be sure to pour chips.
The tree is cut or shortened each year by cuttings and thinning the crown. Most often they make a bottomless or bowl shape.
The main pruning done in the spring. During this period, a crown is formed and frozen and damaged branches are cut off.
In the autumn period, dry, sagging and diseased branches are sawn off.
Summer pruning is carried out with great need, while cutting off the young shoots that grow inside the crown.
Scheme pruning plums Kuban comet
Kuban comet must be fertilized annually. The only exception is the first year after planting a tree, if it was planted in fueled soil.
Fertilizer is as follows:
- in the autumn pour out the humus with the calculation of half a bucket on 1 square meter,
- after the tree blossoms, bring 40 grams of urea per 1 square meter,
- after fruiting fertilized with potassium sulfate, 30 grams per 1 square meter.
A young tree, in the first years of its life, must be covered for the winter, for example, with sacking.
Sheltering with polyethylene is prohibited. It is not necessary to warm the Kuban comet with hay or straw, because rodents can live there.
The Kuban comet is resistant to diseases and if it is properly looked after and processed in time, then there will be no trouble.
The problem is that it pests and diseases from neighboring trees.
This variety affects the same kinds of diseases as a regular plum.:
- gray rot
- brown spot,
- gum treatment.
Gray rot causes botrytis fungus. The place of birth of the infection is sclerotia and conidia, which are found in the soil and plant residues..
In the case when the disease affects the Kuban comet, branches begin to wither and a brown tinge appears on them, and small gray growths appear on the bark and fruits.
The fruits begin to rot.
Gray rot (moniliosis) cherry plum Kuban comet
To destroy the gray rot, trees before blooming are sprayed with copper sulfate and Nitrofen, which need to be used for processing wood and soil. And also after flowering, Captan and Kuprozan are used.
To prevent the disease, it is necessary to spray trees with such preparations in early spring:
- 1% bordovskaya fluid
- hand boron for affected fruit,
Brown spotting, or it is also called leaf mold, is also a fungal disease.
Sometimes it can kill about 50% of the crop..
This disease is characterized by the appearance of brown spots with dark rims on the leaves, which have a black dot in the center. Over time, the leaves wither and fall.
Cherry plum Kuban comet struck by brown spot
Trees against brown mold need to be treated with 1% bordovskiy solution as soon as the buds begin to bloom, it will also have copper oxide 2 to 3 weeks after flowering.
Preventive actions that will help prevent the disease are as follows:
- need to remove damaged branches,
- before the buds bloom, you need to spray the tree and the soil with 1% of the blue vitriol.
Another type of fungal disease is rust.
When this disease on the leaves appear rusty spots, which eventually turn into dark pads.
Rust wood is treated in the second decade of July. You can use Aktofit. They are sprayed with trees 2 times with an interval of 2-3 weeks.
To prevent the Kuban comet from being attacked by rust, preventive measures should be taken:
- 3% carbamide solution sprayed with wood in early spring,
- when the leaves fall, it is raked and burned.
It is dangerous because it can slow down or stop the growth of a tree, and eventually even destroy it.
Kametdeteka cherry plum Kuban comet
Thinking is not a fungal disease. The reasons for its occurrence may be mass. Here are the most common ones.:
- severe winter conditions, because of which the tree has frozen,
- received burns from the sun,
- improper pruning, because of which the tree was damaged,
- mechanical bark damage,
- over sized fertilizer application and watering
- tree infestation bark beetle.
When you look at the tree, you can see gum (protrusions of amber resin) on its branches, which indicates the damage of the tree by this disease.
It is possible to process the Kuban comet from this disease throughout the entire season.. After pruning, be sure to put petrolatum on slices. And also cut off the growths of gum.
The place where they were was disinfected with 1% solution of copper sulphate and covered with a non-black putty.
So that you do not have to deal with gambling for a long time, you need to take such preventive measures:
- soil acidity should be neutral,
- strict compliance with the terms of fertilizer,
- prevent overmoistening.
Among the pests that love to profit Kuban comet, the most common:
- fruit sap,
- western marsh bark beetle,
- down silkworm,
Origin, brief description
It belongs to a new group of stone fruit, a product of hybridization of cherry plum and Chinese plum. The group got the name “Russian plum” from the hands of Americans who tasted the product of Russian selection. Culture obtained at the breeding station N.I. Vavilova in the Crimea. Parent couple - cherry plum Pioneer × Plum Skoroplodnaya.
Behind the authors, Eremina G.V., Zabrodina S.N. more than 80 varieties of stone fruit, but one of the first works of breeders on a fundamentally new group was the best.
The variety is included in 1987 in the State Register, recommended for most regions - from the North Caucasus, North-West to the Lower Volga, Central Black Earth. Universal purpose: fruits of hybrid cherry plum are used fresh, in factory processing, in seasonal preservation.
The plum Kuban Comet fructifies in 2-3 years after disembarkation. The average productivity of a young tree is up to 10 kg, with age the variety reaches the maximum productivity up to 45-50 kg. Industrial productivity of cherry plum is up to 25 t / ha (planting 5 × 3 m, seed stock). Fruiting stretched - up to 2 weeks, has 2-3 basic collection.
The ripening time of cherry plum is the last decade of July. In the south, the comet is collected in mid-July, in the northern regions somewhat later, in early August. The approximate dates of fruiting are almost 30 days earlier than Renlod Altan.
Tasting grade assessment:
- fresh fruits - more than 4.6 points,
- jam, compote - about 4.6 points,
- juices with pulp - about 4.4 points.
Chemical composition: sugar 7.7%, solids 12%, acids 1.7%, pectins 0.58%, ascorbic acid 5.8 mg / 100g.
The main morphological features:
- tree is low-growing, up to 2.5-3 m. The crown is flat-rounded, often rare. The annual increase in the early years reaches 1.5 m. By the 5-6 year, the intensive development of the growth stops, the formation of the inherent crown shape is completed,
- horizontal shoot, medium thickness, with a characteristic tan on the south side. The bark is smooth, not crooked, gray. Fringing twigs are short,
- leaf plates are medium, slightly wavy, with serrate-margins, not hairy, shiny. The growth direction is vertical, the shape is elliptical, the color is green,
- peduncles thick, short, tightly attached to fruits,
- partly samoplodny variety - rare quality for cherry plum, does not require cross-pollination,
- the best pollinators - Traveler, Gold Scythians, Mara,
- flower buds numerous, small, with pale pink scales, grow from escape. Two flowers form from a bud: white, with small obovoid, medium-lobed petals,
- alycha fruit is large, 30-35 g in average weight, separate up to 45 g, oblong (rounded-ovate), asymmetric: the top is narrower, the base is wider. The seam is uniform, mild,
- fruit color in full ripeness - from bright red with a slight crimson shade to almost purple. The skin is durable, the wax coating is insignificant,
- medium density pulp, amber-yellow, with reddish "tan" near the skin, fibrous consistency. The taste is sweet-sour, with an interesting aftertaste of apricot, bright, memorable,
- the bones are medium or small (4.2% by weight of the fetus), semi-separating, oval-shaped, with a pointed apex and sherish.
Winter hardiness of trees is high. Flower buds of cherry plum are prone to frosting, but even if they get frost, productivity will not fall much. Drought resistance is average. Cherry plum Kuban Comet is little damaged by pests, its resistance to fungal infections is medium: it needs careful maintenance and preventive treatments.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Rare ability of the cherry plum to adapt to the climate of various regions - from the North Caucasus to the South Urals.
- Regular abundant fruiting, over-ripe cherry plums of the Kuban Comet do not crumble for a long time, dense, transportable. Filmed in technical ripeness, ripen amicably.
- Excellent taste.
- Transportability, friendly ripening during the transition from technical ripeness to full.
- Uniform staining.
- High winter hardiness.
Tip! In order to not plum, the variety prone to overload requires thinning of the fruit at the fruit formation stage, when the size of the fruit is not more than 2 cm in diameter. The density recommended by gardeners is 5-8 cm between fruits.
Agrotechnology: basic care
Care is not very different from the stone fruit growing scheme. The main points of agricultural engineering:
- It will take root well on light soil with a neutral pH on the south side of the plot - the variety does not take root well in the shade, on clay soils, loam. Planted in the northern areas in mid-April, in the south - in October.
- The planting scheme for laying a garden is about 3 m between rows of trees, 2.5-3 m between saplings. The area of nutrition of a single cherry plum tree is about 9 m2.
- In commercial gardens it grows on drip irrigation; in the household farm there is enough manual watering, often in the heat.
- Cherry plum Kuban Comet is responsive to the introduction of nitrogen in the spring, the nitrogen-mineral complex at the flowering stage, the potassium-phosphorus group in the phase of fruit formation, to potassium after fruiting.
- Crop - standard for stone, the first three years - formative. In subsequent years, it is thinning, sanitary pruning. Mostly low-growing trees cherry plum form in beshtambovoy form, a bush - sprouting branches pruned, annual growth is shortened annually. When pruning, the growing sprigs are left - the main crop is formed on them.
- It will take root on almost any stock, it is used as a medium and short stock for plum, plum, peach.When rooting the cuttings of the stock, according to the Crimean OSS, the survival rate of green cuttings is more than 68%, the survival rate of semi-lignified and woody ones is respectively 78.6% and 85.8%.
- The branches burdened by fruits tie up, prop up.
The variety is definitely worth it and is worth the care spent on it - so say gardeners. Reviews plum Kuban Comet deserved extremely positive. It is considered the working horse of the garden - branches bursting in under the crop are propped up. Cherry-plum is unpretentious, rarely gets sick, does not freeze, is large-fruited and tasty. In terms of adaptation to climatic conditions, it is not enough, as well as in terms of survival rate on the stock within the group.
A slight drawback of cherry plum, according to reviews, is a poorly separable bone. The second disadvantage was the tendency to "overload": if the fruit does not shrink, then break off the branches of the tree. The third is abundance. The first years have to wait for the harvest, in the following years - to puzzle over where to put it. So gardeners joke, enjoying this wonderful cherry plum.
Description and characteristics
Cultivar variety Kuban Comet descended from the plum Skoroplodnaya and Pioneer cherry plum, and since 1987 it has been listed in the State Register. As a rule, it is grown in the central region of Russia, the North Caucasus and the Lower Volga region.
The fruits of the cherry plum of this variety are rather large compared to the others, reaching a weight of 45 grams. They are asymmetrical, the shape resembles a slightly deformed egg with a pointed crown. Covered with reddish skin, which at maximum maturation becomes saturated purple color.
The flesh is yellow, and a distinct redness is observed closer to the skin, which turns yellow to the bone. It tastes like ripe apricots, sweet and sour. The period of ripening is from the middle of July in the southern regions and in the beginning of August in the northern regions.
Productivity directly depends on how old the trees are. Up to 10 kg of crop is removed from young trees, whereas from adults - up to 50 kg. At the same time, Cherry plum trees give a stable harvest from year to year. The photo and description of the Cherry plum variety Kuban Comet prove that it is not for nothing that the variety has become the most sought-after of all hybrids.
At the same time, Kuban cherry plum trees reach a maximum of 3 meters in height, and therefore often this variety is formed without a stemless method. The crone is medium thick, round and easy to shape at its own discretion. The trunk with a smooth bark, begins to bear fruit two or three years after planting. During the flowering period, the tree is all covered with flowers, which gives it a particularly decorative look.
In order that the Kuban Comet cherry variety trees could grow anywhere anywhere, two of its varieties were bred:
- Alycha Comet late, which ripens in late August and is intended for the northern regions,
- Alycha Comet is early, which bears fruit in the middle of July and, accordingly, is selected for the southern regions.
They do not differ in taste characteristics, both are able to tolerate frosts and relative drought.
"Parents" of the Kuban comet - Chinese plum Skoroplodnaya and plum Pioneer. The hybridization work was performed by G.V. Eremin and S.N. Zabrodin
A hybrid was obtained in the Crimea, at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant Industry named. N.I. Vavilov (today - the All-Russian Institute of Plant Industry named after NI Vavilov). And since 1987, the result of this work has been included in the State Register of breeding achievements.
Did you know?Cherry plum does not apply to long-livers. The tree lives on average 15-60 years.
The Kuban comet tree is low-growth (up to 3 meters in height), the crown is thin, has a flat-round shape. The barrel is smooth, not svilevaty, gray. The shtambe formed horizontal shoots of gray, medium thickness.
Shoots are short. Buds - small, roundish, with flowering, pale pink. As a rule, two flowers are formed from the peephole. The leaves are shiny, greenish, medium-sized, oval with a pointed tip.Grow vertically.
You will probably be interested to read about the benefits and harms of using cherry plums.
The fruits of this hybrid are large, oblong, with a dense skin of burgundy tone and a thin wax coating. The average weight of one berry is 35-45 g. The seam is weakly expressed, asymmetrical.
Pulp of berries - orange, fibrous structure, average juiciness and density. The aroma is weak, the taste is sour-sweet, reminiscent of ripe apricots. By five-point grades in taste deserves a mark of 4.6 points. Bone of the fetus - rough, medium-sized, is separated with difficulty.
Important!The fruits of the Kuban comet do not crack and remain on the branches for a long time when overripe.
Kuban comet is partly a self-pollinated variety, in connection with which it is better to plant such varieties of plum in the neighborhood as:
- Chinese skoroplodnaya,
- Oryol souvenir,
- Red ball
- Gift to St. Petersburg,
- Seedling Rocket.
Important!Next to cherry plum can not plant solanaceous (tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco). These cultures attract fungi that infest trees.
The Kuban comet has a good level of transportability: it does not crush, does not rot, and for a long time keeps its taste properties. In addition, the fruits can be stored in the refrigerator or basement for 20-25 days.
In your garden, you can also grow fruit trees such as pear, plum, apple, peach, cherry, cherry, apricot.
Disease and Pest Resistance
This hybrid is resistant to many diseases that plum crops suffer, but may suffer from:
- klyasterosporioza (perforated spotting),
- milky shine
- gum acherapy.
Pests such as:
- plum moth,
- western unpaired timber tree (bark beetle),
- downy silkworm caterpillars.
Application of fruits
Use the fruits of the Kuban comet mostly fresh. Although they are suitable for preservation (fruit drinks, juices, marmalade, jams), drying and freezing. You can make wine from the fruit and liqueur.
Did you know?Queen Elizabeth II begins the morning with eating two plums and only then has breakfast. King plums are called Brompkon.
The story of the plum Kuban comet
Many breeders were engaged in breeding cultivated cherry plums. But the greatest success in this difficult matter was achieved by Claudia Fyodorovna Kostina, who worked at the Nikitsky Botanical Garden in the 40s of the last century. When examining the plantings of cherry plum, preserved in the gardens abandoned because of World War II, she identified many forms that were distinguished by early maturation and good taste. Their only drawback was the small size of the fruit. KF Kostina solved this problem by crossing with a Chinese plum. As a result, a new plant was born - plum hybrid, or Russian plum. She combined the unpretentiousness and yield of cherry plum with large-fruited and pleasant taste of Chinese plum, but she could not stand the winter cold even in the conditions of the Black Soil Region.
Another well-known Russian breeder, Gennady Viktorovich Eremin, managed to improve the winter hardiness of the cherry plum hybrid. In the 70–80s of the last century, he, together with a team of co-authors from the Crimean experimental selection station VIR, began to use the Chinese plum Skoroplodnaya variety for selection. When it was crossed with cherry plum, new plants had practically no flaws. They were well tolerated by the vagaries of the weather, had a pleasant sweet-sour taste and a decorative type of fruit, as well as resistance to many common diseases of the stone fruit.
Russian plum, or plum hybrid - very productive and unpretentious culture
One of the most popular varieties of breeding Eryomin was the Kuban comet, obtained by hybridizing cherry plum Pioneer and Chinese plum Skoroplodnaya.In 1977, it was handed over for testing, and after its completion in 1987, the State Commission recommended this variety for cultivation in the North Caucasus, Central Chernozem, and Lower Volga regions and the Kaliningrad region. Today, the Kuban comet is also grown in other regions of our country, including the middle belt and even the south of the Urals.
Cherry plum Kuban comet does not belong to capricious cultures. It successfully grows and bears fruit even with not very careful care, which is quite within the reach of novice gardeners.
The first and very important stage in the cultivation of the Kuban comet is the selection of seedlings. Biennial plants with a closed root system take root better than others in a new place. At this age, plum reaches a height of 1–1.2 m and has several side shoots. Be sure to pay attention to the presence of a trace of vaccination, which looks like a small influx at the base of the trunk. It is better not to buy plants that do not have it, because, most likely, they are grown from a stone, and this does not guarantee the preservation of varietal qualities.
Seedlings with a closed root system tolerate transplantation better than others.
Alycha Kuban comet came to us from the south, so for its landing it is better to choose open sunny places. In the shade of its fruit shallow and acquire a sour taste. To ground plants of this variety are less demanding. They can grow and bear fruit on soils with virtually any composition, with the exception of wetlands and salt marshes. But best of all, the Kuban comet feels in areas with loose and light earth, which has a neutral or slightly acidic reaction.
Like most stone fruit crops, cherry plum does not tolerate too close ground water. The Kuban comet variety is no exception. Experts do not recommend planting it in places with aquifer levels above 1 m.
In most regions of Russia, plum is planted in a permanent place in the spring, right after the threat of frost has passed, and the soil warms up to at least + 8 ° C. In the south, permissible and autumn planting. It is usually carried out in late September - early October.
The landing pit for the Kuban comet is prepared no less than 15–20 days before landing. If these works are planned to be carried out in the spring, then it is better to start preparing for them in the fall:
- The root system of the Kuban comet is fibrous, therefore it is enough for it to dig up a landing hole about 50 cm deep, but its diameter should not be less than 75–80 cm.
- To protect the roots from stagnant moisture, it is necessary to lay a drainage layer 7–8 cm thick at the bottom.
- Then the pit should be filled with a mixture of fertile land, humus and mineral fertilizers to form a small mound. Per plant consumed:
- 12–15 kg of humus,
- 200–250 g of superphosphate,
- 50–70 g of potassium sulphate or potassium magnesia.
Wood ash is an excellent alternative to mineral fertilizers. It contains a large amount of potassium, necessary for a young plant.
As the drainage is used claydite, clay shards or any small pebbles.
Directly landing a Kuban cometary cherry in open ground is carried out as follows:
- On one side of the center of the pit, they drop a peg, the height of which is 20–25 cm higher than the seedling's height and it moistens the soil well.
- Place a sapling in the middle of a mound of soil, gently straightening the roots.
Sapling cherry plums placed in the center of the planting pit
After planting, the cherry plum seedling is tied to a support, and the tree trunk is watered.
Watering and fertilizing
The Kuban comet can endure a short-term drought, but under conditions of sufficient moisture it feels much better. Plants especially need water during the first year after planting. They are watered once every 2–2.5 weeks, preventing even short-term drying out of the soil. In the last month of summer, watering is stopped to avoid the formation of overgrowth, which will not have time to get stronger before the onset of cold weather.
Adult plants are watered once a month, spending about 3-4 buckets of water for each. The last watering of the Kuban comet is carried out 3-4 weeks before harvesting. Failure to comply with this rule often leads to deterioration in the quality of the fruit. With an excess of moisture, they acquire a watery texture and a sour taste.
Needs Kuban comet and in sufficient nutrition. Fertilizers for its planting begin to make in the second year of cultivation according to the following scheme:
- During the spring season, fertilizers with a large amount of nitrogen, such as urea, are used for top dressing. It is also used for calculating 40 g per 1 m 2 of a barrel circle. This dose is made 2-3 times: the first - immediately after the thawing of the soil, the last - after the end of flowering.
- During the period of fruit loading, the Kuban comet is fed with complex fertilizer. Ideal infusion of cow dung or nettle leaves with the addition of simple superphosphate and potassium sulfate (2 tbsp. Per 10 liters of liquid).
- In the autumn, not later than mid-September, humus (4–5 kg per 1 m 2) is buried in the near-barking circle. After 1-2 weeks, cherry plum is additionally fed with mineral fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus and potassium (autumn Kemira, potassium monophosphate). You can use the usual wood ash.
Pruning and rationing harvest
Kuban comet needs shaping and sanitary pruning. The best time to conduct them is the beginning of spring, when active sap flow has not yet begun in the branches. Dry and damaged shoots can be removed in late autumn.
Among gardeners who grow the Kuban comet, crown shaping in the shape of a bowl is especially popular. Tree branches cut off in this way are evenly illuminated by the sun and are well ventilated.
Formation of the crown in the form of a bowl takes place in several stages:
- During the landing at a permanent place, the central shoot is shortened by 50–60 cm.
- In the second year of cultivation, 4 strong and healthy shoots are selected, located at a distance of 10–15 cm from each other. All the rest are cut "on the ring", that is, on the upper part of the annular influx located at the base of the branch.
- After another year, 1–2 branches of the second order are left on each of the skeletal shoots, cutting them to a third.
- In subsequent years, conduct regulatory pruning, preventing excessive thickening of the crown and the emergence of a new center conductor.
Forming the crown of cherry plum in the form of a bowl takes 3-4 years
In regions with a cold climate, a cluster formation is better suited to the Kuban comet. The resulting low-growing plants suffer much less from the winter cold.
To form a cherry plum as a bush, a young plant is cut at a height of 15–40 cm from the ground level and shortened the remaining branches on it to 50 cm. Then they are given as horizontal a position as possible with the help of ropes. This will allow the whole winter to keep the plant under the snow, so that it will not suffer from the cold weather.
The height of the cherry plum Kuban comet depends on the climate of the growing region. The more frost and less snow cover, the lower it should be.
Kuban comet is famous for its abundant crops. But the formation of too many fruits becomes the cause of their shredding and general weakening of the tree, therefore, the excess ovaries are carefully removed with sharp scissors.
Fight against diseases and pests
Kuban comet rarely affected by infections. To reduce the likelihood of their appearance will help regular preventive measures. The most important of them are:
- timely collection and destruction of fallen leaves,
- autumn digging pristvolnogo soil,
- Treating trees with fungicides:
- Bordeaux liquid
- copper sulphate,
Insect pests can cause significant damage to the crop of the Red Comet. To prevent their invasion, use insecticidal preparations for universal use. These include:
Plants with strong odor that are planted nearby can scare away insects from the Kuban comet. Especially they do not like the fragrance of marigold, lavender and calendula.
The smell of marigold helps scare off insects
Preparing for the winter
Alycha Kuban comet - thermophilic culture. Experiencing the cold, characteristic of many regions of our country, it will help competent preparation for the winter. First of all, it is necessary to clear the space under the trees from the plant garbage and to well burst it. Then the barrel is painted with a mixture of:
- hydrated lime,
- copper sulphate,
- office glue.
You can either make it yourself or buy it at any specialty store.
Whitening plum is carried out to prepare the tree for the winter
To protect the root system of the Kuban comet from severe frosts, the near-trunk circle is covered with humus, forming from it a small mound around the trunk. In winter, snow is raked up to it, necessarily renewing a snowdrift after subsidence and breaking the crust formed during the thaw. In regions with severe frosts, the trunk is additionally wrapped with sacking or other material that passes air well.
Young trees should be covered entirely. For this, cardboard boxes are often used, filling the gap between their walls and shoots with spruce fur twigs or paper. Larger plants protect from frost by building huts of poles and nonwoven covering material.
Gardeners reviews about the variety
The last three years in the spring I ride around acquaintances and friends and instill a Comet in them. Who tried it, he wants himself so. I have two growing trees. We regularly collect 15 buckets from them. And, interestingly, one grows in the sun, its fruits are sweet. We use them for jams and wine (if very much). The second grows in the shade. It is used for preservation as a substitute for vinegar. And a little more taste, and benefits too.
I also want to sing an ode to the plum Kuban comet! I would say that this is just a mast hev of any problem. Anything can rest at your place: an apple-tree, a pear, an apricot can plummet, a plum, but this workhorse plows to wear from year to year! Without additional dressing, it is completely undemanding to soil conditions, it will reward you with a bountiful or heavy harvest. In general, in any year you can count on it. I have a small tree, about 2 meters high, slightly wider in width, it is convenient to care for and harvest. Fruits 35–40 g, very tasty. I close the compote for the winter, make jam, but most of the children eat fresh. Another indisputable plus is the early term of ripening. Branches need to be protected - back up, otherwise they break under the crop. In 2015, the rains poured everything that bloomed, apples, pears, cherries and everything else started very badly ((Only the Kuban comet invariably pleased with the generous harvest. I am ready to carry the creators of this miracle!
My cherry plum has already survived 2 winters, Lama, Apricot, Kuban comet varieties. Nothing froze. It seems to me that it is necessary to begin with the Kuban comet, since it is partially self-fertile, frost-resistant, very productive and adapts well in different conditions and climates. The only thing that needs to be taken into account when growing cherry plum is to cut it very hard, because it can give increments of one and a half meters per season.
Four years ago, plum Kuban comet planted. And here is the result - the first berries are tasty, large, the stone is well separated. But the fact is that this is the second planting of this sort of cherry plum. I grew my first cherry plum about six years, but then three or four years ago I died out in a cool winter. I suppose that due to the fact that she was sitting on the north side and was exposed to winter blizzards. Therefore, I advise you to plant cherry plum in places closed from winter winds.
For Ulyanovsk, the Kuban comet already, one can say border culture, has been bearing fruit for several years and there are always only single fruits, there are pollinators (Scythian gold, Ariadne); , lucky, we live by hope.PS: in general, if it was -30 or even at least briefly, then you can not wait for the fruit or they will be on the strength of a dozen, huge, honey.
The Kuban comet variety has practically no downsides. It tolerates difficult weather conditions, does not require time-consuming care and annually gives a large number of tasty and fragrant fruits that tolerate long-term storage. In addition, in early spring the Kuban comet plays the role of an ornamental plant, decorating the garden with its beautiful, white flowers.
In the case when there is comediness on the tree, and horizontal passages with a diameter of 1 to 2 millimeters can be seen on the branches and the trunk, then a fruit sap settled on the tree.
Fruit sapwood - a very common pest of cherry plum
Prior to laying eggs, females eat tissue at the base of the kidneys.
When the larvae appear, they absorb the bark and roots. To destroy these pests the tree is sprayed at the end of flowering..
The treatment is carried out 2 times with an interval of 14 days.
To prevent a fruit berth from getting into the tree, need to saw off dry branches and immediately burn thems The bark is cleaned of moss and lichen, and also the tree is bleached.
Western Gypsy Bark Beetle
Do not mind to eat bark, as well as the wood of this tree and western unpaired bark beetle.
Beetles lay eggs and larvae, and hatched, suck the juices from the tree. Treating wood is needed when pests crawl out from under the bark.
To kill them, it is best to wet the bark with Dichlorvos or Chlorophos.
Western Gypsy Bark Beetle
Preventive measures against the occurrence of these insects are as follows:
- the affected branches cut and burn,
- if a tree is badly affected by this pest, it is better to uproot and burn it,
- before the tree starts to bloom, it needs to be treated with Trichlorol-5.
Caterpillars of downy silkworm damage cherry plum leaves
It harms the leaves of the Kuban comet, and its cobwebs and cocoons can be found in the crowns.
Sprayed tree from this pest during the growing season. Well this will help drug Virin-ENZH.
And also it is necessary to collect pests and cocoons manually, after which they are burned or buried in a pit, with a depth not less than half a meter.
To prevent the appearance of a down silkworm, you need spray it with Nitrofen even before the buds appear.
Another 1 dangerous pest moth that lays eggs on the surface of the bark or fruit. The caterpillars of this insect make their way into the fruit, they become wormy and fall off.
It is necessary to process a tree from moth 20 days after it has faded..
Spraying is carried out 3 times with an interval of 12 days, with preparations such as Avant, Rogor-S, Phosban and Ditox.
Cherry plums Kuban comet struck by the plum moth
In order to prevent further reproduction of the moth, in the autumn they clean the bark of caterpillars and cocoons, collect the fallen fruits, and also use trapping belts.
If you properly care for the Kuban comet, then the tree will surely bring a good harvest and grow healthy and beautiful, and its whole family will be able to enjoy its tasty fruits.
Alycha Kuban Comet - description of the variety, photos, pollinators, trimming, planting and care, video
The love of planting on the summer cottages of hybrid varieties of plums and cherry plums appeared relatively recently. One of the most popular among them is the plum Kuban Comet, a description of the variety, the photos of which are described in detail below.
The variety combines high yield and sweet, dessert taste of fruits, thanks to which it is the leader among cherry plum.
In addition, short stature makes it even more popular due to ease of cultivation and early ripening, the crop of which can be obtained in almost any climatic zone.
about cherry plum varieties Kuban Comet
What is cherry plum? More recently, it was called the wild plum and treated it rather scornfully.
Indeed, it is the ancestor of all modern plum varieties, but the breeders' attention was attracted not so much by this as the infinite possibilities for crossing and obtaining new varieties.
One of the results of this work was the variety “Kuban comet” - cherry plum, reviews of which spread far beyond the borders of the Caucasus and its historic homeland.
However, let us try to follow the entire path — how an unknown plant has become universally loved in such a short period.
Story of cherry plum
About yes 20-ies it was a wild plant, widespread in the Caucasus, the Crimea and Central Asia. Relatively recently, cherry plum was used as a garden crop, and breeders began breeding new varieties.
But their first species were not too different from their wild relatives in taste. However, in a short time the plant has received huge popularity. This is due to the unpretentiousness of the culture, as well as the highest yield.
One year after planting, you can get the first berry, and after three years - a stable crop of 40 kg. By ten years, the tree will give 300 kg or more per year.
However, those first varieties were not too different from wild ones, home cooking and specific Caucasian dishes could be made from them, but they were not suitable for food. This cannot be said about the Kuban comet variety.
Cherry plum, reviews of which are replete with laudatory epithets, has juicy large berries that are great for food and preparations. The peculiar sourness gives some spice, due to what plum was used in traditional cuisine. However, we have not yet told how this variety appeared.
A new stage in the history of cherry plum was the identification of its most valuable properties, namely, the ability to interbreed with a variety of fruit crops.
Among them are not only different varieties of plums, but also cherries, cherries, apricots and peaches, that is, almost all stone fruits. Of course, this gave impetus to the emergence of a variety of hybrids.
There were varieties that give a huge harvest of large and tasty berries. One of these was the "Kuban comet" - cherry plum, reviews of which call it the most delicious and unpretentious plum.
The variety calmly endures the most severe winters, and the fruits do not crumble when overripened, resistant to cracking and tolerate transportation well. Let's take a closer look at what this variety is.
Today it is the favorite plum in the whole of Russia. The Kuban comet is in great demand in the stores - plum, the reviews of experienced gardeners about which are beyond praise.
This is a plum variety of medium early ripening. That is, the harvest has time in any climatic zone of our vast country.
The variety was bred in 1980 and since then has not lost its popularity.
An adult tree is rather small, with a rare crown. This little worker gives such a rich harvest that the trunks often break under the weight of the fruit. The stem is smooth, gray in color, lentils are rare.
Shoots horizontal, medium thickness, gray with a pale tan on the sunny side. The leaves grow vertically, small flower buds, scales when blooming pale pink color.
It blooms at the very beginning of July, the yield of the variety is very high. The plant is resistant to most diseases, winter frosts, can hold out for some time in drought conditions. Such is the plum “Kuban comet”.
The description is not complete without a description of the conditions of detention and care.
Choosing a place
The sunniest and brightest place in the garden will be just the way. Any shadow greatly impairs the quality and quantity of fruits. First of all, the shadow affects the sweetness of the berry: the sunnier the summer, the tastier the fruits will be.
Despite the resistance to frost, it is still the southern plum - "Kuban comet."The description offers, as an alternative to the mild climate of the Caucasus, landing next to country houses, which will serve as natural protection from the wind.
For example, between the house and the fence. The ideal place is a sunny plot, closed on the north side with a brick wall. Be sure to check the future landing site for marshiness.
If there is a probability of stagnation of water, it is better to choose another site for planting or to build a hill. The groundwater level must be at least 2 meters. Consider that the cherry plum variety “Kuban comet” loves light sandy soil.
It is not particularly picky, but it does not tolerate heavy clay and loamy soils.
In the spring, among other saplings, cherry plum is also sold. "Kuban comet" (photo available in the review) involuntarily attracts attention - a small tree completely covered with huge berries.
At the same time to grow it is not difficult. You only need to choose the right time for landing. In early spring you can buy a sapling with a bare root system.
If in the store you met a container plant, then it is better to postpone its purchase until autumn.
So, your choice is the plum “Kuban comet”. Planting and care are not complicated, as already mentioned, but you need to follow a few rules. First: the seedling can not be buried when planting in the ground.
The root neck should be 5-7 cm above ground level. The roots before planting should be only slightly straightened, but they can not be injured. The greater the amount of retained viability, the faster the plant will grow.
But pruning can be done immediately, before planting.
This variety, like many others, is partly self-fertile. What does it mean? That is, in order for the fruits to start, the pollen of another plant is necessary. If there is no second tree in the neighborhood, then the harvest will be at least worse.
That is, you need to purchase and plant a neighbor. This may be a plum or the same plum "Kuban comet". At the same time, pollinators best of all come out of the sink.
But they should not be planted too close, the power supply area of a single tree is about 9 square meters. m
When planting plums in the landing pit put organic fertilizer, most often it is rotted horse manure. Good result also gives humus, potassium sulfate and superphosphate. But nitrogen only worsens the result.
Further fertilizing is done before flowering in the spring. As soon as the tree leaves, it is necessary to feed it with potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
Late autumn, before winter, and in early spring, organic fertilizers should be applied each year.
First flowering and harvest
What we first of all pay attention to when choosing a sapling, be it an apple tree, a pear tree or a cherry plum “Kuban comet”? The photo on the advertising booklet is primarily a reflection of the branches leaning under the weight of the fruit.
In order for you to grow the same tree, it is necessary in the first year of his life to cut off all the flowers. This will allow the plant to get stronger, winter well and give a lot of fruit for the next year.
However, the flowering of such a fruitful variety as the plum comet Kuban comet should be further regulated. Description of the variety suggests that half of the crop should be cut off at the stage of greenfinches, that is, only formed fruits.
This will allow them to grow large and tasty, and also give the tree to prepare well for the winter. If you do not thin out the harvest in this way, the tree that has lost all its strength will bear fruit only in a year.
Like everyone else, the “Kuban comet” plum is very moisture-loving. Description (photo shows a well-kept tree) recommends watering 4-5 times a month, at the rate of 2-3 buckets per tree twice a day.
Lack of water can cause crop loss, especially since the beginning of June to the end of July. But in August it must be completely canceled.
Rains at this time are extremely undesirable, since they lead to a strong growth of shoots, which means that the tree runs the risk of freezing in severe cold.
Very large, weighing up to 50 g each. The shape of the berry is rounded ovoid. Their color - from red to dark purple. The skin is thin, durable, with a slight wax coating. The flesh usually has everything to taste. It is yellow, dense, juicy, aromatic, sweet-sour taste. Not sugary.
The fruits are consumed fresh, and they also prepare excellent jam, compotes and jelly. Fruits ripen at the end of July, while they do not crumble for a long time, and due to the dense skin they tolerate transportation well. When removed from a tree in a green form, they ripen perfectly and become the color of a ripe fruit.
Pruning cherry plum "Kuban comet" is an important technique in care. The plant forms bunches of flower buds along the entire length of the annual growth. It is not at all small, about 1-1.5 mm.
That is, without proper pruning, the shoots of the cherry plum will touch the ground next year. Of course, the longer they are, the greater the yield, but still, in order for the crown to be stronger, you need to trim a one-year increase to flower buds.
When pruning the stone varieties, it is very important to close the sections with oil paint after 15 minutes.
Like any gardener, each of us may have an interest in a new variety. It is not necessary to immediately buy a sapling, just ask for a small cut for the vaccine.
It is carried out easily: just a pointed twig is inserted into a tree branch, fixed with electrical tape, and the cut is processed with garden pitch. Usually in a year you can see the results of your labors. Fruits will appear on the grafted branch.
In this way, it is possible to grow apricot or peach branches, which will not grow on most of the territory of Russia on their roots.
The merits of the variety
First of all, it is noted for its amazing yield. A small adult tree can give a hundred kilograms of fruit per season. The second undoubted advantage is early ripeness. Among similar varieties, it gives fruit almost a month earlier. And finally, an important fact.
The variety is characterized by outstanding adaptability. Practically all of Russia already grows it in their private plots, and this is the distance from Transcaucasia to Moscow and St. Petersburg, Chelyabinsk and Vladivostok.
This guarantees that the purchased seedling will take root on your site and will not freeze out in the coming winter.
Most gardeners say the absolute unpretentiousness of this variety. It grows under a variety of conditions, forgiving even significant errors and omissions. The only thing that needs to be observed is the mode of watering and feeding the tree, otherwise you can be left completely without a crop.
Lack of variety
As already mentioned, the "Kuban comet" is prone to give a huge harvest. This is both a plus and a minus.
Overloading leads not only to mechanical damage (branches and tree trunks break), but the quality of the fruits suffers greatly.
They become small, sour and dense, the tree lacks strength so that everyone is filled with juice and matured. In addition, lovers of eating fresh fruits note such a disadvantage as the poor separability of the flesh from the stone.
Cherry plum variety Kuban comet
The Kuban comet is the most well-known variety of the hybrid cherry plum, or Russian plum (Prunus rossica), ripening in the middle early period.
Bred at the Crimean experimental breeding station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Crop. N.I. Vavilova through crossing plum cultivar Skoroplodnaya with cherry plum Pioneer.
Authorship belongs to G.V. Ereminu and S.N. Zabrodina.
In 1977 the variety was sent for state testing. In 1987
entered into the State Register of the North-West (Kaliningrad region), Central Black Earth (Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk Region), Nizhnevolzhsky (Astrakhan, Volgograd, Saratov Region) and the North Caucasus (Republic: Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Adygea, North Ossetia, Ingush, Chechen, Karachay-Cherkessia, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, Rostov Region) regions.
The trees of this cherry plum are weakly growing (up to 2.5 - 3 meters high), forming them, as a rule, in the form of a shrub. Crown ploskookrugly form, srednegozgushchennaya Stam with a smooth surface, not svilevaty, gray color, lentils are rare.
Shoots are horizontal, medium thickness, gray in color, with a pale tan on the sunny side, few lentils. Fragile twigs are short.
The leaves are medium in size, elliptical in shape, the direction of growth is vertical, the top is sharp, the leaf edge is slightly wavy, with serrate-like serrate. Blade glossy, hairless, painted in green.
The location of the glands - on the basis of the sheet. Petioles of medium length and thickness, not pubescent, deep grooves, color - anthocyanin, medium intensity.
The flower buds are small or medium-sized, lagging behind the shoots, rounded in shape, when blooming scales are painted in pale pink color. Two-flowered inflorescences. Flowers of medium size. The petals are white, small, obovoid, with a medium shirring.
Sepal oval shaped, pressed to the petals. Orange stamens grow on the lower surfaces of the calyx. The pistils are located above the stamens level, each flower has one pistil, in rare cases two.
Pedicels of medium thickness and length (1.3 - 1.4 cm).
Cherry plum fruits Kuban comet large in size (weighing 25 - 30 g, maximum weight - 45 g), rounded-ovate, with a rounded, slightly pointed tip, asymmetrical, maximum diameter closer to the base.
The abdominal suture is weak, superficial, uniform along the entire length. The funnel is narrow, medium or below average depth. The skin is thin, dense, with a slight wax coating.
The color of the fruit at an early stage is yellow-red, then saturated-red and maroon when fully ripe. The stem is thick, medium and less than the average length, attached firmly to the fetus.
The bones are small or medium (4.2% of the mass of the fetus), practically not separated from the pulp, oval in shape, elongate-elliptical from the abdominal suture, symmetrical, with the greatest width in the middle, the surface is rough, the tip is pointed, the keel is absent, the abdominal suture is medium width, tapering base, medium width, rounded, the edges of the dorsal suture are solid, the fusion of the ends of the ventral and dorsal suture is absent.
The flesh is yellow (reddish near the skin), medium density, fibrous consistency, quite juicy, with an average flavor, the level of acidity and sugar content average.
The taste of the fruit is very good, “full”, sour-sweet, with a taste of apricot. Primary use of a grade - the fresh use, conservation.
Tasting assessment of fruits - over 4.6 points, juice with pulp - 4.4 points, jam and compote - 4.5 points.
Fruits are resistant to cracking, do not crumble for long ripening. Upon removal, at the beginning of dyeing, they ripen well and become characteristic of the variety. Stored in the refrigerator for up to 20 - 25 days. The level of transportability is good.
The biochemical content of fruits (on wet weight) is as follows: dry matter - 12%, the amount of sugars - 7.7%, including sucrose - 3.0, monosacchar - 4.7%, free acids - 1.7%, pectic substances - 0.58%, polyphenols - 0.437%, flavonols - 17.3 mg / 100 g, catechins - 95 mg / 100 g, anthocyanins - 18.8 mg / 100 g, ascorbic acid - 5.8 mg / 100 g
The flowering of the Kuban comet is very abundant, takes place at an early date (at the end of April).
The fruits ripen quite early (mid-July - early August), almost a month earlier than the Renklod of Altana, for example, for Volgograd, this is the period from July 10 to 23.
Skoroplodnost is very high: the trees bring the first harvest already for 2-3 years after planting the seedlings in the garden. High yields, annual fruiting. The average yield is 10 kg / der., Maximum - 50 kg / der.
This cherry plum is high-resistant (in conditions of the Moscow region, winter hardiness is average), it tolerates frosts down to minus 30 ° C. Drought tolerance is average.
Winter hardiness of flower buds is below the average level, but even during the years of their strong freezing, the trees give a good harvest.Flowers tolerate spring frosts.
The variety is relatively resistant to a complex of major diseases.
The variety is partially self-fertile. So that the fruits do not grow small, they are recommended to thin out while they are still green (the size of a cherry). To fruit were tasty and juicy, it is recommended to plant trees in areas well-lit by the sun.
This cherry plum is undemanding to soil conditions, characterized by excellent regenerative abilities, as well as outstanding adaptability in various regions: from the Caucasus to the Non-Black Earth Region (Smolensk, Moscow, St. Petersburg), the Southern Urals (Chelyabinsk) and the South, Primorye (Vladivostok).
The main advantages of cherry plum Kuban comet include: large tasty fruits with a good presentation, abundant yields, precociousness, winter hardiness, resistance to diseases, partial self-fertility.
Among the main disadvantages of the variety: the stone is poorly separated from the pulp, when overloading trees with a crop the fruits become shallow, the fruits ripen unevenly.
Cherry plum Kuban comet: description and characteristics of the variety
The Kuban variety appeared on the territory of the Crimean Experimental Selection Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry, named after N. I. Vavilov. Specialists S. N. Zabrodina and G. V.
Yeremin managed to successfully cross the well-known varieties of Vavilov plum with the Pioneer cherry plums. Already in 1977, a new variety entered the state test.
After 10 years, she was listed in the state register.
Alycha Kuban comet is undemanding to soil conditions, endowed with high regeneration characteristics, adapts well to the growing region.
It is frost-resistant, normally tolerates lowering the temperature to -30 ° C.
At the same time, flower buds withstand frosts not so steadily, but even in the case of their partial freezing, it is not worth worrying about the harvest. The level of drought tolerance is average.
The yield is high. In practice, the average yield can be up to 10 kg from each tree (the maximum possible to collect about 50 kg). Fruiting occurs annually.
Variety plum Kuban Comet is endowed with immunity to characteristic diseases. The fruits are not prone to crack and even overripe hang on the branches for a long time.
In the refrigerator, they are stored for up to 25 days and do not lose their qualities during transportation.
Characteristics of the tree and fruit
Interesting and external description of the plant and its fruits. Cherry plum with the interesting name Kuban comet is a low-growing tree no more than 3 m high, more resembling a shrub.
The krone is moderately thick, has a flat-round shape. The shtamb is covered with gray bark with a few lentils. The shoots are medium and horizontal.
The leaves are also small and elliptical in shape, painted in green. Petioles of medium thickness and length, anthocyanin color. Flower buds are medium in size.
White petals are obovoid. The size of the pedicel can be up to 1.4 cm.
The average weight of a berry is up to 30 g, individual specimens up to 45 g.
Fruits are asymmetric, rounded-egg-shaped. Berries are first covered with yellow-red skin, which later becomes burgundy.
The stem is quite thick and well attached to the fruit. Stone accounts for about 4.2% of the total mass of the berries.
The flesh is yellow, closer to the skin is reddish, fibrous and medium dense, juicy.
The taste of the fruit is sweet-sour, with a characteristic apricot flavor. The composition of the fruit includes 12% of dry substances, 7.7% of sugars (of which about 3% is sucrose, and 4.7% - monosaccharose).
There is also about 1.7% free acid, 0.5% pectin, 0.4% polyphenol, 17.3 mg / 100 g flavonol product, 18.8 mg / 100 g anthocyanin, 95 mg catechins.
In berries there is a useful ascorbic acid - its ratio is 5.8 mg / 100 g
Terms of ripening
Culture called Kuban comet begins to bear fruit after 2-3 years from the moment of landing on the site. Flowering usually occurs in late April. The appearance of the fruit should be expected in mid-July - early August. For the same period, the gardener should plan and harvest.
So that the culture could be grown in different regions, two of its varieties were bred - late and early. The first is suitable for the northern regions, its fruits ripen in late August. The second is designed for the southern regions, the berries from such a tree can be enjoyed in mid-July.
Features of growing and pollination
When buying seedlings of such a plant, one should choose two-year-olds with a closed root system, about 1.2 m high, with swollen buds, yellow-green cut of the shoot and without injuries.
Landing is preferable to fertile sandy soil with a neutral level of acidity. Although this type of crop is partially self-propelled, a pollinator will not interfere to increase crop yields at the site.
When planting on the garden plot of several plants at once between them, it is necessary to leave a distance of up to 3.5 m.
Among the pollinators most suitable for cherry plum, the Kuban comet are the Podarok St. Petersburg, Traveler, Pchelnikovskaya and Maru, Pramen and Seyane varieties.
It is also advised to place the plum trees Skoroplodnaya, Krasny Shar and Orlovsky souvenir next door.
Watering should be carried out in June, July, and then only in September. Under the plant poured up to 4 buckets of water. Young seedlings require more frequent watering.
Since sulfur potassium, humus and superphosphate have already been added to the planting hole, the next time fertilizers are applied in a year - in the spring before the flowering begins. Next, the young tree must be fed up to 4 times per season.
Nitrogen is introduced in the spring, at the end of flowering a potassium-phosphorus preparation is necessary, and after the onset of fruiting, potassium sulfate is used.
Before winter, the soil should be mulched with humus or compost.
The gardener should carry out spring pruning of the crown and its shaping by the type of a bowl-shaped or trenchless year before the age of three. In the autumn, they carry out sanitary pruning of the crown.
To prevent the appearance of pests, plants are treated with insecticides - Verin and Nitrafen are suitable.
In order to avoid diseases such as brown spot and rust, in the fall you need to collect and burn fallen leaves. For the prevention of gray rot spend spraying Bordeaux liquid and processing of copper sulphate.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of fruit crops are skoroplodnost, partial self-fertility, good winter hardiness, high immunity to disease, abundant yields. And the presence of large and tasty fruits with excellent appearance and taste.
The disadvantage is poor separation of the bone from the pulp, uneven ripening of berries, reduction in the size of the fruit in case of overload of trees.
Description and Features
The Kuban comet is a hybrid, obtained from a cherry plum crossing. Pioneer with the early plum of Skoroplodnaya. Work on breeding the variety began back in 1977, and, including testing, lasted almost 10 years, after which in 1987 the Kuban comet variety was entered into the State Register and officially allowed to be cultivated in most regions.
Before describing this variety, it should be recalled that, despite the high yield and abundant fruiting, the trees of this cherry plum are very low (up to 2.5-3 m) and compact. This quality has great weight for gardeners and summer residents who have a small landing area. Crown cherry plum is round, but since it is easy to form, some gardeners give it the most diverse form.Externally, these trees are very attractive: the trunk is smooth, gray in color, the shoots are horizontally relative to the stem, the branches are of medium thickness, the leaves are elongated, pointed up, not pubescent, and saturated green.
The cherry plum trees look especially elegant in spring during flowering. Branches are literally covered with multiple white flowers. Flower buds are not very large, round shape, flowers of medium size, are collected in inflorescences in pairs. Petals are white, concave, egg-shaped, stamens are orange-yellow, located at the bottom of the calyx. Pedicels are not long (1.2-1.4 cm).
The fruits are quite large, ranging in size from 25 to 45 g, depending on growing conditions. The shape of the fruit is rounded-ovate, slightly pointed at the top, the abdominal suture is poorly pronounced. The skin is thin, but durable, in full maturity reaches burgundy color and is covered with a small wax coating. The flesh is very juicy, fibrous, intense yellow or orange, fragrant and quite sweet to the taste. The stone is small, rough, almost not separated from the pulp. The fruits are beautifully stored, and even in full maturity do not crack and remain hanging on the tree.
Since the variety was originally intended for wide consumption and cultivation in any region, the breeders produced two hybrids differing in maturity: cherry plum Comet late, ripening at the end of August, and Comet early, bearing fruit in the middle of July. Both varieties do not differ at all in taste, they are able to withstand severe frosts (up to -30 ° C) and a small drought.
The yield of cherry plum is very high and this indicator is growing every year. An adult tree can produce up to 8 buckets (about 50 kg) of fruit.
The tree enters fruiting rather early - 2-3 years after planting. The variety is partially self-fruited, therefore, near the cherry plum trees of the Kuban comet, it is necessary to plant such varieties as Traveler, Mara, Podarok Saint-Petersburg, as well as Skoroplodnaya plum.
Alycha is a Kuban comet variety, the description of which is presented above, as any plum is thermophilic and demanding of lighting. Planted in a sunny place, it will bring sweet and large fruits. If it is planted in the shade, the fruits will be small and very sour, which is not typical for this variety. The same applies to the weather, the sunnier and warmer the summer, the sweeter and tastier the fruits will be. In a word, when choosing a place for cherry plum of the Kuban comet variety, give preference to well-lit and non-windy areas, with a deep occurrence of groundwater. Not bad plum grows near the wall or fence, which cover it from the north winds.
The composition of the soil of cherry plum is not very demanding, but good drainage and neutral acidity of the soil are extremely important for it. The tree will feel great in loose sandy or sandy soil with a fertile layer of humus. If the organic matter in the soil is not enough, you can add compost or humus. In case of increased acidity, the soil is lime, or ashes are applied. Heavy Kuban comet does not suit heavy clay or loamy soils, as well as wetlands.
A plum plum can be planted in early spring or autumn, but in the northern regions and the middle lane it is preferable to plant in spring. For planting, it is advisable to buy cherry plum seedlings with a closed root system - such plants take root faster and better. If a seedling with open roots is purchased, then before planting it must be put in water for a few hours or a stimulating solution - this measure will speed up the rooting of the plant in a new place.
Planting pits for cherry plum should be prepared in advance, 1-2 weeks before planting. Fertilizers are made in the planting pit. To do this, the ground, dug out of the pit, mixed with humus (preferably horse), about 0.5 buckets, superphosphate (250 g), potassium sulphide (40-50 g).This soil mixture is half filled back into the pit with a mound on which to set the seedling vertically and fill it manually with earth. When planting plum, you need to make sure that the root neck is not buried in the soil, but rises 2 centimeters above the surface. After planting, the plant is watered and tied to a peg.
Yield of cherry plum depends on proper care, so all activities should be carried out on time, and in accordance with the following recommendations:
- irrigation - an adult tree is watered three times during the season (in June, July and September) at the rate of 3-4 buckets of water while water is poured into the hole around the trunk, the saplings are watered often (as the soil dries),
- Starting from the second year, cherry plums are fed 3-4 times per season: in the spring - a complex mixture with nitrogen (50 g / m²), after flowering - potassium-phosphorus mixture (40 g / m²), after fruiting - potassium sulfate (30 g / m²), before hibernation - mulching of the trunk circle with humus or compost (0.5 buckets / m²),
- pruning - in the first 3 years pruning is carried out 2 or 3 times during the season (this allows you to form the desired crown shape), planned pruning is done in spring (frozen branches are removed, young shoots are shortened) and in autumn (dry, diseased and excess branches are removed),
- shelter for the winter - young saplings before wintering completely wrap with garden material (sacking, spanbond), and cover the roots with organic mulch; for an adult tree it is enough to cover the roots with organic matter,
- loosening and keeping the soil clean in a wheel circle,
- to attract insects during the flowering period, it is recommended to spray the trees with honey solution (1 tbsp. honey and 1 l of water) - this simple procedure will improve pollination,
- The first bloom in cherry plum comes very early, 2-3 years from planting, and since at this time the tree is not able to withstand the load of fruits, all the flowers should be cut off - this measure will allow the tree to grow stronger and bring greater yield next year.
An adult cherry plum tree is always abundantly fruiting. After flowering, it is covered with green fruits, which, when ripe, will create a large load on the branches, and can even break them. To avoid this, some of the green fruit must also be removed in the ovary stage. This will reduce the load on the branches and get larger fruits.
Diseases and pests
Variety plum Kuban comet quite resistant to the effects of pests and various diseases. As a rule, with the observance of agrotechnics and proper care, including preventive treatments, the trees are not adversely affected. However, in rare cases, near fruit trees can be dangerous for cherry plums, it is from them that harmful insects and painful microorganisms get to cherry plums.
It should be noted, plum has the same illnesses as plum. This is a brown spot and rust on the leaves. Both diseases lead to the desiccation and fall of the foliage.
The fight against them consists in spraying with insecticides: 1% Bordeaux liquid before budding and after flowering, or 1% solution of copper sulfate in early spring. In autumn, after leaf fall, the foliage from the trees that had recovered must be harvested from the ground and burned.
Often, transparent vitreous growths form on the trunks of fruit trees - this is a hardened gum flowing from the wood. If gum flow has started on your cherry plum, then this may be a sign of an increase in soil acidity. Fertilizer application should be limited and the soil pH should be evened out, and the formation itself should be removed and the pruning sites should be disinfected.
During the period of ripening of the plum fruits, it may be exposed to gray rot (chaotic gray growths on the surface of the fruits or bark). This is a fungal disease that spreads quite quickly. Sick fruits should be removed immediately, as the fungus is easily transferred and the entire crop may soon die.As a preventive measure in early spring, trees are sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, before flowering and after it with copper sulphate.
Of the pests on the plum can attack insects such as aphids, downy silkworm. These pests feed on the leaves, making holes in them that cause the leaf plates to dry and crumble. As a preventive measure, trees are sprayed with insecticides (Nitrafen, Verin) before the leaves bloom. In the bark of the cherry plum can live the beetles of the bark beetle, fruit stalks. Insects lay larvae under the bark, from which caterpillars emerge, feeding on tree sap, and making passages in the trunk. If time does not take action, the tree may shrink. The only way to control pests is insecticides: Dichlorvos, Chlorophos, Confidor. Processing of trunks is carried out every 14 days, while the bark should be abundantly moistened with a means. In the fall, diseased branches should be cut and burned.
The plum moth is most dangerous for the fruits of cherry plum. This insect attacks literally the entire tree: first, butterflies lay their eggs on the bark of the tree, then caterpillars emerge from the eggs, which penetrate the ripening fruit through the petiole, and completely damage them from the inside. Damaged fruits fall off, resulting in loss of harvest. Since the treatment of fruits with insecticides is not the best way out of the situation, the preventive spraying should be carried out 2-3 weeks after flowering. Used drugs: Avant, Ditox, Phosban. Treatment can be repeated after 12-14 days.
Harvesting and storage
Cherry plum Comet begins to mature by mid-July. Crop is removed in several stages as the fruit ripens. A sign of readiness for harvesting is the coloring of the fruit - in full ripeness, plum of this variety acquires an intense rich red, almost burgundy color. The period of fruiting can stretch for two weeks depending on the number of fruits, as the largest and sunlit first ripen. Fruiting plum is always abundant, so you shouldn’t drag out ripe fruit with harvesting - although they are not prone to shedding or cracking, if they are not removed from the tree, they create additional stress and prevent the remaining berries from ripening.
Ripe fruit at temperature +3-5 ° C stored no more than 10 days. In order to extend this period, as well as to realize them, they should be removed from the tree in incomplete maturity - plum ripens well and acquires the color characteristic of the variety after removal. The product characteristic of this cherry plum is more than high: it is well transported, does not crumple, does not rot, and retains its taste qualities for a long time. However, it is provided that it was removed from the tree in incomplete maturity. The variety Kuban comet is special in that its fruits can be consumed fresh as a dessert, since they taste very sweet. In addition, one can cook all kinds of sweet dishes and preparations, as well as dry and freeze.