Diseases of cacti on video.
In most cases, cacti diseases disappear only in case of violation of agricultural techniques recommended for one or another type of this culture.
Wrong watering, illiterately selected soil, violation of the rules of maintenance, installation on the windowsill, where there are drafts and the constant influence of cold air - all lead to the development of bacterial, viral and fungal infections.
Diseases of succulents often manifest as various root and stem rot. To deal with them is very difficult. It is much easier to carry out timely prevention and eliminate the risk of infection of the plant.
But if the trouble has already happened, it is important to understand how the treatment is carried out at home and what methods of treatment of cacti can be applied safely. The description of the main problems of growing succulents can be found on this page.
Numerous photos of cacti diseases will help determine with accuracy the cause of the troubles and reveal the way to combat them:
If you follow the basic rules of care, then cacti manifest themselves as hardy and little susceptible to diseases and pests of the plant.
Hardened, properly cultivated cacti almost never get sick and are rarely affected by pests, weakened, pampered or overfed with fertilizers, on the contrary, are very susceptible to various adverse effects.
Therefore, the best protection is the correct culture of cacti. However, even in a well-kept collection of cacti, plants can sometimes be affected by pests and diseases.
The cause of most of the damage and diseases of cacti is improper care for these plants. Some typical cacti lesion manifestations will be described here. We offer to learn about the main diseases of cacti and their treatment at home with the help of simple techniques.
Cacti grow thin with pulling shoots.
If usually characterized by compactness, squat and vertical growth, cacti begin to grow thin and strongly stretch out, so they have to be tied up to pegs, and the dark green color of the shoots becomes discolored and becomes yellow-green, the reason for this is often the very dark content of plants.
See what these cacti diseases look like and their treatment in the photo, where all the methods of therapy are demonstrated:
This happens, for example, with the prickly pear process brought from a Mediterranean holiday in a very dark window of a living room. Such a plant should be moved to a brighter place or alternatively suitable cacti should be selected for a particular location.
Similar symptoms may also occur if fertilizer or substrate contains too much nitrogen and, by nature, slow-growing cacti begin to grow unnaturally quickly, causing their tissues to become friable and lose their natural compactness. Such external manifestations of damage can also occur when in a dark winter time too high a temperature of maintenance and abundant watering stimulate the growth of cacti. In this case, it is necessary to strictly observe the rest period necessary for plants.
White or yellowish spots.
Light spots on the top of the head and on the side of the cactus facing the light appear due to damage and destruction of the epidermis caused by exposure to very high temperatures and excessively intense solar radiation.
These damages, called cactus burns, appear when people who are not accustomed to bright sunlight and are kept in dry conditions are suddenly exposed to strong solar and thermal radiation.
The danger of such damage occurs when, after a long and cloudy winter, the first bright sunny days come, and it is especially high behind the glass, facing the south side of the window. Burns can disfigure a plant for many years.
Therefore, in the first sunny spring days, cacti-grower lovers need to lightly shade their cacti from direct sunlight during hot midday hours, for example, using thin tissue paper.
Airing makes it possible to lower the ambient air temperature sharply rising in the sun.
Redness of the stems.
Redness of cacti stems indicates a "stressful situation" in which the plant turned out to be.
This can be observed in cases where in spring, as the amount of light and heat increases, cacti should begin to grow, but they do not receive the necessary moisture.
Or, then, when the root system is not all right, and therefore the plant can not absorb water.
Redness of the stems can also be a result of the fact that cacti are transferred very early in an unheated greenhouse, where it is still too cool for them.
After the improvement of environmental conditions, the plants gradually acquire their usual color. Some cacti, such as the alpine echinopsis from the pseudo-penitential group or Lobivia (Chamaecereus) silvestrii, are usually painted in spring in a more or less intense red color. Therefore, in these plants, stem redness is not a cause for concern.
Yellowing a plant or its individual segments (chlorosis).
If the whole cactus or its individual segments turn yellow (this can be observed primarily in hymnocalycium), this indicates violations in the provision of the plant with mineral substances.
The reason may be a lack of certain macro- or microelements in plants, such as iron, so (much more often there is) an excessive increase in soil pH (alkalization) or accumulation of a large amount of calcium salts in old soil, resulting in nutrients passing into compounds inaccessible to plants. A plant with such damage is best transplanted into a fresh substrate.
At the same time, the old earthen room is not left, but the old soil is removed from the roots as completely as possible. Since in this case damage to the root system is unavoidable, the plant is first watered only a few days after transplantation, and very carefully, and contained in the penumbra.
Look at these succulent diseases - you can get information about typical manifestations of root eating disorders with photos:
Corking plants from the base of the stem.
Ugly brown spots spreading from the base up the stalk are the result of negligent care: irregular watering, frequent watering with very cold water or improper feeding and nutrient supply of plants become the cause of such damage. True, in some cacti, such as, for example, individual astrophitumens, echinopsis or trichocereus, like stumping the stems is a natural process, and it is almost impossible to avoid it.
Dropping or underdevelopment of buds.
When the buds stop in their development and fall off, this may be due to the fact that after planting the flower buds the position of the plant relative to the light was changed. This is observed, for example, in "Christmas" cacti.
In addition, it may happen that the flower buds laid in a variety for further development did not have enough moisture and nutrients, light and heat, if, for example, weather conditions changed dramatically or an amateur was on vacation.
Some cacti buds usually lays more than they later develop.
In their homeland most often cacti grow in dry climatic conditions and on weathered mineral soils. That is why they are especially susceptible to fungal diseases.
In cacti with not yet dried and not prolonged injuries that are not covered with a protective cell film, there is a danger that the ubiquitous pathogenic fungi that inhabit the warm and moist humus particles of the substrate penetrate into the succulent tissues and thereby cause the stem to rot quickly.
Before you cure a cactus from a fungal disease, you need to understand one simple thing - only complete replacement of the entire contaminated soil will help. Fight against fungal diseases is almost impossible.
The so-called fungicidal plant protection products are not able to completely kill all the mushrooms and their spores, and can only temporarily muffle the infection. The best way to fight fungal diseases is to prevent them.
That is why experienced cacti growers prefer well water and air-permeable and mainly mineral substrates.
Accustomed to a dry climate, cactuses with turnips are planted in pots in such a way that the root neck and the upper part of the root are in a particularly porous, mainly gravel substrate.
All cacti, including seedlings, after transplanting into dry soil, are carefully watered for the first time only a few days later, when the possible damage to the roots has healed.
Before planting the cuttings for rooting into the soil mixture for cacti and moisturizing the substrate, they must be dried so that a layer of protective film (callus) is formed at the cut point.
Cacti should be cultivated not in the conditions of warm and humid stagnant air, but in constantly well ventilated rooms.
There are a number of different fungal diseases of cacti, which can only be distinguished only by a specialist. Almost all infections lead to rapid loss of the affected plant.
If in the sowings the whole areas of the seedlings became vitreous and died, it can happen within one night, the affected area of the crops must be carefully removed from the bowl along with the substrate and destroyed. The remaining seedlings are sprayed with a 1% solution of chinosol. After that, all crops should be kept at a slightly lower humidity and let the substrate dry out a little.
If an adult plant softens and falls, it must be immediately destroyed along with the substrate; the pot can be reused only after thorough cleaning with hot water.
Sometimes you want to believe that the cactus, affected by rot at the base of the stem, is still healthy from above.
In this case, you can try using a sharp, alcohol-disinfected knife to cut off the top of the stem and re-root it.
However, in the majority of such cases, it has to be stated that the pathogen has already got through the conducting vessels into the seemingly healthy part of the plant and causes decay also here.
Special care is required in the case when on the epidermis of a cactus, for example in the area of the apex of the stem, black spots suddenly appear. These spots are completely safe, but they can also indicate a rapidly spreading fungal disease.
Therefore, cacti with such lesions should be immediately isolated from other plants. In a separate, drier place, the affected plants must be carefully observed to see if the spots will be drawn out or will spread further.
Such fungal diseases occur primarily in the warm season, when cacti, for example, were sprayed in the greenhouse in the evening with water, and then, due to insufficient ventilation, were kept in a warm and humid atmosphere of stagnant air for a long time.
Rot - A Common Cacti Disease
Most often the plant is affected by rot. This is due to improper care of the plant. It is possible that the flower was left in a cold or chrome wet room, as well as poured.Rot can develop against the background of bacteria and fungi.
Among all it is possible to distinguish:
- Cactus phytophtora. This "mushroom" affects the whole plant, although the root collar suffers the most. It is impossible not to notice the problem, because that part of the cactus that was struck turns into a soft "porridge."
- Gelmintosporioz. This disease is also called the disease of crops. Small trunks of young stock are bent quickly enough, and after they dry up.
- Rhizoctoniosis or wet rot. If dark spots are seen on the plant, the stem is blackened, which means that the flower has struck exactly this disease.
Important! It is possible to prevent the development of both the first and second diseases, if the soil is well disinfected before sowing seeds.
The same should be done with the seeds. You must also ensure that the greenhouse was not high humidity.
It should be said that sometimes cacti infect fusarium. This disease manifests itself suddenly: the color of the stem of the plant changes, it becomes purple, brown or brown. In addition, the cactus suddenly begins to slope down.
Having noticed similar symptoms, it would not be superfluous to get a cactus from a pot. If it was noticed that the roots break off or they are almost rotted, then there is no doubt that the plant has become infected with Fusarium - no.
How to treat rotten cactus
In the case when the rot struck the roots, then you can act in different ways.
The first method is used when the root system did not have time to rot completely.
In this case, all affected and decayed roots are cut off, the rest are washed in a manganese solution, and then powdered with sulfur or coal powder.
Leaving the cactus for a couple of hours in this condition, you will need to take a new pot and a new substrate, fill it with a pot, and then plant a cactus in it.
Important! Add as much sand as possible to the soil.
After transplantation, the plant is not watered. Perform the manipulation not earlier than in 3-4 weeks, and do it very carefully. So that the problem does not repeat, you should establish the correct scheme of watering the flower.
In the second case, not so much a transplant is needed as rooting of the cutting. This happens for the reason that the roots have rotted.
In order to save the upper part of the stem, it is simply rooted as a process. Particular attention should be paid to pruning.
It is very important to produce it in such a way that only the healthy part remains.
In the case of decay of the stem or root collar, there is a chance to save the tip. To do this, you can graft it to a healthy cactus.
Often, when stem rot appears in the place where a wound has formed on the skin of a cactus. Realizing that the lesion is still small, it will need to be cut to healthy tissue with a sharp knife.
After that, the “wounded place” should be carefully filled with sulfur.
In case of serious injuries, this can also be done, but it must be said that, on the one hand, there will be a serious curvature.
Experienced gardeners note that there are times when the top of the plant has begun to rot. In this case, everything is simple: it should be cut to healthy tissue, and then sprinkled with activated charcoal or wood. If there is no such good, the usual little green will do.
Rules for rooting a cactus saved from rot
- Cutting the top from the rotted cactus, it will need to be rooted correctly so as not to ruin this part of the plant.
- After that, a well-sanitized primer should be prepared. Care must be taken to ensure that it is not wet.
- After drying, the stalk is crushed with crushed charcoal and put on the soil mixture.
Important! Digging a cactus should not be.
If the top of the plant is low, then it will not even need to be fixed, it will not go anywhere. Otherwise, you can support the flower with pebbles from all sides or stick a stick near the cactus, and then wrap it with a soft thread to the plant.
Upon completion of the procedure, the flower is not watered for two weeks. In the summer, spray spraying is allowed. Care must be taken that the air is not too dry, so that the plant does not dry up.
Some gardeners do not understand why cactus is not instilled. This is done in order to be able to control when the roots begin to appear. From this point on, the flower is no longer lifted, and watering increases somewhat.
This disease makes itself felt the appearance of dark brown or black spots on the trunk. It may even seem that in some places these spots have a brilliant shade.
Taking into account the fact that the disease quickly spreads throughout the flower, it is necessary to fight it in the initial stages.
To do this, cut out all the “ulcers”, treat the cut sites well with sulfur, and then spray the flower with home, foundation or oxychrome.
Fomoz or dry rot - a disease in which the cactus begins to dry and fade. At first it may seem that the plant simply does not have enough water, but it is not. Liquid in this case will not help.
The roots will be alive, but the stem inside will be completely dried. With fomozom can not cope, but it can be warned. To do this, from time to time it is necessary to process the cactus with a systemic fungicide.
The procedure is performed every few months. That will be quite enough.
Important! At the initial stage of the disease, it is possible to try the treatment with fungicides, but no one can guarantee that the plant can be cured for sure.
Mottling can occur as a result of improper care of the flower. We are talking about drafts (from which the flower should be kept away), high humidity or low air temperature in the room. All this leads to the multiplication of fungi and the appearance of viruses.
Spotting may be in the form of "rust". At the same time, characteristic orange stains or rusty crusts are noticeable on the stem. A sunburn leads to such an illness (and not only in summer, but also in winter, when the cactus stands on the windowsill on the sunny side) or cold water hits the stem.
You need to understand that rust, which appeared in one place, can spread to another, so you should take action. If the gardener has no knowledge how to save a cactus, then you can at least spray it with fungicides.
In the case when it did not help, you will need to buy Topaz, which effectively fights against rust.
Some growers, having spotted the disease, are trying to clean off all the rust.
This is not worth doing, because, firstly, it will not give anything, and secondly, terrible marks will remain on the cactus.
Sometimes you will notice that strange spots appear on the plant. However, putting the flower on the sunny side or in a warm room, it turns out that nothing happens to the spots: they do not spread further and do not go away.
If so, it is likely that the cactus struck one of the fungal diseases. Given that the mushrooms do not tolerate the sun and heat, they stop their activity, and then completely die.
Therefore, after a while the flower is fully recovering.
If whitish or red spots began to appear on the stem under the same conditions, it means that a tick that actively reproduces at high temperature has let itself know.
In this case, it is worthwhile to ventilate the room well, as well as lower the air temperature by 10-15 degrees.
In the running stages will help chemical preparations that can be found in the store.
Antrocnosis or brown spot
Despite the fact that this disease often affects many types of flowers, on the cactus it appears unusually. Inexperienced growers sometimes can not think what it is.
Throughout the cactus, spots of different colors may begin to appear, ranging from light to dark. The lesion is depressed and dry.Over time, the spots get bigger, hitting the whole cactus.
In order to stop the spread of the problem, it is necessary to cut the damaged areas, process them with activated carbon, and after the plant spray it with fungicides.
On the saved cactus, though there will be small dents, for that the flower will remain in integrity.
Diseases of cacti and their treatment depends directly on the problem. If we talk about brown rot, then it can be characterized by the darkening of the stem. Over time, the plant becomes soft, and the color changes to dark brown.
This nuisance usually occurs as a result of mechanical damage to the skin of the plant where the harmful bacterium that stimulates the onset of the disease falls.
Cutting off part of the cactus, you can see inside the "porridge".
Usually such plants cannot be saved.
The cause of yellowing can be pests of the cactus, as well as diseases, as well as the lack of nutrients in the soil. To grow yellow, as a rule, the top begins or shoots.
First of all, there should be no shortage of fertilizer. To do this, you will need to buy mineral supplements and fertilize the cactus. Having decided the question, it is worth forgetting about it. Otherwise, nothing can be done.
The people called the disease "jaundice", which can last from several weeks to several years. Interestingly, a planted cutting that was taken from a sick cactus will also begin to turn yellow over time.
Today, experienced growers notice an increasing manifestation of certain diseases that never hit cacti. In order to cope with them, you should quickly respond, and even better to prevent their occurrence, properly caring for the plant.
Cacti pests and diseases: description and treatment
Once you have decided to start breeding cacti, it is necessary not only to get information about their content, but also about protection.
Cactus diseases, like insects that harm these plants, are not many, but if the succulent becomes infected, it can be extremely difficult to reanimate it.
Treatment of cacti diseases and getting rid of pests is a painstaking process, and in order to avoid resorting to it, it is better to take preventive measures right away.
Both beginners and experienced cacti players somehow have to deal with the diseases and pests of cacti. Fortunately, the cacti are not so much.
The cause of the disease of cacti, especially among novice collectors, is often the weakness of plants caused by the wrong content.
Among such reasons may be a lack of light, improper watering, depleted soil, too high or, conversely, low temperature, etc.
Weakened plants are primarily attacked by pests, are affected by various types of rot and physiological diseases associated with metabolic disorders in the plant. However, the pests of cacti can attack on completely healthy plants, so it is very important to detect them in time and take appropriate measures.
How to deal with spider mites on cacti
The most frequent spider mite in the collection settles on cacti, pierces the skin of plants and feeds on their sap. Signs of its appearance are subtlest inconspicuous spider webs on the stems of plants and dry brown spots that can eventually cover the entire stem.
Look at the photo - this pest of cacti weaves a web that becomes clearly visible in the sun after spraying, when tiny water droplets settle on it:
With severe damage, the plant is hopelessly spoiled. It is believed that one of the reliable indicators of a tick attack can be the species Chamaecereus silvestrii, which is damaged in the first place.
However, this is not necessary. A tick attack can start with other species.
It is important to notice in time the traces of the tick activity and the very small arthropod (0.4 mm) of reddish color and prevent it from spreading throughout the collection.
The mite goes through several phases of development, from the egg to the adult. The duration of the phases depends on the time of year and ranges from several days to two or more weeks.
How to deal with spider mites on cacti with chemical preparations? Chemicals to combat ticks and other pests are divided into contact and system.
The former affect pests by direct contact, the latter enter the plant and destroy pests that feed on sap or parts of plants.
Of the old tools, excellent results in the fight against ticks are provided by the treatment of the collection with the acaricide "Keltan". 2 g of this drug is diluted in 1 l of water (to get a solution of 0.2% concentration) and sprayed with plants.
If necessary, the treatment is repeated after a week. It is necessary to spray in cloudy weather or at night. It is advisable to carry out preventive treatment of the collection from the tick in spring and autumn.
Of course, it is possible that the use of other, more modern drugs, in particular "Aktellika" - a broad-spectrum insecticide.
The drug is low toxic, used in a concentration of 0.1% for spraying plants and watering the soil from pests.
"Fitoverm" is also a drug of a wide spectrum of action.
Its concentration in the working solution, depending on the type of pests, is different: from a spider mite 2 ml per 1 l of water, from aphids - 4.5 ml, from thrips - 5 ml.
If the effect of a new drug on cacti is unknown, it is better to first try it on a single plant.
Some drugs can cause burns on the skin of cacti.
Below is a description of the pests of cacti of the insects and nematodes, as well as described measures to combat them.
How to deal with mealybugs and nematodes on cacti
A mealybug is a small (about 5 mm long) insect covered with a whitish wax coating that repels water. In protected areas of the stem, the female lays eggs in wax cocoons resembling clumps of cotton wool.
It reproduces extremely quickly. Chervets, like ticks, suck the juice from the stem of a cactus.
How to deal with mealybug on cacti? An effective pest control measure is spraying the collection with contact poisons.
The root scarlet is a small insect (1–3 mm), parasitic on the roots of plants. Against the background of the soil, it is clearly visible. Signs of the disease is the cessation of growth and flowering of plants. The root scarlet is destroyed by contact poisons or by heating in hot water, as if infected with a nematode.
Cactus nematodes are microscopic roundworms. Infection with nematodes usually occurs for two reasons: when the soil is poorly cultivated for planting and when alien plants are placed in the collection without inspection and quarantine. The last reason is most typical for beginners cacti.
Due to lack of experience and desire to quickly increase the number of their collection, they often, without checking, acquire any cacti and place them in the collection. Nematodes live on plant roots.
On cacti, two species of nematodes can parasitize - gallic and cactus. The roots affected by the gall nematode have knotty thickenings of various sizes. External signs of infection with a nematode are stunting and fading the stem of a plant.
The cactus which is shaken out of the pot reveals the rotted roots of the scruffy look.
The male cactus nematode has a length of about 1 mm. Females of lemon-shaped form take root at half their body.
The development of the nematode comes with the formation of cysts, covered with a cornified membrane resistant to poisons.
Signs of infection are similar to gall nematode infection, but blistering on the roots is not formed.
To combat nematodes, it is possible to use special preparations, but they are usually too toxic for home use.
Good results in the fight against nematodes are obtained by heating the entire plant in water at a temperature of 50–55 ° for 15–20 minutes. After this, it is necessary to trim the damaged roots and dry the cactus for 3-4 days.
Cut off the roots together with the soil from the pot, and the pot and tool is thoroughly washed and heated in hot water. The cactus is transplanted into fresh soil and quarantined to ensure there is no pest.
The harmful effects of nematodes are exacerbated by fungal infections that penetrate damaged roots and cause them to rot.
Then you can see photos and learn about the treatment of cacti diseases.
How to cure a cactus from dry and wet rot
A dangerous disease of cacti is rot caused by fungi.
Dry rot of cacti caused by mold fungi. It does not manifest itself for long enough, spreading inside the stem.
In the later stages of development, the stalk of the cactus inside dries out and dies. The cause of the disease is usually considered to be too cold wintering.
Unstable to this disease astrofituma, some mammillaria and other species.
Wet rot begins from the roots with excessive stagnant moisture, especially in cold weather, as well as improper transplantation. Patients cut the roots, warm the whole plant in hot water, dried for several days and transplanted into fresh soil.
As can be seen in the photo, if this disease of cacti has reached the stem, it is gradually cut from the bottom to healthy tissue, dried and the rest of the stem is rooted:
And how to try to cure cactus from rot at home? It is necessary to regularly spray the collection with fungicides, for example low toxic “Fundazol”.
The same drug can be watered the soil of plants to prevent rotting of the roots. It is used in a concentration of 0.05-0.1%.
Use for spraying of seedlings from rotting is possible.
In the prevention of root rot, one should not forget about such an old tried remedy as potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate).
Light pink solution of this drug is good to do the first watering in the spring and the last watering - when setting the collection for the winter.
An important point in the prevention of cacti rot is also their competent content in the collection.
Fusarium is another fungal disease, its symptom is the acquisition of red-brown color by the conducting vessels, which is clearly visible on the cut of the stem. Pink or purple bloom appears on the stem itself. The disease starts from the roots and manifests itself too late. Diseased plants destroy.
There are other, much less common diseases of cacti: viruses, physiological diseases associated with improper care of the collection. If necessary, the fight against them can be found in the literature.
It should only be added that with proper care of the collection, regular preventive treatment against diseases and pests, strong, well-growing plants will always please the owner with beautiful stems and abundant flowering.
These photos show how to deal with cacti diseases:
Varieties of cacti
Homelands of cacti are arid regions of Africa, Canada and America. They are divided into forest and desert, and on the window sills both those and others are perfectly acclimatized.
Although there is an opinion among the people that these succulents are unpretentious, but before you get a thorny “friend”, you should know that a cactus may suffer from a particular disease, it has enemies in the face of pests, and it requires attention , as well as other representatives of the flora.
Forest species include:
- Gartner ripsalidopsis is a plant that blooms densely with beautiful large flowers from pink to brick red.
- Ackerman phyllocactus has long stems slightly undulating at the edges. It blooms with large flowers in May and June.
- The Schlumberger Buckley Cactus is better known among gardeners as the “Decembrist”. It has arcuate stems of curved shape, which are divided into small segments. It blooms from November to January in pink, white, purple or red flowers.
These are the most popular varieties of those found in homes. Such cacti on the window look spectacular, as they have a form of stems that is unusual for these plants.
This is due to the fact that they grow in tropical forests on tree trunks. Their main advantage is beautiful flowers.
To achieve their flowering, you should know some of the nuances of caring for them, but in general they are not particularly whimsical.
Their desert “brethren” are more common on window sills, and the most popular among them are:
- Ariocarpus - have a low and flat stalk covered with down. Blossom beautiful white buds.
- Astrophytes have a round shape with a rare ribbing. Sometimes there are instances of this kind in the form of a star.
- Azteciums - this genus has only 2 species of cacti, having a rounded shape with pronounced ribs and practically without thorns.
- Gymnocalyciums are the most numerous species of cacti, which have a common similarity: their flower tube is devoid of hairs.
- Kleistokaktus comes from mountainous hot terrain. Possess cylindrical stems densely covered with small spines. Give abundant flowering.
- Parodies - a kind of miniature cacti, characterized by a large number of buds. Remind small fluffy balls.
- Echinopsis - the most frequent "guests" on the windows of flower growers. They can be both rounded and elongated, blooming with large, incredibly beautiful flowers.
This is not all types of cacti, and usually, it is worth one of them to appear on the windowsill, as you want to buy another one, but of a different form, and then the next and so on.
This is due to the fact that the cultivation of cacti is a real hobby, which brings a special pleasure when, grateful for the love and care of the plants are responsible for flowering.
Cacti care: lighting and watering
Before embarking on the cultivation of cacti, you should know about the features that are inherent in the majority of representatives of this species of plants.
- At home cacti growth time begins in the spring.
- Starting from March, and up to the end of October, these plants need morning watering.
- In the summer, they need additional food, which should be carried out once a week with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
- In winter, plants need rest, so they are recommended to clean in a dry, but cooler room.
Before planting a cactus, you should choose a suitable place for it or create artificial lighting, on which the well-being of this plant depends.
Cacti love well-lit places, but you also need to ensure that plants do not get burned by ultraviolet light. Especially this concerns young stock. If the cactus began to change its color, it should be immediately removed in the shade, and spray the affected areas with a solution of magnesium sulphate.
Although desert succulent species are accustomed to the hot climate, much depends on the type of cactus. For most of them, the best temperature in summer is +35 degrees, so you should not keep them in the sun.
In winter, these flowers need additional lighting, for which you can use fluorescent lamps.
Watering should also meet the needs of the plant, depending on its type, but most often it is more frequent in summer and limited to 1-2 per month in winter. Cacti prefer soft distilled, boiled or filtered water.
Watering can be done from above and through the pan, and on particularly hot days it is recommended to additionally spray the “pet”.
Transplant of prickly “friend”
Cacti transplantation at home should begin with the choice of capacity, soil preparation and mandatory inspection of the plant itself. It is believed that they can be transplanted at any time, but it is better to wait for the growing season, for example, May-June or August-September.
The need for this procedure arises if the capacity has become small or any diseases have manifested.
Cactus, for example, stopped growing, its epidermis faded and lost elasticity, and the roots tend to “run away” from the pot, which means that the time has come.
Depending on the variety, this can occur in 2-6 years.
Before starting the “operation” you need to remember the safety technique and protect your hands from its needles.
For this fit thick gauntlets rolled up in several layers of paper or a couple of pieces of foam rubber. Experienced growers use special tongs that can be purchased at a flower shop.
It is important to know: you can not pull the cactus from the pot! While holding the plant, the container should be turned over and gently shaken it. If necessary, you can knock on the pot.
Succulents Transplantation Sequence
Transplanting cacti at home goes through the following steps:
- Clear the roots of the plant from the ground and remove all diseased or dead processes.
- Leave it in an empty container for a couple of days without soil, so that the wounds would settle down.
- To protect the plant from possible diseases of the root system, it can arrange a hot bath. To do this, cut out a cardboard according to the shape of the container, making a hole in it for the roots. Pour into the bath water + 50-55 degrees and lower the roots into it, threading them into the hole and setting the cactus on the stand. The procedure lasts 20 minutes, after which the plant should be allowed to dry out, which may take 2-3 days.
- Ready soil for cacti or own cooking (mix coarse sand with universal ground and 1: 1: 1 fine gravel) pour into a pot on top of a layer of expanded clay.
- Carefully place the plant in a container, straighten the roots and cover it with soil.
It is important to know: when planting, the ground should be well tamped either with your hands or by knocking on the pot. If the plant is high, then until it is rooted in a new place, it needs a prop.
During transplantation, babies of a cactus, if any, are separated and planted in separate containers. It is important not to damage their young roots.
How to choose a container for cactus
Choosing pots for cacti, you need to focus on the fact that the new “houses” should be 3-4 cm more than the previous ones. Plastic is considered the best material due to its low cost, wide choice of colors and light weight.
Who prefers natural materials, buy ceramics, but plastic containers have a larger choice of shapes, which is very important for this type of plant.
Depending on what a cactus root is, you can buy a tall and narrow pot (for a thick base) or a short, but wide (with long and thin roots).
If the cactus is injured
Sometimes a cactus gets a disease due to mechanical injury. For example, it can be obtained from exposure to ultraviolet radiation, with improper transplantation or with a fall of a pot with a plant on the floor.
In this case, such “symptoms” will indicate violations in his health:
- redness that occurs when exposed to direct sunlight,
- the shriveled surface of the plant indicates hypothermia,
- brown spots appeared on the surface, which means that the soil for cacti is supersaturated with fertilizers, or it is in a highly moist environment,
- the cessation of bud growth indicates that the plant is watered with cold water for it.
When mechanical damage is enough to change the conditions of the cactus or treat his wound with a disinfectant solution.
Diseases of physiological disorders
Diseases cactus can get due to metabolic disorders.These deviations include:
- etiolation - occurs when there is a lack of lighting and manifests itself in the form of discoloration of the epidermis and stretching in height,
- with a shortage of macro - and micronutrients, the diseases manifest themselves in the form of:
- growth inhibition, which causes a lack of nitrogen,
- the color of the cactus changes when there is insufficient fluorine, without which nitrogen cannot be absorbed,
- the formation of reddish spots causes a lack of sulfur,
- the root stops growing when there is little calcium,
- if the plant blooms is delayed, then it needs magnesium,
- excessive baling may be due to zinc deficiency,
- the plant stops growing if it lacks copper, boron, molybdenum, iodine and chlorine.
These are the health problems can have cacti. Diseases and treatment of these plants most often depend on the level of care for them, which includes timely top dressing, compliance with temperature, light and watering norms, and soil composition.
Before planting a cactus, it is better to ignite the earth to avoid possible infectious diseases caused by fungi, bacteria or viruses. This category of diseases includes:
- Late blight is a fungal disease that damages the root system of the plant and the base of the stem. Disputes to cactus can get from the neighboring plants, vegetables and fruits. The treatment is carried out with the help of fungicides by treating the damaged areas every 3-4 hours. It is useful during treatment to hold the plant on a “dry ration”. Lack of moisture will not allow the fungus to spread, and the damaged areas will disappear.
It is important to know: the running state of the disease leads to the death of the plant. In this case, it must be destroyed along with the soil, and the container must be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized.
- Fusarium rot is a fungus that occurs when the plant is watered excessively or is in a very humid environment. Externally, the disease manifests itself in the form of wrinkling of the stem and its fall. At first it turns yellow, then acquires a brown color at the root collar, and in a state of neglect black “fruits” are formed on the body of the cactus. For prevention, you can carry out the treatment with baseol, monitor the quality of irrigation and prevent stagnant water. The treatment is carried out in the form of removal of damaged areas and treatment of wounds with green paint, sulfur or coal.
- Gray rot is another fungus that affects the sidewalls of the stem or the place where the grafts were made. At the same time, the diseased areas become mushy and covered with gray bloom. Excessive soil moistening should be avoided, and damaged areas should be removed and sprinkled with nystatin or sulfur.
- Alternaria (black rot) - this fungal disease manifests itself in the form of black wet spots and shiny brown drips on the body of the plant. The treatment is done solely by removing all the damaged areas, up to healthy tissues that need to be treated with sulfur.
This is not all fungal diseases of cacti, but most often the reason for their occurrence is a strong moisture of the soil and air in the room where the plant stands. To avoid problems, it is better to water the cactus with a fungicide from time to time and make sure that the land between the waterings dries out completely.
Pests and parasites
Oddly enough, but cacti can be affected by parasites, like other types of indoor plants. The cause of their disease can be:
- Mealybug - leaves visible white lumps, similar to cotton wool. When it appears, remove the uninvited “guest” with tweezers or a brush, and then treat the surface of the flower with an alcohol solution of garlic. After that, the plant should not fall under the sun a month. If the damage is very large, then you will need to use fufanon and aktellika.
- Spider mite is less visible, but appears on the cactus, if the air in the room is too dry.He literally sucks all the juice out of the plant, while its stem turns yellow. You can fight with soapy water.
- The nematode is an extremely unpleasant type of worm that can be difficult to handle. When nematodes are found, all damaged roots should be removed, and the plants should be transplanted into new soil and pots for cacti.
These are the main parasites that can harm a prickly pet. It is important to detect the problem in time and eliminate it, until the plant is in serious danger.
Signs and causes of cacti disease
It is rather difficult to determine that a cactus is sick, given that many diseases can be completely asymptomatic at the beginning and only when the plant’s view starts to deteriorate, do you have questions what these spots are, why does the cactus rot, before that, he arranged for both watering and temperature, how to save a decaying cactus and accompanying ones. Let us dwell on these topics, consider the most common diseases of prickly pets, their causes, symptoms and methods of treatment.
Diseases can be caused by fungi, viruses and bacteria, but, most often, by the plant owners themselves. Improper care is very sadly reflected on the state of cacti. Most often, cacti get sick after being irrigated with cold water, after they got caught in a draft (a window or a window was open in cold or windy weather), when they were sharply exposed to direct sunlight. By the way, this is a very common mistake. Having decided that the cacti growing in the deserts can be immediately put on the eastern or southern window-sill, without gradually preparing them for the sun, you can lose the plant before you can even laugh it.
If a cactus occurs some kind of wound or crack, they must be healed immediately with the help of crushed coal. And the last - in the winter cacti do not water, it can also cause health problems.
Late blight is an extremely dangerous disease that can affect a whole collection of cacti. Its spores spread very quickly and can be brought along with seeds, an infected plant that has joined the collection and even with vegetables and fruits.
This ailment is also called red leg or rotten leg. The name is very accurate, given that late blight just causes the plant base to rot.
If the disease has hit the seedlings, then they need to be treated with fungicides every 3 hours, it is recommended to inoculate the affected parts. If an adult plant has suffered, then it is recommended to cut the affected areas, and treat the cut sites with fungicides.
Gelmintosporioz is most often brought along with the seeds from the natural habitats of cacti, therefore, for its prevention, it is recommended to carry out a seed dressing procedure before sowing.
The disease is very dangerous and can in a matter of days lead to the death of a cactus, the plant dries out, bends and dies. The treatment consists of the immediate removal of the affected areas and the transplant of the plant.
Wet rot. Rhizoctoniosis often affects seedlings and cuttings of cacti. The disease progresses rapidly, rises from the base to the top of the plant and causes it to die. As in the previous cases, the affected areas should be removed immediately, and the rescued plant should be transplanted into a fresh, disinfected steam substrate for cacti.
Fusarium affects the plant from the root and very quickly rises to the top, thereby destroying the cactus. A characteristic sign of fusarium is the color of the vessels in a saturated red color, which is noticeable when cutting the cactus baby.
Most often, such a disease falls through the wounds and cracks of the cactus, therefore, as a preventive measure, it is recommended to observe the irrigation regime and protect the cactus from any mechanical damage. Already affected plants need to be removed, the ground is steamed.
Mammily, which appears with the appearance of black putrefactive spots in the areolae and the fall of the thorns from them, occurs as a result of the planting of the plant in the contaminated soil, when the soil is over-wetted, and when there is a lack of light or when the plant is mechanically damaged.
For its prevention, the substrate should be disinfected with steam before planting, protect them from cracks and scratches, and follow the light regime. Spilling over the plant also puts him at risk.
To save the affected plant, it is necessary to remove the diseased areas, treat the wounds with fungicides and transplant it into a new clean soil.
Fomaz is also called dry rot. The danger of this disease lies in the fact that it is almost impossible to detect until the moment when the cactus is hopelessly affected. Outwardly, it is impossible to notice the problem, but from the inside the plant dries out and, as a result, it is completely weakened, it bends and dries.
It is not possible to treat fomoz, therefore it is recommended periodically, as a preventive measure, to spray cacti with a fungicide solution.
Viral diseases of cacti
Viral diseases are a relative rarity for cacti. They appear differently, but most often in the form of white, yellow or red bloom.
Viral diseases mainly infect grafted cacti samples, and treatment occurs with pharmaceutical antiviral drugs, rimantadine, for example.
And finally, how to deal with cactus diseases caused by pests. Mealbug and spider mite - that's the one who most often hurts indoor cacti. Their appearance is associated with non-compliance with the rules of growing cacti.
The presence of a worm is indicated by a white bloom on the plant, which is selected manually by a cotton swab dipped in alcohol. If present, there is a risk of damage to the root by a root scarlet, so the plant should be removed from the pot and inspected the roots. The affected areas are removed, the root is washed with soapy water, dried and after two weeks the cactus can be planted in a new, fresh, disinfected land.
Nematodes affect the roots and are very dangerous, the affected roots of the cactus need to be cut, the plant must be quarantined and planted in new soil. If the damage is significant, you should use Nefaphos.
Spider mite loves dry air, so you need to take care of maintaining a moderately humid microclimate, spray the air near the plant, especially in winter. The infected plant will help cure insecticides.
Create conditions for cactus
Experienced lovers of indoor plants know that the cactus, despite the harsh appearance and spines, is quite tender and vulnerable. In order to have no health problems, first of all it is necessary to create favorable conditions. The best will be a microclimate as close as possible to that to which the plant is accustomed in its historic homeland. If we are talking about cacti, we must immediately make a reservation: they are divided into desert and forest. Externally, with rare exceptions, they are completely different from each other, in nature adapted to live in different conditions. And at home microclimate for the inhabitants of the desert and the inhabitants of the tropics need a different.
You can easily recognize them by their fleshy stems, which can be of different sizes and the most bizarre forms: resembling a ball, column, column, pancake, caterpillar. The leaves of most desert cacti are not, in the process of evolution, they atrophied, turning into prickles. This helped reduce the evaporation area. The only exception, only confirming the rule - growing the leaves and dispensing with a thick stem of the crosshair. All desert cacti have spines, hard or soft (like hairs), long or short, sparse or thick.
All people from the desert love the same conditions. The most important thing is a lot of light, especially in winter. They have nothing against direct sunlight, although in the summer heat it is too heavy for a cactus, it is better to priten the plant. The soil needs light, loose, moisture-permeable. Humidity like moderate or low (40–50%). The air temperature in winter should be cool, 15–18 ° C. Most varieties (except pubescent) will tolerate “frost” of about 5 ° C without damage to themselves.
In winter, cacti hibernate. This is another prerequisite for the preservation of health and harmonious development. During the rest period, your “hedgehogs” do not want to drink at all, watering needs rare and scarce. With the beginning of spring, it is gradually increased, bringing to normal by the summer. By mid-autumn, watering is again limited. Let the water warm and soft.
Forest cacti that inhabit the tropics and subtropics are mostly epiphytic plants, in nature they can live on trees. They are distinguished by dense fleshy stems consisting of leaflike segments. And the main decoration of the forest cactus is flowers. Epiphyllum, zygocactus, ripsalidopsis and ripsalis are grown at home.
Aporocactus, belonging to the forest, has the habits of the desert. But the rest requires special conditions for a healthy life. The light they love is bright, but diffused. They will like the substrate airy and light, slightly acidic. The temperature is moderate (22–25 o C), cool during the rest period (15–17 o C).
The hibernation time of each species is different. Zigokaktus rests from January to March. Ripsalidopsis - in September-February, the epiphyllum "takes a vacation" for the whole winter. Since the plants are quite similar, this is a good criterion for their identification.
Irrigation mode depends on the life cycle, using only soft, tepid water. In hibernation, it is rare and scanty, abundant during the budding, flowering and active growth. But all forest cacti, regardless of the season, prefer tropical high humidity (70% or more).
The main condition for the health of the cactus - compliance with the conditions of detention. Even a slight deviation can cause illness. We poured cold water on it, opened the window where the plant stands in the cold, and after a week some stains appeared on it. If you ignore these symptoms, you can lose the cactus at all. With them, as with other living beings, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure.
Some cacti diseases are not treatable. But they can be prevented. Prevention for the health of a pet is not only keeping conditions, but also hygiene. Do not wash your hands before watering the plant. And to provide phytosanitary control at the entrance to the apartment is highly desirable. What does it mean?
When purchasing a new plant, whether in a store or anywhere else, make sure that it is not affected by disease-causing fungi, bacteria or parasites. Inspect (better in a magnifying glass) the stems, and, if possible, the roots, if there are any suspicious symptoms - spots, spots, dents, mold. Inspect the cactus for insect pests. An innocent white point may turn out to be a mealy scarlet, and a brown dot may be a shield. Better give up plants with signs of disease. Such an acquisition will take more trouble than pleasure.
Even if, in your opinion, the plant is absolutely healthy, do not flatter yourself. Problems may occur later. Do not put a novice to the rest of the cacti. Keep him in isolation for at least a month. Only after the quarantine “introduce” him to the rest of the neighbors on the windowsill.
Be very careful when replanting cacti. Most bacteria, fungi and parasites spread through the soil. Before planting, disinfect the substrate by calcining, and sweat the pot with boiling water. You can also shed new soil with Carbendazim solution or saturated pink potassium permanganate solution.
Cacti desert and forest can suffer from the same diseases, but there are differences. For example, the root system of the epiphytic plants is poorly developed, so the root nematode and the root insect do not affect it. Cacti deserted not often harm slugs, they barely break through the spines and dense skin.
Diagnose and save the plant
If the appearance of the cactus has changed not for the better, the development has stopped, analyze possible causes. And then you can determine what happened. These may be care errors or diseases. External symptoms will help to diagnose and prescribe treatment to a spiky patient. It happens that help came too late. Then an autopsy will show what the cause of the disease is. And you will be able to save other plants that live in the house. So, what does a cactus look like that is unhealthy and what happens to it?
Table: why the roots turn black and rot, the stem wither, the plant dries, stains, white scurf, mold and other problems appear
Pay attention to the injuries of cacti. Mechanical damage (cracks, wounds, cuts) are not terrible in themselves. This is the gateway for infection. If the wound is not treated, the cactus can become infected and become seriously ill. Be sure to disinfect the damaged area by sprinkling it with activated charcoal, crushed chalk or colloidal sulfur powder, and dry it. In the process of healing, the area will be covered with a layer of dead cells, and then healed. If there is nothing at hand, ordinary iodine or green will do.
Diseases of cacti caused by fungi and bacteria: how to recognize and how to deal with them
The fleshy "body" of a cactus is a kind of pantry for storing nutrients and moisture. In such an environment, pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses actively proliferate. Sometimes an inexperienced cactus baker himself helps his plant to become a “canteen” for harmful microorganisms. Waterlogging of the soil and air, especially in winter, non-compliance with the temperature regime, contaminated land are factors that help spread different types of rot. And this is the most dangerous disease of cacti.
Table: fungal and bacterial diseases of cacti and their treatment
- Cut off the parts of the plant that the fungus has damaged.
- Sprinkle the wounds with activated charcoal, colloidal sulfur or grease with green.
- The tip has remained healthy - cut and root it. The bottom of the cactus stem is not damaged - make it an “incubator” for new babies or stock.
- In the early stages, treat the affected areas of young plants with fungicides, repeat the procedure every 3–4 hours.
- On adults - cut off the affected tissue, disinfect wounds.
- If the disease struck the roots, cactus inoculate or root.
In the later stages of the development of the disease it does not help. Destroy the plant with soil, disinfect the pot.
- Cut all to healthy tissue.
- Wounds dry with sulfur or coal.
- Spray the plant and the soil with Oxyhom.
- Cut out damaged tissue.
- Treat the "wounds" with coal and sulfur.
- Spray the cactus fungicides.
Photo gallery: cacti diseases
When the rot struck the root system, there are two methods of struggle:
- If it affected only part of the roots, remove the affected areas, sprinkle the rest with activated carbon powder or sulfur powder. Replant the cactus in a new disinfected land, it should be a lot of sand. Take a clean pot. Start watering in three weeks, little by little.
- When the roots are almost completely affected, try to save the top of the stem. Root her. Cut off the healthy part, dry a few days, land in the substrate for cacti.
Application of some fungicides
- Captan. Universal organic fungicide, kills many fungi and bacteria. Apply 1% solution. They watered the plant or handle it with a brush. Do not use in combination with lime.
- Fundazol. Destroys many harmful fungi.A weak solution (up to 0.1%) is sprayed on the stems and roots or applied with a brush.
- Colloidal sulfur. Effective for the treatment of fungal infections, other diseases and the destruction of ticks. It is more convenient to apply in the form of powder, dusting plants with a brush.
- Chinozole. Antifungal and antibacterial drug. It can be bought at a regular pharmacy. Dissolve the tablet in 100 ml of water. Means it is possible to wash a trunk of a cactus and to process the earth. It is also used for soil disinfection and seed dressing.
- Maksim. Suitable for disinfection of land and planting material (helps with fusarium, fomoze, wet rot). A 2-3% solution is prepared from the preparation for soaking the seeds and processing the plants. After 2.5 months, the treatment is repeated.
- Topaz. Protects against rust and mealy dew. In 5 l of water part one ampoule. The validity period is about two weeks. The treatment is carried out at least three times.
- HOM (copper oxychloride). Very effective means of controlling late blight, blotch, anthracnose, rust, bacteriosis. 20 g of powder take 5 liters of water. Processed 5-6 times, with an interval of two weeks.
- Phytosporin. Preparation for protection against fungal and bacterial damage. It helps only at the initial stage. Can be used for prevention. A small amount of Phytosporin paste is diluted with a teaspoon of water. 200 ml of water are taken for 5 drops of the prepared substance, the substrate is watered with a solution or the plant is sprayed.
Diseases caused by metabolic and nutritional disorders
What other diseases have cacti? These are noncommunicable diseases that are caused by care errors. The most frequently encountered chlorosis, etiolation, lack or excess of macro - and micronutrients.
Chlorosis - a violation of the process of photosynthesis. Cactus stalks fade, turn yellow, white specks appear on them. Treat the plant with Fitoverm several times at intervals of 3-4 days. Feed the cactus. For prophylaxis, spray iron chelate (Anti-Chlorosin). Some growers are advised to bury a rusty nail in the ground to provide the soil with this trace element.
Etiolation is a disease of light deficiency. If the cactus lacks it, it is ugly drawn out and discolored. Put the plant on the sunny side, in the winter, add artificial lighting.
To eat fleshy, juicy cacti like insects. The main pests of cacti are nematodes, aphids, spider mites, mealybugs, scutes. During summer holidays in the garden, cacti can be attacked by slugs and snails.
- Spider mite This tiny insect is barely noticeable to the eye. Signs of his stay - white cobweb and red-brown spots on the stems. The color of the cactus with a strong lesion becomes yellow-gray or brown-red. The plant does not develop. The tick multiplies rapidly in a dry, poorly ventilated area. Popular methods of pest control (infusions of tobacco or soap) are not very effective. Spray the plant with acaricide solution. For example, drugs Neoron or Sunmite. Repeat the treatment 3-4 times with an interval of 7-12 days.
- Mealybug. Hiding under the lumps of sticky white matter, like a down. Insect sucks the sap of the plant. Remove pests by hand, armed with a damp cloth. After that, wipe or spray the stems with alcohol. If the mealybug in cacti breeds en masse, treat with insecticides. You can apply Fufanon or Actellic (2-3 times in 7-10 days).
- Shchitovka. Hard brown tubercles on the stems. Such shells reliably protect the pest. Therefore, first of all clean the visible insects with a damp cloth. After the plant is thoroughly treated with insecticide (spray with a solution or apply with a brush). From the first time to destroy the pest is rarely obtained. Processing is carried out until the final victory with an interval of 5-7 days.
- Rootworm. Eats the roots of cacti.The plant looks sick, does not develop, and insects are not visible. Remove the cactus from the pot. If you find insects or whitish blotches in the soil, waxy deposits on the edges of the pot, remove the soil from the roots along with pests. Rinse them and lower in a 0.5% solution of the fungicide or in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate for 2–3 hours. Transplant in decontaminated soil and sterile pot.
- Root nematodes. Microscopic worms affecting the roots of a cactus. The plant is pale, poorly developed - inspect them. If there are bulges that look like balls, this is a nematode. Use a knife to remove the affected roots, lower the remaining ones in a container of hot (45–50 o C) water, then dry and powder them with charcoal. It is possible to shed the soil with Tecta and Vidat.
- Aphid. Small insect living in colonies. It reproduces very quickly. Aphids eat young stalks, buds. They wither and die. Treat the plant with a special agent (Inta-Vir, Biotlin, Confidor), following the instructions for the preparation.
Aphids on cacti are not uncommon, despite their firm skin.
Diseases of cacti and their treatment (with photo)
White or yellowish spots.
Redness of the stems.
Redness of cacti stems indicates a "stressful situation" in which the plant turned out to be. This can be observed in cases where in spring, as the amount of light and heat increases, cacti should begin to grow, but they do not receive the necessary moisture. Or, then, when the root system is not all right, and therefore the plant can not absorb water. Redness of the stems can also be a result of the fact that cacti are transferred very early in an unheated greenhouse, where it is still too cool for them. After the improvement of environmental conditions, the plants gradually acquire their usual color. Some cacti, such as the alpine echinopsis from the pseudo-penitential group or Lobivia (Chamaecereus) silvestrii, are usually painted in spring in a more or less intense red color. Therefore, in these plants, stem redness is not a cause for concern.
Yellowing a plant or its individual segments (chlorosis).
If the whole cactus or its individual segments turn yellow (this can be observed primarily in hymnocalycium), this indicates violations in the provision of the plant with mineral substances. The reason may be a lack of certain macro- or microelements in plants, such as iron, so (much more often there is) an excessive increase in soil pH (alkalization) or accumulation of a large amount of calcium salts in old soil, resulting in nutrients passing into compounds inaccessible to plants. A plant with such damage is best transplanted into a fresh substrate. At the same time, the old earthen room is not left, but the old soil is removed from the roots as completely as possible. Since in this case damage to the root system is unavoidable, the plant is first watered only a few days after transplantation, and very carefully, and contained in the penumbra. Look at these succulent diseases - you can get information about typical manifestations of root eating disorders with photos:
Corking plants from the base of the stem.
Ugly brown spots spreading from the base up the stalk are the result of negligent care: irregular watering, frequent watering with very cold water or improper feeding and nutrient supply of plants become the cause of such damage.True, in some cacti, such as, for example, individual astrophitumens, echinopsis or trichocereus, like stumping the stems is a natural process, and it is almost impossible to avoid it.
Dropping or underdevelopment of buds.
When the buds stop in their development and fall off, this may be due to the fact that after planting the flower buds the position of the plant relative to the light was changed. This is observed, for example, in "Christmas" cacti. In addition, it may happen that the flower buds laid in a variety for further development did not have enough moisture and nutrients, light and heat, if, for example, weather conditions changed dramatically or an amateur was on vacation. Some cacti buds usually lays more than they later develop.
Autumn conditions of cactus depends on the species homeland:
- For species whose homeland is the western and central regions of the United States from -5 to +5. Some species can be kept in the open ground, they are well tolerated wintering under the snow.
- For Mexican species, the optimum temperature is from 0 to 5 degrees.
- For South American from 7 to 12 degrees.
If you do not observe the temperature regime during the rest period, the prickly pear will be pulled out
In the spring-summer period, the cactus requires sufficiently heavy irrigation., but it should be monitored so that in the gap between them the earthen room dries completely. Watering is done in such a way as not to fall on the stems of the plant, from this pores are clogged with calcareous formations and breathing is disturbed.
A few nuances of watering prickly pears:
- If there is a strong heat, watering is reduced and carried out only after five o'clock in the evening, as during the day the vital processes of the cactus slow down.
- In the dormant period (autumn and winter), cacti are not watered, with the exception of young plants.
- When the growing season comes, the first watering should be done with care and a small amount of water.
- Water for irrigation should be well settled, it is desirable to make it citric acid at the rate of half a teaspoon to seven liters of water.
To make the plant feel comfortable it is worth adhering to the following recommendations.:
- Do not allow shading.
- Opuntia feels best with open content on southern and southeast windows and balconies.
- If during the autumn-winter period there were few clear days, in the spring, exposing the plant to the open air, it should be accustomed to the sun's rays gradually to avoid burns.
- During the flowering of the prickly pear it is impossible to change its location relative to the cardinal points, the plant can throw off the flowers.
The lack of light leads to the deformation of the plant, it stretches, loses its decorative properties and does not bloom.
If you do not want to burden yourself with preparing the substrate, You can buy ready-made mix for cacti and succulents in a flower shopif the idea of self-preparation of the soil arouses enthusiasm, there are two options:
- For planting by the cutting method, a drainage layer is laid out on the bottom of the dish, and calcined sand and charcoal are poured from above.
- When planting seeds, drainage is also required, and then a mixture of calcined sand, charcoal and compost is poured. The proportion is 1: 1: 2.
Given the high ability of prickly pears to the growing season, very often the plant, reaching more than a meter in height, begins to deform. To deal with this, it will be necessary to form according to the following scheme:
- Long trunks trimmed with a disinfected sharp scalpel, leaving only short erect.
- The remaining "hemp" will actively act as the mother liquor to get new "kids."
During the growing season, the plant is fed once a month with a special fertilizer for cacti and succulents.
Virtually any flower pots are suitable for planting prickly pears, the main factor in choosing is the presence of drainage holes at the bottom. Pot sizes can be used to regulate the growth of a cactus, giving freedom for its roots to grow. or vice versa.
Young plants are transplanted annually, it stimulates active growing season, adults once in 3-4 years.
For transplanting is necessary:
- Stop watering a week before the procedure, so that the earth lump is completely dry.
- Prepare a new tank.
- Lightly knock on the walls of the old pot so that a lump of soil along with the roots will move away from them.
- Remove the cactus with a glove or between two kitchen sponges.
- You can not squeeze the plant strongly, so as not to damage it.
- Roots should be carefully examined. If they are healthy, then the earth lump kneads and shakes off the old soil, if damaged, cut off all the affected areas with a scalpel and sprinkle the sections with coal dust. Let dry and only then move on.
- At the bottom of the new tank lay a drain and some soil.
- Install the cactus, gently pour the rest of the soil so that part of the root collar is hidden. It is not necessary to tamp the ground.
- From above lay a layer of fine gravel drainage.
We offer you to watch a video about opuntia transplantation:
We offer you to get acquainted with photos of prickly pears.
How to care after purchase?
If the plant is not purchased in the winter, then after the purchase it is recommended to transplant it immediately by transshipment method, without disturbing the earth bed.
- To transfer the prickly pear into the dormant period, watering is gradually reduced from autumn, and the temperature is also gradually decreasing.
- If watering is reduced, and the temperature is left unchanged, the plant will continue to evaporate moisture, but will not receive liquid in return, this will lead to irreversible effects on the health of the cactus.
- To ensure a cool overwintering, you can build a plexiglas barrier for prickly pears so that it is not affected by heat from a radiator.
- To control the temperature you need to purchase a thermometer, monitor watering with a calendar.
- Watering in winter is reduced to a light moisture of the earth, literally one teaspoon of water, away from the root collar.
Features of growing cactus in the open ground
Being on a bed, the prickly pear perfectly transfers infrequent frosts to-10 degrees. In the summer it looks great in the composition of the alpine hills. An open, well-lit area without drafts is suitable for disembarking prickly pears. It is imperative to organize a drainage, as in winter the plant will quickly die from excess moisture.
For the first time leaving the cactus to winter in the open air, you will need to cover it with dead wood and pine needles. During the winter, the plant is deformed, but with the arrival of spring it will be reborn.
Photo gallery: typical pests for cacti
And yet most of the cacti differ excellent health. Problems and infections arise when the owner of the green "hedgehog" neglects the rules of plant care. And then for a long time does not notice the signals SOS, which transmits his pet. If you create acceptable conditions for the cactus, observe the watering regime, let it rest in the winter, your “thorn” will not only live happily and happily, but will also delight you with wonderful flowers. And this is one of the best rewards for kaktusovoda.
Succulent Diseases: Photos and Causes
The cause of the disease of cacti and other succulents are microorganisms - bacteria, lower fungi, mycoplasmas, as well as viruses. It should be noted that much less is known about diseases of non-succinic succulents, especially in room culture, than about diseases and pests of cacti. This is due both to their higher resistance to infections, and the lower distribution of these plants in culture. It is clear that a long history of cultivation and wide distribution in culture leads not only to the accumulation of all kinds of contagion in cultural clones, but also to the expansion of information about all kinds of disorders and diseases. On the other hand, most pathogens of cacti infects not only their or other succulents, but also other plants. And this is one of the essential circumstances that make it difficult to diagnose, prevent and cure the corresponding diseases.Another difficulty is the complexity of the pathogen identification process itself. This is the general similarity of symptoms of different diseases, and a complex, expensive diagnostic procedure, requiring special knowledge and skills. Another circumstance is the poor knowledge of these pathogens (in contrast to the causative agent of diseases of plants that are more significant for humans).
Meanwhile, the damage caused by microorganisms to collections of succulents, and especially cacti, is enormous. It is because of the diseases caused by microorganisms that most valuable species perish and are spoiled; they usually “burn” the most interesting crops. The rarest and most valuable species are most often rarely and valuable because it is too easy and fast, without seeing to it any reasons, to become victims of such diseases.
Apparently, the only more or less reliable way to prevent diseases is to create the most comfortable conditions.
Any deviation weakening the plant increases the likelihood of infection and disease. Most of the exogenous and endogenous factors described in the previous section that disrupt the normal growth and development of cacti favor the development of diseases.
Here you can see photos of diseases of succulents caused by microorganisms:
What cacti are sick with and how to treat succulents for spotting
Even less explored a variety of cacti spots. It is very difficult to distinguish blotches caused by non-pathogenic factors, pests, pathogens and viruses. However, it seems that most of the cacti spots are caused by microorganisms and viruses. Some consolation can be that they most often infect plants weakened by unfavorable conditions. So, rusty stains on the stems appear with a long stay in cold and humid conditions. Spotting on different cereus, copepod blistering and brown spots on astrophytums also develop with close to extreme temperature drops.
Pay attention to the photo - these diseases of cacti can look like rusty surface spots, cortical growths, translucent mosaic light streaks, dark surface plaques, depressed spots other than the main color, convex specks of green, red, rusty colors, etc.:
Surgical removal of them is useless - the remaining scars disfigure the plant even more, damage to the nearest tissues does not occur without intervention, and this operation does not prevent the appearance of new spots on other parts of this plant and on other plants. So how can you treat a cactus at home if he gets sick with spotting?
Restrains the spread of some pathogens blotch spraying drugs fungicidal action. However, the main, apparently, is to maintain the best growing conditions for cacti and the initial selection of healthy plants. In branched cacti, sometimes a good result is the periodic removal of the affected branches.
Corking does not interfere with plants, may be a symptom of mistakes in cultivation, the result of the natural life cycle of a plant, in opuntia, thus, aging of the epidermis is manifested.
If the corking is caused by mistakes in cultivation, you need to rearrange the pot to a more lighted place and consider whether the disease is the result of excessive fertilization. You can rejuvenate the plant, cutting off the top and rooting it, then the sampling will "disappear."
Fall cacti buds due to lack of moisture in the room, low temperature and fertilizer deficiency.
The most common cause is a pot permutation, the plant during flowering should stand in one place, turned towards the sun.
The disease is caused by: a large amount of sun, poor air flow in the room or in the open air and excessive heat. Burns most often appear on cacti in the summer on a windowsill in an unventilated room. A distinctive feature of burns are white spots, do not disappear even after a few years. The disease affects cacti at the moment when plants are transferred from a dark place to a bright one.
To cure burns on cacti, it is necessary to protect from excess sun, after a period of wintering gradually accustom to a brighter place.
Chlorosis causes the disappearance of chlorophyll in plant tissues. Manifested by yellow or yellow-green color of shoots. The disease causes a deficiency in the soil of iron and magnesium.
To prevent the development of the disease, even at the first symptoms, it is worth fertilizing cacti with fertilizers rich in the components described above.
The plant stops growing as a result of inadequate care. For example, poor fertilizer, insufficient watering. These omissions cause no gain.
To cure a plant, it is necessary to transplant into a new land, fertilize it accordingly and water it abundantly.
The disease affects germinating seeds. Some seeds are infected. This is manifested by brown spots on the saplings. The development of the disease leads to the death of seedlings. The disease is striking, also fully formed cacti.
Gray mold can be cured by treating the seeds before sowing with a special fungicide.
Parasites reach a length of about a millimeter, representing a red spider. They taste young tops of shoots.
Ticks are promoted by arid and sunny summer, attacking the plant, drinking juice. Sick plants end up in a rusty color.
Spider mites will leave the plant if fresh, moist air is provided and sprayed with soap and water.
Shchitovki hiding under the brown shields. Shields protect females and eggs, pests are difficult to eradicate.
The easiest method of treatment is to use chemical agents, or remove pests from the plant. Removal consists of removing pests soaked in soap with an ear stick. Performing this action every day significantly reduces the number of parasites. Cover the ground in a pot before removing the pests; fallen scale insects will return to the plant.
Parasites especially love “columnar” cacti. Infected plants turn yellow.
Pests feed on the roots, which leave a white "web". Felt felt when the ground is dry. They attack during wintering, so in the spring, when the growing season begins, it is necessary to remove the plant from the pot and look at the roots. The cobweb left by the felts is paler than the roots.
A natural method of treatment, allowing to get rid of pests, wash the roots in dishwashing liquid, a teaspoon of liquid per liter of water. In addition, it is necessary to replace the substrate.
In the fight against root felts should also use chemicals.
Roundworms among the pests are the most devastating. Parasites have a length of one millimeter. Juices are sucked out, releasing toxins that cause too much growth of plant cells, eventually dying off. Worms first appear on the surface, then attack the roots.
Naturally, you can resist pests by destroying the damaged plant fragments, reducing the humidity of the air around, changing the substrate.