Cultivating flowers for sale is done not only by the owners of small household farms, but also by greenhouse business professionals.
In greenhouses you can create perfect conditions for a variety of plants.
Floral business has a good profitability, but it is suitable only for people who are well versed in crop production.
Greenhouses for professionals and amateurs
Industrial greenhouses for growing flowers are impressive in size (from 1 ha). Most often they built on a metal frame and covered with glass. In regions with a cold climate, double glazing is used, creating a thermos effect. Industrial greenhouses are made high, the structures are equipped with supporting internal columns.
For farmersplanning their own business in breeding flowers greenhouses will do medium size, from 100 to 200 square meters. m. Best of all proven construction of galvanized metal, not susceptible to corrosion. Greenhouses are covered with polycarbonate sheets, which retains heat very well. Polycarbonate constructions are durable, do not break under the influence of snow.
Flexible sheets can be given any shape. Perfect floral greenhouses are being made sloping, the south side should be below the north. This design significantly improves insolation and helps to save on heating. It is more practical to lay out the northern wall with a bar or cinder blocks. A blank wall will protect the greenhouse from the wind and create a solar panel effect.
The best greenhouse location - from west to east. When building a greenhouse for flowers, it is worth considering the possibility of expanding the economy. Renting a site, it is worth leaving a place to build another 2-3 structures.
Advantages and disadvantages of business
Greenhouse professionals believe that growing flowers in a greenhouse as a business is the most profitable option for beginners and experienced entrepreneurs. Among the advantages of greenhouse floriculture:
- high demand for quality flowers, stable throughout the year,
- in winter and spring, the margin on plants increases significantly,
- in the greenhouse you can grow any plantsincluding exotic ones
- greenhouses are suitable for breeding seedlings and pot crops,
- high yield. From one rose bush you can cut about 250 flowers.
Despite the obvious advantages, growing flowers in greenhouses has disadvantages:
- Flowers - capricious culturerequiring attentive care. Business is suitable only for people who understand a lot about agriculture.
- Year-round heating greenhouses will be expensive. The colder the region, the less profitable the business will be.
- Cut flowers have limited shelf life.
- It is important to think about the sale of products. For a successful and fast sale, you need to establish several channels: outlets on the market and in kiosks, flower shops, wholesale buyers, etc.
What flowers to grow?
Opinions of experts concerning ideal cultures for greenhouses diverge. Some believe that best flower for closed ground - a rose. It is very fruitful, from one bush per year can be cut from 200 to 250 flowers. There are many varieties created specifically for greenhouses. Roses are willing to buy wholesalers and retail, the demand for them is stable throughout the year.
Those who decide to make a choice in favor of roses should start with proven varieties that give good yields and are resistant to diseases. In greenhouses most often planted hybrid tea roses, cultivation on own roots or on stocks is possible. Among the most popular varieties:
- Karina (pink)
- Baccarat (orange-red),
- Little Flirt (red-yellow),
- Better Times (red).
For cultivation in greenhouses fit and chrysanthemums. Indoors, you can grow large-flowered and small-flowered varieties of different colors. Chrysanthemums resistant to pests, they are stored for a long time after cutting.
Greenhouse owners can bet on seasonal flowers: varietal tulips, crocuses, hyacinths. When growing tulips in a greenhouse, in greenhouses, you can shoot several harvests per year.
Seasonal cultures can be combined with other plants planting them alternately.
A very promising option - growing flowers in pots. The cost of such plants is comparable to the soil, and the margin on them is significantly higher. In addition, potted flowers are more durable, which increases their attractiveness for retail. In greenhouses successfully grow miniature roses, mini-chrysanthemums, hyacinths and other bulbous, orchids, cyclamen.
Some flower growers are betting on seasonal summers. Growing seedlings and ampelous plants in hanging baskets can bring a good income. Suspended structures are willingly bought by shop owners, catering establishments, and various summer playgrounds.
How to equip a greenhouse?
Flowers very demanding high-quality lighting, the level of moisture and nutritional value of the soil. But the main question is the heating of the greenhouse. It can be solved by built-in mini-boilers, but small structures are often heated with conventional heaters or stoves.
Heating is also possible with the help of fires, the use of biofuels. Sheet of roofing felt, which are laid out outside around the perimeter, will help to keep warm.
Even the simplest greenhouses need an airing system and curtains for shading during the summer heat. The design can be supplemented with a system of drip irrigation, fogging, temperature control and humidity levels.
It is possible to plant flowers directly into the ground, in suspended vessels or containers installed on the racks. In industrial conditions, flowers are grown in bags filled with substrates of pearlite, coconut fiber, mineral wool, etc.
Prepared mats are laid out in special gutters with drainage holes pre-rooted in rassadnymi cubes plants are planted in the substrate. This technology allows you to significantly save space in the greenhouse, up to 7 rose bushes are placed on one running meter.
Calculation of profitability
Making a business plan for the future economy, you must consider all costs. Will be required significant upfront investment, business pays back not earlier than in a year. The list of basic expenses includes:
- Construction and equipment of the greenhouse (120 sq. M.) - from 100,000 to 500,000 rubles. The most expensive option includes an automated system of irrigation, air humidification, ventilation and shading, as well as the installation of an electric heating system.
- Purchase of varietal planting material and fertilizers - from 50 000 rubles.
- Registration of legal entity, obtaining certificates for products - from 10 000 rubles. Required to work with retail chains or trade through its own store.
- Heating and lighting of greenhouses - from 20,000 per month.
To the expenditure side, you can add the cost of renting or purchasing a land plot, transportation, and salaries of hired personnel.
Revenues depend on the chosen method of implementation and the season. Most profitable option - retail. Flowers can be donated to retail chains or open your own florist salon. Wholesales reduce profits, but help significantly increase turnover. Owners of large greenhouses use the combined methods of implementation, combining retail and wholesale.
The reason for this is a decrease in supply reduced competition by small entrepreneurs and increased demand.
To calculate the profit, you can take the average wholesale price for a rose (40 rubles). Greenhouse in 100 square meters. m can hold up to 400 rose bushes. In the year they will give at least 80,000 flowers. Thus, the business of growing roses in the greenhouse, according to minimal estimates, will amount to 3,200,000 rubles. Profitability business is 70-75%.
Cultivation of flowers in greenhouses is a promising business. The idea of import substitution has reduced competition from foreign producers, while the demand for high-quality plants has not decreased. Starting with one small greenhouse, already next year you can expand, erecting another 1-2 designs and increasing the area of landings. By optimizing sales, you can increase profitability up to 80-100%.
Business - Flowers - Greenhouse, details in the video below:
According to the recommendations of existing entrepreneurs engaged in the "tulip business", flowers of different colors should be grown. In this case, the most popular tulips are red. But do not forget about other shades. The approximate structure of plants may be as follows:
From varieties, you can choose "Simple early", "Darwin hybrids", "Triumph" and many others.
Flower bulbs should be grown in the open field, the flowers are removed immediately after blooming. When the upper leaves wither, the lower ones turn yellow, and the scales will turn brown, they need to be dug out. The bulb, suitable for winter forcing, has a diameter of about 3.5 cm and a rounded shape, which indicates its health and the potential to give an excellent harvest.
The storage of bulbs is carried out at a temperature of about 18 ° C, the relative humidity of the air should vary in the range from 70 to 75%. This period takes about 6 weeks, after which parts of the flower are formed. To speed up the formation, it is possible to raise the temperature to 32 ° C within 1 week and then reduce it to 17 ° C, which will reduce the period to 4 weeks. The formed bulbs are cooled.
Substrate can be river sand mixed with peat. The soil must be homogeneous, contain the optimal amount of trace elements and not be affected by pests. Before disembarking, it is prepared by steaming with warm air (80 ° C) and pouring fungicide on it.
At present, in Russia in hothouse conditions 2 main technologies of tulip cultivation are used - the traditional and the Dutch methods.
The 1st method is simpler. It involves placing bulbs in the soil, followed by moistening and storing at a temperature of about 12 ° C in a dark place. The soil is located in ordinary wooden boxes, about 80x40x10 in size, in which about 100 onions are planted. Such a box can be easily made independently. When the plant is rooted and sprouts about 10 cm long, the boxes are placed directly in the greenhouse, where the temperature is gradually increased from 12 ° C to 18 ° C. Substrate must be constantly moistened.
The Dutch method is more complicated, as it implies strict observance of the temperature regime. First, for 12 weeks, the bulbs are stored at 5 ° C (or at 9 ° C, but already for 22 weeks). Then they are planted in the same wooden boxes and transferred to the refrigerator, where the air humidity is maintained at 90%. Only after that they are sent to the greenhouse with a temperature of 18 ° C. With this technology, up to 350 bulbs per 1 sq. M of soil can be planted. After removing the unsprouted and affected bulbs, as a rule, about 300 future flowers remain.
Greenhouse business assumes the presence of a plot on which the corresponding facilities will be built, as well as installed equipment. Since a small business does not involve the construction of entire hangars in which tulips will be bred, the traditional domestic summer cottage for 6 acres is quite suitable for doing business. It should be fenced off part of the territory in which the greenhouse will be built. The approximate area of the whole building is about 150 sq.m (greenhouse complex with dimensions 10x15m). Since specialized companies rarely build such structures from polycarbonate on the market (due to the vulnerability of the structure), it is supposed to build 5 greenhouses, each one is 10x3x2 meters. In addition, this separation will allow in different greenhouses to grow different varieties and types of tulips.
Before you start building a greenhouse complex, growing tulips and selling them, you need to officially register your business. To do this, it is necessary to determine the organizational and legal form of interest, apply with the appropriate application to the authorized body (tax service at the place of residence), pay the state duty and select the type of activity, the tax system. A greenhouse business does not carry serious risks for a businessman, so it does not seem appropriate to open a separate legal entity (for example, an LLC). This will entail a lot of related costs (more expensive duty, authorized capital, a full-fledged accountant in the state or outsourcing), complicate the withdrawal of profits. It is much easier and cheaper to register independently as an individual entrepreneur. The state duty in this case will cost only 800 rubles. As OKVED codes, you can specify 01.19 - Cultivation of other annual crops (this includes the cultivation of flowers).
As mentioned above, the best place for the construction of a greenhouse complex will be its own summer cottage. Considering the owner’s obligation to pay taxes for the use of land, it will be incorrect to take into account the amounts for determining the profitability of a business. However, due to the need for regular watering and heating of plants, the costs of utility payments will increase significantly. It is assumed that a monthly basis will have to pay at least 5,000 rubles.
The greenhouse complex consists of 5 greenhouses, each of which covers an area of 30 sq.m. The cost of consumables (metal structures, polycarbonate, fasteners), as well as the work of a specialized team for the construction of each greenhouse, will be about 20,000 rubles. Accordingly, a full greenhouse complex will cost the owner approximately 100,000 rubles.
For the construction of the complex will need the following equipment:
1) Refrigerators. Essential for cooling bulbs and storing flowers. The cost is 40,000 rubles.
2) Automatic watering system. Programmed watering will allow to moisten the soil without direct human intervention. The price is 15 000 rubles.
3) Plant heating system. Designed to increase the temperature inside the greenhouse during the cold period of time. The cost is 30 000 rubles.
4) Ventilation system. The classic natural extractor is not suitable for growing tulips, so it is recommended to install a fan in each greenhouse. The price of the kit is 25,000 rubles.
5) A set of boxes. They will be planting bulbs. The cost is 5,000 rubles.
6) Agricultural equipment. Required for the care of plants, soil. Includes rakes, gloves, buckets, etc. The price is 5 000 rubles.
Total, to purchase all the necessary equipment will need about 120,000 rubles.
The regularly purchased materials will be mainly fertilizers applied to the soil to saturate the necessary trace elements, as well as treatment from pests. Monthly it will require at least 3,000 rubles.
Hiring any staff for plant care is not required. The entrepreneur himself can easily cope with all garden works. Given the timing of work, flowering tulips, organizational issues will not require as much time as with any other type of business. In this case, you only need the initial purchase of bulbs and the subsequent implementation of flowers in retail chains at wholesale prices or sale to individuals at retail.Accordingly, the cost of labor is not provided. However, one should not forget that the individual entrepreneur is obliged to pay contributions to the pension and medical funds for himself. Their size for the current year is a fixed amount - 32,385 rubles. Taking into account the monthly breakdown, it turns out 2 699 rubles per month.
Thus, the structure of expenses for organizing and running a tulip growing business in greenhouses is as follows.
- Business registration - 800 rubles.
- Construction of greenhouses - 100 000 rubles.
- Purchase of equipment and inventory - 120,000 rubles.
Total: 220 800 rubles. However, you should not be guided by this amount when planning start-up costs. It does not take into account the most important thing - the purchase of seeds. Given the size of the cultivated area, the initial investment can be safely tripled.
- Utility payments - 5 000 rubles.
- Fertilizers and chemicals - 3,000 rubles.
- Fees PI for yourself - 2 699 rubles.
Total: 10 699 rubles every month.
We now proceed to the calculation of costs and income from growing flowers. The total area of greenhouses is 150 sq.m. Given the need for space for work, the landing area will be about 100 square meters. Every sq.m. soil can hold about 300 bulbs. Accordingly, it takes about 30,000 bulbs to fill all the boxes with soil. In order to purchase the specified volume of bulbs at a price of 15 rubles / piece, at least 450,000 thousand rubles will be required.
When calculating the profit from the cultivation of flowers, you should consider the proportion of undegrown and damaged bulbs. Usually it is at least 10% of the total landing volume. Thus, under comfortable conditions, at least 27,000 flowers can be grown by the end of the season. For wholesale sales at 40 rubles / unit, the proceeds will be 1,080,000 rubles. Given the seasonality of this business, this will be the annual income of the entrepreneur. If you deduct the amount of monthly expenses (128,388 rubles), the cost of purchasing bulbs (450,000 rubles), and income tax (in this case, it is advisable to use the USN model 6% "income"), the net profit will be 436,812 rubles a year or 36 401 rubles a month. Starting investment pays off already for the 1st season. Given the duration of tulip cultivation (preparation of the bulbs, planting, germination, bud formation, etc.), as well as the prospects for expansion, the greenhouse complex can be divided into several sectors in order to grow flowers throughout the year and carry out regular deliveries to flower shops.
1. PROJECT SUMMARY
The goal of the project is to organize a greenhouse farm for growing roses for the realization of flower sections in the Rostov region. The main target audience is concentrated in Rostov-on-Don. The target audience is small wholesale buyers (flower stalls, florist shops, etc.), who sell their products among the population of the city at the age of 20 to 50 with middle income.
Over the past years, the Russian flower market has been showing active growth and is characterized by a tendency to increase the share of domestic products. This trend was stimulated by currency fluctuations and the growth of customs expenses. As a result, an increasing number of flower shops are seeking to find suppliers in the domestic market. Climatic conditions in Russia allow year-round cultivation of flowers only in greenhouses. Therefore, greenhouse flower farms are becoming a relevant area for business. Today, this niche is free - in Russia, only 7% of greenhouses are used to grow flowers.
Thus, the idea of organizing a greenhouse for growing roses, as the most popular type of flowers, is relevant. This business has the following advantages:
high rate of profitability (on average for the industry - 70%),
return on investment within 6-8 months,
low threshold of entry into the industry,
preferential terms of doing business that relates to agriculture,
relatively low initial cost.
The project uses its own land plot with a total area of 50 sq.m. The personal plot is located in the Rostov region, 20 km from the enterprise is the city of Rostov-on-Don.
The volume of initial investment is 511,000 rubles. Investment costs are directed to the construction and equipment of greenhouses, advertising promotion, the purchase of seed and the creation of a working capital fund prior to the project's return on payback. The bulk of the required investment (78%) comes from the construction and equipment of greenhouses. To implement the project will use its own funds.
Ready ideas for your business.
Financial calculations cover the three-year period of the project. It is assumed that after this time, business expansion will be required. In accordance with the calculations, the initial investment will pay off in the ninth month of work. According to the results of the first year of work, the net profit of 703,740 rubles and the return on sales of 24.5% are predicted. Integral indicators of project efficiency are presented in table 1 of the business plan.
Table 1. Key performance indicators of the project
Payback period (PP), months
Discounted payback period (DPP), months
Net present value (NPV), rub.
Return on investment (ARR),%
Internal rate of return (IRR),%
Profitability Index (PI)
The profitability index is greater than one, the net present value is positive and amounts to 662,300 rubles, which indicates the investment attractiveness of the project.
2. DESCRIPTION OF INDUSTRY AND COMPANY
The flower market of Russia is at the stage of active formation, both from the side of consumer demand, and from the side of commercial supply and domestic production. The intensive development of the market began relatively recently, and actually coincided with the beginning of the mass import of fresh flowers from abroad about 10-12 years ago.
The current range of supply and demand is formed precisely by importers of flowers. Russia is one of the largest importers of flowers, ranking 6th in the world in terms of imports. By the end of 2016, Russia imported flowers in the amount of $ 357 million. Experts say that the crisis has changed the structure of the market - the share of domestic producers of flowers is growing every year.
Over the past years, the flower market of Russia has been showing an active growth. The dynamic development of the flower market is evidenced by market volume statistics. Every year the market volumes increase - for the period from 2011 to 2015, the market volume of cut flowers in physical terms grew by 1/3.
Figure 1. The volume of the flower market in physical terms, billion pieces., 2011-15.
In monetary terms, this growth is more noticeable due to the increase in the price of flowers. For the period 2011-2015, the market volume increased by almost 40%.
Figure 2. Cost volume of the flower market, billion rubles., 2011-15.
Today, the entire Russian market can be estimated at 160 billion rubles in monetary terms and 35.8 tons in physical terms.
According to analysts, the Russian flower market will continue to grow. According to the analytical company GLOBAL REACH CONSULTING, the real capacity of the domestic market is estimated at 40 billion dollars.
Thus, the flower business is regarded as one of the most promising, despite the risk component. The average profitability of the flower business is constantly growing. At the same time, the probability of risk also increases. The main threats are associated with a pronounced seasonality of business and a high probability of incorrect planning of sales volumes of flower products. Flower sales peaks occur in February, March, May, September and December, and the summer months are considered the “dead” season, which can cause a significant reduction in profits. The economic crisis, lower incomes of the population can also negatively affect the flower business, reducing sales or shifting their focus to a more budget segment. In addition, flowers are not stored for a long time - the maximum period for their implementation is limited to one week. Another risk is a strong dependence on imports. To date
Russia ranks sixth in the import of cut flowers, and the share of imports in sales is about 90%. However, there is a positive trend in the share of domestic products. It is planned that in the next few years the share of domestic flowers on the market will increase by another quarter. According to analysts, in the next ten years, Russia will take the second place in Europe in terms of imports after Germany. This risk lies in the possible growth of exchange rates, the likelihood of a ban on the importation of floral products from certain countries, the tightening of customs policies, etc.
Figure 3 shows the structure of import of flowers in the context of producing countries. The largest share of imports comes from the Netherlands - 44.7%, Ecuador and Colombia are second and third with 36% and 12.8%, respectively. The rest of the country accounts for only 6.5% of the supply.
Figure 3. Distribution of countries-producers by volume of supplies in physical terms in the Russian Federation, 2014
In the structure of the supply of flowers, 43% are roses. The second most popular flowers are chrysanthemums - 24%. The top three closes cloves, the share of deliveries of which is 22%. In general, in recent years, supply leaders have remained unchanged, but there is a tendency to popularize exotic, unusual colors. Recently, flower shops are trying to diversify their range and attract customers with unique types of flowers.
Figure 4. The structure of flowers in total imports (in physical terms),%, 2014
In total sales in 2016, roses dominate in Russia - their share is 51%, followed by chrysanthemums (about 16%) and carnations (9%).
Pricing in the market consists of two components - the volume of costs (currency exchange rates, customs duties, the price of gasoline, etc.) and demand fluctuations are taken into account - an increase in demand leads to an increase in prices. On average, the pricing policy in the flower market involves cheating 100-300% of the purchase price.
The high dependence of the market on customs policy and the exchange rate, as well as the rise in the cost of importing flowers, have shaped the growing trend in the share of domestic suppliers. The choice in favor of the domestic manufacturer allows the distributors not only to purchase products at lower purchase prices, but also to minimize the supply costs. Thus, the business of growing flowers is updated. According to data reflecting the structure of the flower market, the most popular flowers are roses. In this regard, the cultivation of roses is seen as one of the most profitable and successful businesses. The project on the organization of the greenhouse business on flowers can pay off within one season, and in case of a favorable set of circumstances, in 2-3 months.
Growing roses in a greenhouse as a business
the Rose - the queen of flowers, which is most often used as a gift or a decorative element. Growing roses in a greenhouse is undoubtedly a profitable and profitable business, but requiring considerable financial investments. The minimum starting capital is 700,000 rubles. The profitability of business is 300%, the profit is about 4 million rubles a year. Investments pay off within 3 years.
A large role is played by the region of growing flowers - in the south they grow better, and the warmer the terrain, the less you need to spend money on lighting and heating the greenhouse. From November to January, roses are grown poorly, lighting and heating of the greenhouse complex for at least 12 hours is required. Often, greenhouses begin to forge roses in February, when daylight increases. What determines the profit from the cultivation of roses in the greenhouse:
• A well-equipped complex with suitable conditions - temperature, humidity, lighting,
• Nutritional value of the soil,
• The correct selection of varieties and seedlings
• Timely planting, watering and fertilizer,
• Cut flowers and bushes,
• Protection against diseases and parasites.
If you follow all the recommendations, the maximum profit comes from March to November.
What you need to install in the greenhouse for growing roses:
• Heating complex with automatic temperature control,
• Irrigation system,
• Equipment for ventilation and airing,
• Lighting and shading.
The average wholesale cost per rose is 40-60 rubles. In a greenhouse with a volume of 100 sq.m. 400 rose bushes are placed, which are brought in from 80 thousand buds per year.
We select a grade
Before you start a business, you need to decide what sort of flowers your business will do. There are many varieties in color and shape of petals. Most often for the cultivation of large quantities planted variety "Strong". As the name promises, this bright yellow flower grows very strong and tall. Considerable interest among buyers is caused by “Rolle Virgin”, “Prior”, “Barcelona” and especially terry tulips.
For greenhouse production such varieties of tulips are best:
- terry early
- simple early
- Darwin hybrids
- simple late.
Most often, buyers prefer bright colors. Therefore, the ratio of the color of tulips grown for sale should be something like this: 40% red, 20% yellow, 20% white, 10% purple.
In order to grow tulips, you need to find bulbs for planting. Today, these flowers are grown exclusively from Dutch bulbs, because it is too difficult and expensive to grow them in our conditions. They are also sold in the Baltic States, New Zealand, America, but the cost of seedlings in this case will be much higher. In Holland, the world's largest flower auctions are concentrated, so making purchases here is much more profitable. Even the tulips themselves are easier to buy here, but you can only take the most resistant varieties. Therefore, the cultivation of tulips in the greenhouse is better to focus on those varieties that are not imported from Holland.
When buying bulbs it is important to monitor their quality. From the strong and healthy tubers depends on the quantity and quality of the crop, and, therefore, your greenhouse business. But you have to be ready, that all the same about 3% of bulbs are rejected. The cost of the bulb - from 5 to 20 rubles. depending on the variety. Plus, if shipping comes from afar, the cost of transportation is included.
Independent cultivation of bulbs
To reduce the risks of buying inappropriate consumables, it is possible to grow the bulbs yourself. For planting is taken onion from open ground. As soon as the flower blooms, it is immediately cut off, and the bulb itself is dug out after the lower leaves turn yellow and the upper ones are grafted. The optimal diameter of the bulb is 3.5 cm.
They are stored for about 6 weeks at a temperature not exceeding 20 ° C and a humidity of no more than 75%, until a pestle is formed on them. Only under such conditions will a flower form inside. At the initial stage, storage in warmer conditions is allowed, but the bulbs must be cooled before planting.
Greenhouse and equipment
To grow tulips, use ground greenhouses, often from polycarbonate. Such a greenhouse can be bought in any region of the country. A construction 3 m wide and 8 m long costs from 10 thousand rubles. For growing tulips, it must meet the following requirements:
- planned area
- passes sunlight well
- equipped with electric light
- equipped with a watering system,
- allows you to adjust the temperature.
A prerequisite for good growth of tulips - cooling bulbs before planting.To do this, it is necessary to purchase refrigerating chambers in which tubers can be kept at a temperature of 5-9 o C. Such a chamber with a volume of 3 m 3 costs about 14 thousand rubles. Also, the business plan should include the cost of 2-3 thousand rubles. on the irrigation system, 7-10 thousand rubles. - for heating the greenhouse with electricity. The optimal temperature for the winter period is 18 o C. To ensure uniform heating of the greenhouse, the business plan should include the purchase of fans.
Tulips are grown in a substrate of river sand and sawdust, sand and peat. It is important that the soil is homogeneous and well water flowing. Drainage is poured at the bottom of the boxes, and then the soil is about 10 cm. Before planting flowers, the soil is steamed with air heated to 80 ° C and watered with a fungicide. Then a layer of sand is poured on top. It protects the bulbs from mold and ensures a clean cut when harvesting. Flowers are not very demanding of fertilizers, so it is not always necessary to include biohumus and mineral fertilizers in your business plan.
Planted bulbs are kept for two weeks at a temperature of about 9 o C, and then transferred to a warm room with good lighting. In about a month, the plants will have buds. Based on how your cutting plan is constructed, you can adjust their growth by lowering or increasing the temperature. As a rule, a humidity of 75% and an air temperature of about 18 ° C are considered ideal.
We make a plan of landing
Plan distillation of tulips is calculated in this way. We take the desired date of flowering, we take away from it the number of weeks required for growing flowers inside the greenhouse. Then comes another period of treating plants with cold.
You can adjust the forcing plan to the desired date in another way. Planting is planned for November, and when shoots of the required length appear, the boxes are transferred inside the cold room (approximately 0 ° C) and the necessary time is kept there.
But usually the planting plan starts from the beginning of January, when the bulbs are planted in boxes of 60x40. Four of these boxes occupy a square meter in the greenhouse. Each of them can place 80 bulbs, respectively, about 320 tulips can be removed from a square meter of greenhouse. Based on the size of the greenhouse, you can determine how many flowers will grow as a result. Usually it takes up to 17 weeks to grow a batch.
Ways to grow flowers in greenhouses
There are two main ways to grow flowers. The simplest of them is traditional. When it bulbs immersed in the ground, watered and stored in a dark place at a temperature not higher than 12 ° C. Disembarkation is carried out in 70x40x7cm boxes, which cost about 70 rubles / pcs. This box fits up to 115 bulbs. When they gave a sprout of about 10 cm, the boxes can be carried to a greenhouse, where the temperature gradually rises to 18 ° C. At the same time follow the regular watering. In order for flowers to bloom longer, you can keep the temperature at 12 ° C. It is very important to provide artificial light to the plant when the sprouts appear. They should be well lit at least six hours a day.
More difficult is the Dutch cultivation technology, because it requires strict adherence to temperature conditions. Before planting, the bulbs are cooled for 12 weeks at 5 ° C or 22 weeks at 9 ° C. Then the bulbs are planted and also kept in a cool room, constantly sprayed, so that the humidity reaches at least 90%. For rooting, the ideal air temperature is 11–13 ° C, and soil is 10–11 ° C. Then the boxes are placed in a greenhouse, where tulips grow at a temperature of about 18 ° C.
When the bulbs are cooled at 5 ° C, the yield reaches 375 buds per square meter. When a sprout of 10 cm appears, it is necessary to remove non-germinating bulbs so that gray rot does not appear in the box.
Proper care of flowers
In order to properly care for flowers, your business must adhere to these simple general rules:
- When planting, keep the temperature in the greenhouse at 9-10 ° C.
- Before planting the bulbs, clean the bottom of the scales.
- At least 350 bulbs should be planted per square meter.
- The bulbs should be well watered, but not flooded.
- After distillation, after two weeks, gradually raise the temperature to 16 ° C.
- Constantly inspect the plants and infected immediately pull out.
- Remove all non-germinated onions, when the bulk already has sprouts of 10 cm.
- Shoot flowers before the buds unfold.
- Strictly monitor the humidity.
Flower business depends on how well you harvest. In early March, sprouts with green buds pulled out of the ground and placed in boxes vertically. Otherwise, the buds will reach up and twist the stem. You can also cut the flowers, but to pull out with the bulb faster. Moreover, the stem itself is lengthened.
Cutting is carried out at a temperature of 12 ° C, when the buds are half-colored. Take them out of the greenhouse early in the morning so that the buds are not yet dismissed. The collected flowers are stored at a temperature of 2-3 ° C. In this state, they can be stored cut off for about a month. When the flower is said to be sold, the temperature gradually rises.
For sale they are sorted by special boxes. Sometimes the bulbs are not cut. Some retailers sell them right with bulbs. This favorably distinguishes their business, since such tulips are kept longer with customers. Although experienced growers insist that because of the bulb the flower fades faster. Therefore, it is better to cut it, and only very early in the morning so that the tulip may be dismissed by lunchtime.
According to calculations, the business will require investments of about 20 rubles. on one flower. Its wholesale price is 40 rubles, and in retail it is 70 rubles. But we must understand that the tulip is a seasonal flower. The highest demand for it is in March, especially for International Women's Day.
However, many entrepreneurs make the same mistake. They believe that flowers are such a wonderful product that they will be sold on their own. But it is not. Even such an excellent business requires a clear business plan, without which it will collapse at the very first stage. When you offer a high-demand and high-quality product to the market - this is not even half the success of your enterprise. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a clear financial, marketing and advertising plan for the development of your business.
Sell flowers in several ways:
- elite salons, but they may have high demands on quality, color, shape, freshness, etc.,
- to kiosks and small points of sale,
- self-selling in the markets.
Today, flower market participants talk about the many difficulties of doing business. It is necessary to compete not only with a growing number of producers, but also with illegal suppliers of flowers. The most stable sales today demonstrate the point of sale of flowers near the metro and in busy crossings.
Based on these facts, it is difficult to calculate the payback period for growing tulips - too risky is a business that does not have any guarantees. But if you properly organize sales, ensure a high-quality and healthy harvest, there is a chance for success.
Growing carnations in a greenhouse as a business
Carnation - This is an annual or biennial plant, rarely there are perennial species. The most popular flower varieties are remontant, blooming several times during the growing season. They are used for cutting, because one plant will produce a large number of flowers in one season. Cut carnations are grown in greenhouses and greenhouses. The plant is not whimsical and prolific. Therefore, the greenhouse complex with carnations will bring excellent profits.
What should be in the greenhouse where the cloves are grown:
• Lighting system,
• System of shading,
• Heating system - with a heater, a valve with an electric drive, a circulation pump, heating pipes, a supply line, a return water line, a three-way electric mixing valve,
• Irrigation system,
• Ventilation and ventilation system.
The optimal size for a greenhouse with cloves is 1000 sq.m. 70% of the area falls on the flowers. To simplify the care of plants, the width of the beds should not be more than 1 meter, the distance between the flowers should be at least 12 cm. The first crop is 1 square meter. will give from 500 to 600 buds. The average wholesale price of carnations is 30-40 rubles, 100-300 plants can be sold per day. Monthly profit - from 70,000 to 200,000 rubles. A small business of growing carnations will cost 100-200 thousand rubles.
Features of the flower business video:
Holidays in which sales grow
The most popular holidays when sales increase are:
- September 1,
- October 1 - Teacher's Day,
- November 26 - Mother's Day,
- January 25 - Tatiana's Day,
- February 14 - Valentine's Day,
- February 23 - Defender of the Patronymic Day,
- March 8 - International Women's Day,
- 1st of May,
- May 9,
- May 15 - Family Day.
In this case, the leaders of all is March 8, then go February 14, May 9 and September 1.
LPH: where to start?
First you need a piece of land. This may be a summer cottage, a plot of land near a country house, a house in a village or a vegetable garden. The land may be in your possession, it can also be rented. At the same time, you should have a document confirming that you own the LPH, that is, personal backyard farming.
The household plot of a personal part-time farm can be issued in one of the local self-government bodies — the dacha partnership, the administration of the rural settlement, and so on.
This form of business organization, LPH, has a number of important advantages:
- you will not have to pay taxes
- you will not be controlled by the tax authorities and other supervisory authorities,
- You will not have to do reporting and other paperwork.
However, LPH has and significant drawback: you can only sell your products to dealers, and they certainly will not pay much for your products. But to start a business personal farm is probably the best option.
If you want to get the maximum profit and feel confident in business, you can immediately open a business as an individual entrepreneur.
When registering an IP, it is necessary to choose encoding A.01.12.2 according to OKVED - in this way you will be included in the number of businessmen who are engaged in the production of agricultural products.
As a form of taxation in this case, you must select ESC - single agricultural tax. Its rate is small - only 6%.
Most popular flowers
According to statistics, something like this is the list of the most popular flowers for bouquets:
However, their share is very different. Roses are the most popular of all and enjoy the most constant demand, then tulips go by a wide margin, but on March 8 the demand for roses and tulips is about the same.
However, some flowers have their own seasonality of sales. For example, the greatest demand for cloves is observed on May 9th.
Chrysanthemums are most in demand on September 1st and on Teacher's Day.
Gladioli are a universal flower, since the demand for September 1 and March 8 is about the same.
Business payback and examples of successful stories
The video below mentions the story of Igor Boltenkov (an entrepreneur from the village of Surkovo, Belogorodskoy region), which indicates specific data on the payback of his business:
- The amount of investment - 1 500 000 rub.,
- Area - 220 square meters. m
- Production capacity - 50,000 tulips,
- Payback - 2 years,
- Profitability - 50%.
When growing roses, the business can pay off in 1 year.
How to build a greenhouse for growing flowers
Amateur flower growers often choose a greenhouse "winter garden". Here heating is needed a whole year (except summer). Equip a home flower garden can even be in the attic. The construction of such a greenhouse is not necessary, just equip the potential "attic": arrange the supports, pots and create a watering system. Such an idea does not require large cash investments.
If you choose growing flowers as a business, then you need to do it not in the attic, but in a real greenhouse. This requires floor waterproofing and automatic watering.
Choosing a heating system
If you grow flowers in a polycarbonate greenhouse, the heating system is not required. These designs retain heat very well, especially if the installation was carried out correctly. For such greenhouses flower growers often choose roses, daffodils, tulips, carnations. In rare cases, lovers of flower gardens grow hyacinths, asters, peonies, chrysanthemums.
The greenhouse contains many plants: for 25 flowers of medium size (daffodils, tulips) you will need 1 square. meter. And if you grow daisies, then about one hundred of these beauties will fit on one square meter.
Create the right lighting
In the greenhouse it is very important to arrange the light correctly. If the greenhouse is opaque and is located in the northern part, then its windows should face south. For greenhouses in the south, you need to install windows to the east. On bright sunny days it is necessary to protect the flowers with the help of blinds. These structures must be durable, because Some plants like to live in partial shade and require special, sometimes room conditions.
For example, to grow tulips from bulbs, it is necessary to create twilight in the room immediately after planting and reduce the temperature, and a month later you can turn on the light and raise the thermometer to 10 ° C. And during the flowering period, provide the plants with a warm, spring-summer climate.
How to grow flowers for sale
To conduct such a business, you will need to study in detail all aspects of growing plants and seedlings for sale, solve all the problems with the greenhouse, find a good soil and learn the features of planting material. Where to buy stuff? What quality should they be? The list of questions is huge and the owner of the flower business will have to get acquainted with this himself.
To start a business, you can start with a small home greenhouse business. But in this case, do not need to rely on large incomes. In a year or two, you still have to expand production and transfer business to industrial scale. Think, are you ready for this? Will you have time for such entrepreneurship? Carefully weigh the pros and cons before taking the plunge and growing flowers or lots of seedlings for sale.
Before you open your flower business, make a plan for future greenhouse business. For the idea of a greenhouse business to be successful, it is important to take into account all its nuances. First of all, decide which plants you will grow for sale: only flowers or vegetables, fruits, and maybe you want to start growing seedlings? Think: to whom you will sell the finished product? Make a plan. To do this, you need to analyze the market and find out what products are in demand in your region. Who will be the main buyer, what could be the volume of greenhouse business? Sales plan must be calculated taking into account the time of year when you will harvest.
Do not rush to open your PI, get the first results of their work. If you already have experience in growing plants, you can not wait for the collection of seedlings of indoor and outdoor flowers, and at the same time engage in paperwork.
If a small flower business can be conducted in an apartment, growing expensive potted plants for sale, then a large business requires a land plot. It can be bought or rented. To begin, enough 5-10 acres, but on the ground should already be communication (light and water). Have a good idea and a business plan, but there are no funds for such a start? Start your business with growing indoor plants: multiply them in your loggia or balcony.
Cultivation of flowers in hydroponics
If there is no possibility or desire to grow flowers in the soil, you can breed hydroponically. This idea is very beneficial, because hydroponics is a substrate that is constantly moistened with a special solution for the development of plants. The substrate can be mineral wool or expanded clay, coconut fiber, fine gravel, inert chemical fiber, polypropylene yarn, etc.
According to many plant growers, hydroponics is much more profitable than the soil. And all because the plant receive feed through the nutrient solution, where the substrate is immersed. These solutions are needed in a minimum quantity, they are enough for a long time. It is possible to plant in hydroponics almost any flowers. But it should not be transferred to her plants that have long been growing in the soil: they will not withstand such changes. But the seeds will take root in these conditions and will bloom, as if nothing had happened. This idea will be useful to those who do not have a large area and a huge plot of land, but I want to grow flowers.
Options for seedlings
To open your flower business and sell seedlings, you will need a greenhouse. Planting material is an off-season business, because Many flower "magnates" buy large lots of seedlings, and already from it grow annuals or perennial plants.
Asters for sale are suitable asters, daisies, petunia, pelargonium. Seeds for seedlings are better to grow independently, but to stock up annually with novelties.
Roses - the most popular flowers that are grown in greenhouses. They have thousands of varieties, and they differ from each other in many ways: size, smell, shape, gamma, structure. All roses are luxurious, but very fragile. But the result justifies the effort.
The variety of roses should be selected on the basis of the greenhouse microclimate and the availability of demand. For roses, the height of the greenhouses should be large: about 3.5 meters. These plants require a lot of space. Good lighting, ventilation, regulation of light levels, optimum humidity and heating for the soil will be the basis for the successful cultivation of roses.
Roses are propagated by cuttings that must be prepared at the beginning of summer. Immerse them in water, and then plant them in the soil, ensure good watering and cover with a protective film. When the plant starts to grow up, you can remove the cover. Roses can be propagated by layering. For these plants, the formation of a bush is important: at this stage a lot of effort will be required from the grower. Cut flowers too, need to be correct: only at the base of the shoot.
To grow a lot of beautiful tulips, you need to choose large and healthy bulbs for planting. Then the flowers will be large. Before planting, you need to dig up the soil, enter the wood ashes into it. In August, bulbs must be dug, dried and hidden in a cool place (for example, in the basement). You can plant them in December.
Flower growers often breed 4 species of this perennial plant. The most popular options are the royal and tiger lily. These flowers easily tolerate long-term storage and transportation. Propagate them better with bulbs, because seeds grow long and produce little “fruit”. In order for lilies to grow well, it is necessary to fertilize the ground with sawdust and feed it (solution from bird and cow droppings). This should be done when the buds are only tied.
To determine the prospects of the project, it is necessary to draw up an approximate business plan, study the special literature on the cultivation of tulips, and analyze the sales markets. As a rule, foreign-made products are presented in flower shops. It is impossible not to agree that plants grown in the greenhouse, have a more attractive appearance and lower cost than flowers brought from Holland. For the organization of greenhouses will require certain investments and it is possible that the help of investors. To attract them, you need a business plan.
In the financial document should display one-time expenses:
- Greenhouse price. Modern greenhouses are built from polymeric material - polycarbonate. Due to the peculiarities of building materials, operation can be carried out all year round for 10 years. The price is approximately from 15,000 to 50,000 rubles.
- Substrate acquisition costs.
- The cost of refrigerators. One camera with a volume of 2 cubic meters will cost at least 14,000 rubles.
- Installation of watering and heating systems.
- Lighting in the greenhouse. Flowers need light at least 10 hours a day. Most often, LED lamps are used for lighting. The cost of 7 such lamps will cost 3000 rubles.
A business plan should contain such expenses:
- the cost of seed, the cost of one onion, depending on the variety, ranges from 5 to 20 rubles. It should be borne in mind that 2-3% of the seed material is a marriage,
- the cost of fertilizers and garden tools,
- payment for electricity,
Greenhouse thermos: pros and cons
Perhaps the best option would be growing flowers for sale in a greenhouse thermos. This construction has two important advantages:
- it is designed in such a way that allows to maximize the use of solar energy to heat internal space and retains heat very well - thanks to this you can save on fuel or electricity,
- in a greenhouse thermos can year round growing flowers without fear that something will happen with the plantings - emergency lowering of temperature, freezing of soil and other problems that may lead to the destruction of bushes are excluded.
Perhaps the only drawback of such a greenhouse is the complexity of its construction and the relative high cost. However, if you are serious about running a successful flower growing business, you should build it.
How to grow flowers in a greenhouse for sale?
Now we will try to figure out how to grow flowers for sale in order to make good money on it.
In order to succeed, it is necessary:
- competently pick varieties
- use a quality substrate
- observe the correct landing density
- observe the norms of watering,
- timely make the necessary fertilizers,
- care for seedlings so that they grow quickly and give healthy beautiful flowers.
As practice shows, the farming business in the poultry industry, for example, breeding guinea fowls at home, has a very attractive payback and can bring considerable profit.
In addition, the business on the supply of fish from private farms gives good results - whether it be a pond, a reservoir or a pool.
What flowers to grow for sale in the greenhouse?
There are a great variety of flowers that can be grown for sale, but traditionally roses and tulips are very popular. It is on them that it makes sense to bet in the first place - it will be a win-win option. In the future, when the business is gaining momentum, it will be possible to increase the range by starting to grow more exotic species. However, in order to dilute this standard assortment, you can add one more original look of flowers from the very beginning - for example, lilies.
However, it is possible to proceed in another way - immediately begin with the cultivation of those flowers that are rarely found on sale. The competition will be low, and there is every chance to occupy an excellent niche in the market. However, this approach carries many risks, and if you choose it, you must clearly understand what you need to do in order to succeed and get a good profit.
Growing roses in a greenhouse for sale
These flowers look great and always enjoy greatest demand. Trading pavilions are filled with them, most of the companies whose activities are related to the cultivation of flowers specialize in roses. However, there are always a lot of people willing to buy a beautiful pink bouquet, so in any case you can take your market share and stay with a good profit, the main thing is to organize the business correctly.
If outdoors, roses bloom from June to September, then they can be grown in the greenhouse all year round. But you need to be prepared for the fact that in the winter, from December to February, you will need additional artificial lighting, which will require some costs.
Florists often plant these flowers in February and collect the stalks with buds from March to November.
For growing roses in the greenhouse such varieties are well suited, as:
- floribunda roses,
- hybrid tea varieties.
They are of high quality and have a very attractive presentation. Before planting, enrich the land with peat, manure, ammonium sulphate or superphosphate. On one square meter of soil can be placed from 10 to 25 roses.
Growing lilies in the greenhouse
This perennial flower has a spectacular and exquisite appearance, it can become a real decoration of your range. For growing in a greenhouse fit tiger and royal lilies.
The best breeding option - with the help of bulbs, but the cultivation of lilies from seed will not allow to obtain good results.
In order for planting to sprout well and delight you with large and beautiful flowers, they need to be planted in a well-saturated mineral fertilizer soil with good drainage. It is also important to water abundantly. To get the best result, add sawdust to the ground.
Where and to whom to sell floral products?
Exists 3 main sales channels:
- wholesale in flower shops, shops and other outlets,
- selling products through its own flower shop.
In addition, the additional income can bring growing seedlings of flowers in the greenhouse for sale, for example, gardeners. If you are able to attract a sufficient number of customers, this can be a profitable business.
Of course, if you want to get the maximum profit, the best option would be to open your own flower shop. A good florist will give your products a unique appearance, and this will be an important factor in the success of the entire enterprise. By opening your shop, you can earn not only on the sale of flowers, but also on the sale of seeds, pots, fertilizers and other related products.
One of the popular ideas of recent times is the breeding of crayfish as a business. Where to breed them, what is required, how much can be earned on this - read our article.
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How quickly does the flower business pay for itself?
If you approach the case correctly, enterprise profitability on growing flowers can reach 300%. However, most often, of course, one has to deal with much more modest numbers. On average, this figure is 70%that can also be called a good result. In general, it should be borne in mind that the average profitability of the business associated with the cultivation of flowers is not so high - in this parameter this option is inferior to many others.
In addition, as you know, the payback period for any business related to production, more than, for example, for a commercial enterprise. Therefore, in the event that you are counting on the maximum return on investment, you can consider such an option as the purchase of flower products from producers and the subsequent sale of flowers in the trade pavilion.
Estimated estimate of income and expenses for a flower growing business in a greenhouse it might look like this:
- necessary initial investment - 700 thousand rubles, of which 500 thousand will be spent on the construction of a greenhouse, and another 200 thousand rubles - on the purchase of planting material, the purchase of equipment, fertilizers and other things,
- current expenses amount to 55 thousand rubles per month - this amount will be spent mainly on heating, lighting and watering,
- net profit from the sale of products will be 3.5 million rubles per year.
The business of growing flowers can be very profitable. However, this case must be approached very carefully. After all, in order to stay with a good income, you need not just to grow flowers - you have to constantly get good "yields" with minimal costs, which is not easy.
It will require extensive knowledge, special skills and extensive experience. Therefore, to open such a case should be primarily those who are well versed in the cultivation of flowers. For them, this can be a great way to turn a hobby into a profitable business.