Sooner or later, any tree, like a person, loses its former vitality and energy with age. This negatively affects not only his ability to bear fruit, but also the quality of the fruits themselves. How to get rid of this problem? Cut the tree at the root and plant a new one in its place? Not.
Young trees only a couple of years will be able to please a good harvest, but the old ones with a strong trunk and excellent root system can produce a crop from year to year thanks to their rejuvenation. How to do it yourself will consider further.
Why do trees need rejuvenation?
In old trees, wood has the ability to change its structure over time, becoming more dense. This leads to the fact that the juice that nourishes this fruit plant, can not freely rise up. It lingers in the lower part of the tree, and the upper branches gradually dry up, exposing the inside of the crown.
Instead of dried branches in the lower part of the trunk, so-called water stems are formed, which are vertically growing branches with large leaves and long internodes. Such a phenomenon should be a signal to the need for rejuvenation of the tree by trimming the crown of the tree or its part.
Water stalks themselves should not be cut.
When and how to rejuvenate trees?
- It is best to rejuvenate fruit trees in the early spring immediately after the end of the frost, until the juice began to move and the buds did not have time to swell. Thus, this procedure will be less painful for the tree, the wounds from the saw cut will heal faster and by the end of the autumn it will be possible to see its result.
- You can also conduct pruning in the fall, after the end of fruiting. The only thing is that in this case, the results will have to wait a little longer.
- For the procedure of rejuvenation of fruit trees it is necessary to use only high-quality, serviceable and well-sharpened tools. Only then the cut will be neat and smooth. In consequence, it is carefully smeared with resin or wood wax for the fastest healing.
- The procedure of rejuvenation of fruit trees can disrupt the normal life of the plant, so it should not be abused. Experts recommend that it be carried out infrequently - only once every two or three years. Trees that have been pruned for the purpose of rejuvenation should be surrounded with increased attention and care. For example, in the fall they are fertilized with humus, and in spring and early summer they feed the slurry.
Basic rules for pruning fruit trees
In the process of pruning fruit trees, you must follow certain rules that will help achieve the desired results, namely:
- first of all, diseased and withered branches are cut off,
- then remove branches and knots that grow vertically,
- if there are branches that rub against each other or are in close proximity, then one of them must be removed.
Trimming in two steps
The most popular way that can not only rejuvenate the crown of a tree, but also not lose the crop.
- At the first stage, some of the skeletal branches located on the southern side are cut, and the rest are simply shortened.
- Over the next three to four years, the formation of a new young half of the crown.
- After this period, the second stage begins, which consists in cutting off part of the skeletal branches from the north side in exactly the same way as it was done in the first stage.
Delete at once
This method is considered the most radical compared to the above. Therefore, it is not so often used, and mainly for old trees that have initially defined damage, diseases of the bark and wood.
- Rejuvenation occurs by completely removing the crown of the tree.
- Height drank depends on the state of the cortex. The denser it is, the lower it is worth cutting.
- You can also focus on the already existing small young shoots. The strongest are selected from them, which are suitable for the formation of a future crown.
- The rest are cut together with the old tree crown, departing about 2-3 cm up from their level of growth.
- After a complete trimming of the crown, abundant growth of new shoots should start almost immediately, from which in the middle of summer the strongest ones will be chosen, which will become the skeleton of the crown, and the rest will also be removed again.
Sometimes there are situations when young shoots grow in the wrong direction, then they need to be redirected in the right direction. To do this, use special garters or props. It is important in this case that the shoots themselves are properly strengthened before this, since under the action of even small loads, they can easily be damaged or something worse to break.
Thus, in the process of rejuvenating the crown of the fruit tree, there is nothing complicated. Everyone can do it in their summer cottage on their own, without the help of specialists. The main thing is to get acquainted in advance with the main aspects of this procedure, as well as to take into account the particularities of growth and development of a particular tree.
You can clearly see the process of trimming the crown of a fruit tree in order to rejuvenate it in the video:
Anti-aging pruning trees with their own hands +
Over the years, even the best varieties of fruit trees cease to produce large yields, and the quality of fruits deteriorates markedly. Like all living things, any fruit tree is aging, only in contrast to the human body, the “body” of a tree can be significantly rejuvenated, for which the rejuvenating pruning of trees is used.
Of course, the powerful crown of an old tree has a very impressive appearance, and often fruit trees are not pruned because of this.
Losing fruit qualities, gardeners get a good thick shade on hot days, use a place under a tree for gatherings, and old powerful branches - as a support for a swing.
However, if the tree is in the garden, over the years it will start to take up too much space, and in return give less crop. In this case, you do not need to grasp the saw or ax and chop at the stump - the tree can and should be rejuvenated!
This is done with the help of a special pruning, which is called - rejuvenating. In many ways, it echoes the rejuvenating pruning of ornamental shrubs, but the basic principles are different.
To some, it may seem barbaric and too tough, but not only beauty requires sacrifice! For old or neglected trees, it is primarily necessary in order to reduce the crown, both for ease of harvesting and for increasing the illumination of the inner and lower parts of the tree crown.
In addition, the reduction allows to increase the airing of the crown, which for the better affects the health of the tree as a whole.
The reduction of the crown is achieved by cutting thick branches growing up, as well as the central branch, if available. Cut the tip should be at a height of about two meters from the last fat bitch below.
Then it is necessary to cut the tops of the upper branches in order to ensure their branching in the future. The lower branches are cut where they begin to rush to the ground - it is important to leave the shoots growing up, because they will compensate us in the future.
The crown of the tree should then be thinned to increase the illumination of the inner part of the crown. First of all, such an operation is useful for fruit branches. First of all, the hand must reach for stunted, damaged branches, as well as hanging and sick.
You can not ignore the rubbing or crossed branches - one of them must be removed. The branches growing inside the crown fall under the cut. In too thick crown need to cut through the branches, preferring one thick than ten small. In addition to such procedures, the shortening of old branches is carried out.
You must achieve a crown reduction of 1.5-2 meters!
It is impossible to cut the bottom thick branches, since large wounds are formed that can lead to the death of the tree.
However, the owner knows better - sometimes it is the only way out if the tree has been growing for many years without pruning, and now all of its fruit-bearing part is at a height accessible only to birds, and the lower part of the crown is a few thick boughs directed upwards.
In this case, cut should be mercilessly, leaving from the branches only small areas, from which then will grow new branches.
In the first year after such a merciless pruning, you will not wait for the fruit tree, it will set up a lot of Wen, among which you will need to select the correctly growing branches, from which you year after year by correct and painstaking pruning and get the desired shape crown.
Caring for a tree after pruning - support fertilizer!
Immediately after trimming, it is recommended to lubricate the place of the saw with a garden pitch, special putty, or old oil paint.
You need to feed the tree with any pruning, and with a strong rejuvenating - even more so! If you have not the poorest soil on your site, then up to 8 kg of organic fertilizer, up to 10 g of nitrogen, as much potassium or potassium chloride and 6 g of phosphorus should be added to the near-stem circle based on 1 m2, or as a substitute for phosphorus potash fertilizer 150-250 grams of wood ash.
After scattering fertilizer around a tree trunk, pitch them with a fork to a depth of 15 cm. If the soil is poor and the tree needs to get nutrients as soon as possible, fertilizer can be applied to the wells or cut grooves. Wells for a tree at the age of about 30 years must be in an amount not less than 20! Pour fertilizer in the prepared holes need to be dissolved.
On the photo - rejuvenating pruning of apple trees, saduda.ru
On the photo - rejuvenating pruning of apple trees, saduda.ru
Photo pruned apple, .com
Photo pruned apple, .com
Photo pruning apple trees, sad-dv.ru
Photo pruning apple trees, sad-dv.ru
On the photo - tree pruning, asprus.ru
On the photo - tree pruning, asprus.ru
On the photo - rejuvenating pruning of trees, artgardener.ru
On the photo - rejuvenating pruning of trees, artgardener.ru
Anti-aging pruning of apricots, pears, apple trees - what to expect from the old apple tree?
Fruit trees, such as apples, apricots and pears, are characterized by the fact that at their base, over the years, whole thickets of basal shoots are formed. First you need to get rid of them, and then proceed to the recommended action above. If you are faced with branches that are damaged by diseases by all signs, you should immediately burn them!
If you do not want to lose the harvest for this year (meaning the year of pruning) completely, then the rejuvenating pruning of apricot, pear, apple trees can be carried out in stages. In the first year, you can only get rid of damaged branches, and a year later you can shorten long or cut out the middle part of the crown.
You can also reduce the height in stages. It is completely painless to remove one or two large branches with a diameter of up to 10 cm within one year. Do not forget to thin out the shoots during the growing season so that the tree gives more strength to the fruit.
It is best to prune at the end of winter, before the tree wakes up.
Photo pruning trees, superdom.ua
Photo pruning trees, superdom.ua
In the photo - a tool for rejuvenating pruning of trees, agrikulture.ru
In the photo - a tool for rejuvenating pruning of trees, agrikulture.ru
On the photo - tree pruning scheme, secretdachi.ru
On the photo - tree pruning scheme, secretdachi.ru
In the photo - pruning trees, nazarovo-online.ru
In the photo - pruning trees, nazarovo-online.ru
In the photo - types of pruning apple trees, zpitomnik.ru
In the photo - types of pruning apple trees, zpitomnik.ru
Technology rejuvenating pruning in the old orchard
An old garden probably needs more gardener's attention than young fruit trees. First of all, neglected and weakly fruiting trees are needed. anti-aging pruning. Starting such an operation should follow the main steps:
- reduction of tree crown,
- crown thinning
- tree care after trimming
Reduced tree crown
In old fruit trees - the basis of rejuvenating pruning - reducing the crown! First you need to hold tree height reductionThis will increase the access of light to the inner and lower parts of the crown of an apple tree, make it convenient for collecting fruits, and improve their quality.
How to reduce crown. It is necessary to cut out a part of the trunk with a pair of thick branches growing upwards. This will open the inside of the crown of the tree to the sun's rays.
Cut the top of the crown at a height of 2-2.5 m from the lower bitch. It is also necessary to cut the tops of the upper boughs, by translating them to second-order ramifications. It is better that they are located on the sides rather than the bottom of the uterus.
Thinning old tree crown
To increase the illumination of the inside, the crown of the apple tree is needed thin out. This will increase the durability of the fruit branches, increase their ability to plant flower buds and fruit set. After such a pruning fruit buds lay more, the apples will be larger.
Thinning old wood is a good idea to start with cutting out dangling, stunted, damaged and diseased branches. Cut out one of the rubbing or intersecting branches. You can cut and branches growing inside the crown. Where the crown is too thick, you should select and cut healthy branches.
It is more correct to cut a thicker branch than many smaller ones.
At the same time it is necessary to hold anti-aging pruningwhich essence consists in shortening of old branches on long-term wood. When rejuvenating pruning, the diameter of the crown should decrease by approximately 1.5 m. The lower branches (with weakened growth) cut into branches directed upwards, and the upper branches towards the escape go to the side.
When rejuvenating pruning should act according to the rule of subordination - the main branch should be longer than its branching. Lower thick branches on large trees can not be cut, because large wounds are formed, which later form hollows or lead to the death of trees.
Caring for a tree that has been rejuvenated by pruning
For any pruning, and even more rejuvenating, it is necessary to feed the tree. Fertilizers are applied to the tree trunks of apple trees.
With an average supply of soil nutrients, 6-8 kg per 1 square meter of organic fertilizer, 10 g of the active substance nitrogen (18-22 g of urea), 6 g of phosphorus (13 g of double superphosphate) and 10-12 g of potassium (16 -19 g of potassium chloride).
Wood ash can be used as a phosphate potash fertilizer in a dose of 152-250 g per 1 sq. M. It contains trace elements and neutralizes the acidity of the soil. Organic, phosphate and potash fertilizers are best applied in the fall, but you can in the spring.
It is better to close up fertilizers with garden forks (you can shovel) to a depth of 10-15 cm.
In spring, the near-trunk circles need to be pierced with a light rake in order to retain moisture, after grinding the formation well. To bring nutrients closer to the root system, they can be introduced by foci into wells, cut furrows, and grooves.
When fertilizing in wells for one 30-year-old tree, about 20 wells should be made to a depth of 40-60 cm. It is better to apply fertilizer to the wells in a dissolved form. Doses of fertilizers are the same as when applied to the tree trunk.
It is also possible on both sides, a little further than the periphery of the crown, to dig straight grooves 40 cm deep and 50 cm wide, add organic, phosphate and potash fertilizers to them and cover them with earth.
The following year, fertilizers are applied from the other two sides of the tree. Fertilizer can be applied in one year by making an annular groove around the periphery of the crown. In order to improve the mineral nutrition of fruit trees in the summer, they use top-dressing with macro- and microelements.
This is primarily a top dressing solution of urea, as well as trace elements (zinc, boron) when signs of their insufficiency are detected. Foliar fertilization with a solution of urea is effective in the case when a very high yield is expected and nitrogen is needed for planting flower buds.
Spraying is carried out in a week or one and a half with 1% urea solution (50-100 g of urea per 10 liters of water).
We hope you can rejuvenate the old garden and not get lost in the intricacies of pruning.
Scheme pruning fruit trees in the spring: rules and recommendations
Planted a garden, but do not know how to do pruning? Bought a cottage with old trees and want to rejuvenate them? You do not know what scheme pruning fruit trees to apply in the spring? Confused in terms and rules? If the answer to at least one question is positive - you have come to the right place. Especially for you, we collected information from books on gardening, added recommendations from experienced gardeners to it, brought everything into a readable form, attached photos and video materials. Read and study with us!
First steps: the choice of tool, the principles of the formation of the crown
Any pruning is an injury to a tree. It depends on the type and quality of the tool how quickly the fruit culture will be restored. The smoother the cut, the faster the plant will recover.
- garden knife - the main tool,
- hacksaw - for trimming thick, old branches,
Although the pruner cuts the branches with ease, it compresses the wood, which increases the time for wound healing.
The main types of trimming:
We consider them in more detail during the article.
Crown formation pattern
The formation of the crown of fruit trees begins in the second year of life and lasts for several years. Any pruning scheme will be difficult if the branches are not located correctly. In Russia, two methods are most common: sparse-tiered and non-tiered.
Consider the first: it is simple, available to novice gardeners and is suitable for all types of fruit trees.
The first, lower tier is formed in the nursery, it facilitates the work of a novice gardener. When planting seedlings need to cut all the branches by 1/3. The root system is damaged when digging, and such pruning contributes to the harmonious development of the plant. When do you need to start crown formation after planting?
In the first year, the young fruit tree adapts to the new conditions, the roots develop, therefore the growth is small. In the second year, shoot growth will also be insignificant. From the third year after landing proceed to the formation of the crown.
With a sparsely-tiered system, the crown of the fruit tree consists of a central trunk and 5-6 branches located at different levels. The structure is visible on the right side of the schematic drawing: each branch of the next tier is located in the middle of the angle formed by the lower branches. See the distance between the tiers on the left side of the image.
To form the crown of the fruit tree, follow the instructions:
- Central shoot (guide) cut at a height of 80 cm from its base. The distance is approximate, the main thing is that there are 8-10 buds left on the conductor, from which new continuation shoots and lateral branches are formed. So the first tier is formed.
- The next year, inspect the seedling, remove the frost-damaged branches, then select the 2 or 3 strongest ones. Cut the rest. You have formed the second tier.
- The third tier is formed on the same principle for 4 years.
As soon as the fruit tree reaches a height of 4 meters (if the variety is short, the maximum height), cut off the conductor above the top strong branch: you will stop growing. The crown of the young tree is formed.
To fix the material will help video from a specialist
Remember that with the described method it is impossible to oppress the tree, eradicating the inherent features of the variety.
How to carry out pruning trimming
The manipulation is carried out "on the kidney", that is, the lower part of the slice is on the same border with the base of the kidney, the top of the slice is at the level of the end of the kidney. If you cut too high, leaving a spike, the wound will heal for a long time. The exception is early pruning (in winter or in March). In this case, leave a thorn length of 2 cm, it will save the kidney when it frosts. For clarity, see the picture.
Pay attention: shortening pruning is done on the external kidney, that is, on the one that “looks” out.
Ring trimming rules
Trimming a straight branch to the ring is not difficult. It is more difficult to do this if the angle of discharge is acute or dull. In order not to be mistaken, learn to determine the place of the cut, or rather its beginning. If the angle of origin in the fruit tree is acute - make a cut a little higher than the influx of bark, for an obtuse angle make a cut at the place of influx. See description in pictures.
Anti-aging pruning: how to do
If the orchard is distinguished by the predominance of old trees by the age of 30 years - there is a decrease in yield. In this case, a rejuvenating trim is needed, which is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Inspect the tree, reveal dying branches.
- At their base, choose strong fat shoots.
- Back off 1-2 cm from the base of the fat shoot and cut (dry) the drying branch.
- Place the cut to cover with garden pitch.
It is desirable that there was not one, but several strong shoots near the place of cutting: then the wound will heal faster. To shoots do not grow much, you need to hold a pinning.
If you remove all dying branches at once, the tree may wither. Therefore, experts recommend to stretch the rejuvenation for 4 years, performing it in parts. Formation of the crown in the future is the same as for the young tree.
Sanitary pruning of fruit trees - what you need to know
Sanitary pruning is carried out annually in the fall. Its purpose is to remove dried or diseased branches.
The rules for this type of pruning:
- shoots remove over the outer bud, skeletal branches - on the ring,
- cut off sick and dry branches with a healthy part,
- if the branch is vertical - make an oblique cut,
- after trimming, clean all wounds with a garden stick or other putty.
In fact, sanitary pruning reminds partly rejuvenating, partly forming. Technique performance and rules are the same.
When and how to prune an apple tree
The answer to the question of which month to prune an apple tree depends on its age. If the tree is young, cut it in spring, before bud break. The time depends on the region - approximately the beginning-middle of March. For the adult tree, in which the movement of the juice and the swelling of the buds come earlier, winter pruning is carried out in late February.
Rules to follow:
- make sure that the thickness of the branches that depart from the conductor, was not more than 1/2 of the diameter of the trunk,
- too thin branches are also unacceptable
- angle of departure 400 (it can be corrected, look at the picture),
- in the lower tier no more than 3-4 branches with a divergence angle of not less than 900.
Adjust the width of the crown can be trimmed to the lateral bud. See the technique on the image.
The scheme of pruning a young apple:
- Start by trimming the conductor. Focus on the skeletal branches: the height of the slice should be higher by 5-15 cm.
- Shorten strong shoots-competitors, as well as old branches, growing at a sharp angle of discharge.
- Now look at the apple tree. All branches growing inside the crown must be cut into a ring.
- The branches subordinate to the conductor. See the picture below for the subordination for the apple tree.
To avoid further thickening of the crown - pinch all shoots that are not needed for the formation of skeletal branches. As you grow, shorten or remove.
On the topic of pruning apple, watch the video.
How to trim a pear
Apple and pear have almost the same pruning pattern. True, the trees are somewhat different, so there are some nuances:
- In winter, the twigs tend to freeze, resulting in a lot of tops. They need to either shorten (to get semi-skeletal branches), or cut.
- Strong pruning weakens the young pear and increases fruiting time. This is especially true for the Moscow region and more northern regions. Because pruning should be moderate.
- Annual increments can be slightly shortened. This will strengthen their branching.
Remember that complex fruit branches in the upper part of the annual growth maintain long-term productivity.
Cherry and Sweet Pruning Scheme
Species are related, because pruning is carried out according to one scheme. Trees are characterized by a relatively short fruiting period (on average, 15 years), consider this when forming the crown. Pay attention to the characteristics of fruiting, so as not to reduce the yield:
- bushy varieties - the fruits of last year's growth,
- treelike - fruiting on bouquet sprigs.
Formation of the crown and pruning of cherries is carried out in the following sequence:
- In the first year, leave 3-7 strong branches that “look” in different directions and are at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other.
- Shtambu form a height of 25-40 cm.
- The branches that are located below the selected, as well as all the weak cut on the ring.
- The center conductor must be 15-20 cm above the branches.
Cherries and cherries, regardless of planting time, should be cut in the spring. If for some reason you missed the moment - postpone the event for next year.
In the future, pruning is reduced to the formation of 8-10 skeletal branches, the elimination of excessive thickness of the crown and sanitary measures. Every year, inspect the cherries and cherries, once every two years, remove the branches growing inside the crown. You can see the principles of trimming in the figure.
Apricot pruning: what you need to know
In recent years, apricot is grown not only in the Krasnodar Territory and other southern regions. Therefore, the question of how and when to form a crown is of concern to gardeners from all over the country.
The scheme of pruning apricot in the spring is somewhat different from the approach to other fruit trees. The plant is characterized by an abundance of fruit ovaries, many fruits are formed, under the weight of which the branches break.
Without pruning the branches give very few branches, and their attachment to the conductor is weak. Consider these points.
The correct trimming scheme consists of several steps:
- In the first year, select 2 branches on the sapling, the distance between which is 30-40 cm.
- Tie the remaining branches to the trunk, Shorten the center conductor by 25 cm, and the skeletal branches by ½ of their length.
- Increments on the trunk, as well as branches with an acute angle of discharge, remove the ring. This should be done in May.
- The second tier is formed the following year from 1-3 branches, located at a height of 40 cm from last year’s branches.
- The conductor is cut at a height of 50 cm from the uppermost skeletal branch. Last year's growth is shortened by ½. At this stage, as soon as the branches reach a length of 8 cm, shoots appear competing, growing vertically. They must be cut on the ring.
- For 3-4 years the formation of the crown ends, and the conductor is removed over the last skeletal branch. This year's increase is also subject to removal. On the second tier form branches of the second order, and on the first - the third.
For more information about pruning apricot, you can look at the video from a specialist.
Secrets of specialists regarding trimming
Gardeners have accumulated decades of experience, experimented with schemes for pruning fruit trees, and obtained amazing results. We have selected for you some subtleties that will help preserve and even increase the harvest.
- If you bend a quarter of the skeletal branches to the ground, or bring them to a horizontal position, it is possible to bring the first crop closer. The explanation is simple: in this position, the branches of the kidneys more slowly go to the roots of nutrients. A schematic drawing will help to better understand the technique.
- Pruning fruit trees can be started if the air temperature is above -50 ° C.
- To stimulate the growth of a kidney, make a crescent-shaped incision above it, at a distance of 5 mm, capturing the wood (2 mm depth). This method can be used in the case when shortening the escape continuation is undesirable.
- During pruning, remove and root growth, leaving no hemp.
- To make larger wounds heal faster, gloss over them twice, a second time 4 months after pruning. But if the wound is less than 1 cm in size, it is not necessary to gloss over it.
You have read the article, but still can not figure out when and what work to carry out? Especially for you, we have prepared a calendar for pruning fruit trees for 2016. In more detail about the works waiting for you and the timing of their implementation can be in the lunar calendar.
Secrets of rejuvenating pruning of fruit trees, tips and advice on garden rejuvenation
Each gardener wants to grow apples, pears, plums, cherries and so on in his country house. But for this you need the right and timely care of the trees. One of the important factors of such care is pruning and rejuvenation of the crown.
Anti-aging pruning: description and types
Proper and timely pruning of old trees in your country house leads to the rejuvenation of plants. Thus, they begin to produce more beautiful and tasty fruits. If the branches are cut according to certain rules, then the tree will not overgrow, sufficient sunlight will flow into the crown, the skeletal and semi-skeletal branches will get stronger, which is very important for keeping the fruits of great weight.
Tree rejuvenation is shortening and thinning at the same time. Such a procedure is used when it is necessary to put in order an old and very tall fruit plant. The shortening is the removal of the top of individual branches, fruits and shoots. Depending on old age, individual fetuses and branches should be shortened in different ways. For example, if a branch is 8-10 years old, then 60-70% of its length can be cut off. But it is not possible to cut off every fruit or branch in this way; you need to look at whether it is located in the right way. If the branch begins to shrink or grows in the wrong direction, then it can be cut off.
How to rejuvenate old fruit trees
If you have not cleared the trees in the garden for many years or purchased a plot on which there were already old and neglected fruit plants, then do not rush to cut them at the root. You can always rejuvenate your apple, pear, plum, cherry. Then garden plants will bring you tasty and juicy fruits for many years.
After you have cleared the central part of the crown, you need to give shape to the side branches. Especially this rejuvenation should be carried out for the old pear. After all, this plant fruits are very large, and the side branches are often dissected or broken under external influences: heavy rain with wind, hail, etc.
It is very important to first cut off only the sick and dry branches, then it becomes immediately clear that there are only a few steps left to complete cleaning. After that, shorten some long branches that can hardly withstand their own weight. Take a pruner and cut off all the shoots that are at a distance of less than 10 cm, as in the future they will interfere with each other to grow. The remaining wen can be shortened by 1/2 or 2/3 of the length.
Such rejuvenation of trees in spring by thinning should be carried out at least once every 2-3 years. Then the tree will not get sick and will bear delicious fruits.
Cutting of hanging branches
Sagging branches do not necessarily cut to the ring.This should be done only in two cases: when the branch is dry, or when it prevents other branches from growing and overlaps the free space in the center of the crown. Often, pruning old tall apples implies cutting out 50-60% of the whole plant: the tree will not die from this, but on the contrary, it will acquire new powers.
Thus, the rejuvenating pruning of fruit trees takes place in several stages. After all the hanging branches are removed, you need to trim in the area of retreating growth.
Pruning in the zone of retreating growth
Removal of retreating wood of 4-7 years of age significantly enhances the growth of fruitful twigs. Pruning fruit trees in the spring stage leads to the rejuvenation of the entire plant system. And to remove the branches and shoots in the zone of retreating growth is necessary in early spring. After all, this part of the tree is the most active, there is sent a large amount of water and minerals.
In this zone it is necessary to thin out the branches, it is advisable not to remove them on the ring. Remove shoots in a dense area and shorten already formed branches by about 2/5 of the length. In the same way as apple rejuvenation, they clean pears, apricots and peaches. Larger branches must first be slightly cut from the bottom, and then cut from above, so as not to injure the bark.
Removal of extra tops and formation into skeletal and semi-skeletal branches
Many do not know how to rejuvenate the old garden on their own, and in fact only a pruner and a saw are needed for this, as well as a little knowledge of the phased cleaning of wood. Trimming the tops is the most difficult stage in the sense that many incorrectly remove them. The reasons why the tops should be removed:
- they grow to the center of the crown,
- there are a lot of them per square unit,
- they grow straight from the trunk.
How to care for the tree after rejuvenation
After proper rejuvenation of the tree, it is necessary to take care of it. The period when you should not rejuvenate the trees is winter, but it is at this time that the plant needs care. During heavy snowfalls under the tree it is necessary to throw a lot of snow so that the root does not freeze. If pruning of trees occurred in the fall, be sure to cover the wounds with paint or clay to make it easier for the plant to heal the wounds in winter. After pruning and rejuvenation of old apples, pears, apricot trees must be thoroughly fertilized. A great way is wood ash, which contains many trace elements useful for wood. Ash must be applied to the soil around the plant.
Now that it has become clear what the rejuvenating pruning of trees is and how to take care of the plant after that, you will be able to independently clean your garden.
Advantages of autumn pruning before spring
Some even the most experienced gardeners often wonder when it is necessary to prune trees. The answer is quite simple - it all depends on the purpose for which this procedure will be carried out. Each seasonal pruning has its own advantages and purpose. Autumn pruning is often sanitary in nature., because in the process of this procedure, the tree is prepared for winter. In the autumn it is very important to remove from the fruit trees old or dried branches, in which insects and pests that can infect trees with various diseases can settle. Autumn pruning is often carried out before the first frost.
In early November, it is better to leave trees alone and not to carry out any operations. Since the country is in a temperate zone, all procedures for preparing the tree for winter hibernation should be carried out at the end of November, until the first frosts hit. And since frosts can appear quite unexpectedly, pruning trees should be done in advance.
Pruning trees in the fall is very important, so it must be done correctly.. Novice gardeners try to get rid of dry branches and branches unnecessary for a tree as soon as possible, as a result of which the trunk remains practically naked. As a result - every year the plant less fruit.
Pruning fruit trees in autumn is an important stage of gardening, which will ensure proper growth, preserve health and rich fruit bearing of garden plants.
Adding an article to a new collection
Sometimes gardeners get old and neglected garden, which almost does not bear fruit. Even planting young trees right away, for the first few years you will be without a fruit harvest. But this situation can be corrected by rejuvenating the garden.
Of course, this will not be enough for decades, and in 3-5 years fruit and berry trees in your garden will still decline. However, during this time young seedlings will rise and enter into fruiting, so that you will not be left without vitamins. Yes, and drafted and instill favorite varieties over the years, you can repeatedly.
Restoration of old trees
Most modern gardeners treat their green wards responsibly and promptly take care of the garden, preventing the deplorable state of the trees. However, it also happens that there is already a orchard on the newly purchased land plot, and it is not in the best condition. Then you have to learn the skills of rejuvenating trees.
It is always worth starting with bringing the garden in order and minimal sanitary treatments. Regardless of the time of year, remove the root shoots, weed, burn and heave the tree trunks, clean the trunks and branches of moss and lichen, spend seasonal feeding and treatment of pests and diseases. As a rule, the trees in the old garden have a lot of problems, and this may be the reason for the decline of fruiting.
If the events held in the first year did not help, proceed to more radical actions.
Rejuvenating pruning garden
Before proceeding with anti-aging pruning, make sure that the selected trees are viable. If their trunks are dry, rotted, covered with wounds or hollows, the bark peels off, and the roots are mostly dry, you should not waste time working - it is easier to uproot the tree immediately. If the root system and the trunk are intact and strong, you can try to rehabilitate the crown.
Trees with a height of more than 5 m, whose age exceeds 15 years, should not be completely cut off at once - they will not bear such stress. It is better to divide the work into 2-3 seasons and perform them gradually, tracking the condition of the tree.
It is better to do all the work at the time when the sap flow is slowed down or stopped. in early spring or late autumn, after leaf fall. Winter and summer are categorically not suitable for pruning, because in cold weather the wood is fragile, and in the summer among the foliage it will be unclear what to remove. In addition, during sap flow, the tree “cries” for a long time in large sections, and pathogenic bacteria and fungi can get into the juice.
Currently, there are three main methods of pruning adult fruit trees. You can choose from them at your discretion, but the first is the most rational.
Gradual anti-aging pruning
Gradual pruning stretches for three years and can be carried out both in spring and in autumn, but precisely in a leafless period. In the first year, pruning is more likely to be sanitary in nature - remove dry, diseased and lichen-affected branches and tops, open the crown, removing the upper part of the central conductor. In the second year, the tree is cut several skeletal non-bearing branches and all thickening, interlacing. On the third - the remaining skeletal branches are shortened by a third, stimulating flowering.
Half rejuvenating pruning
If you have no reserve for 3 years, and it’s still a pity, you can remove everything unnecessary for two seasons, but be prepared to listen to many questions and comments from your neighbors.
In the first year, shorten the southern part of the crown to a height of 3 m and a width of 2 m, and a year later repeat the same steps, but with the northern part. At the same time, leave the strongest spinners in the crown, located at a distance of 70 cm from each other, and do not forget to process the cut points in a quality manner.
Cardinal anti-aging pruning
Such pruning can be done only in the spring, so that during the season the tree can gain strength, but even so, it is likely that it will die.
Cut the tip at a height of 3-4 m, and then shorten all the branches so that the crown gradually expands downwards. Remove from it all diseased, dry branches and those that grow deep into the crown or rub against others.
No matter which tree you choose, follow these rules:
- first cut the large branches,
- remove the tops, leaving no more than 10 pieces on the whole tree,
- cut all the dry, diseased, twisted branches, as well as those that grow deep into the crown,
- cut off the central trunk at a height of no more than 3.5 m, so that sunlight would fall into the center of the crown,
- immediately process cuts with garden pitch or its equivalent, without leaving this work for later,
- at a time, cut no more than a third of all branches from a tree — it may not suffer a loss of 50% of the crown.
It is possible to replant the crown of a tree with a new variety (or varieties) throughout its life, however, trees older than 30 years do not tolerate this procedure. Its essence boils down to the fact that you replace the fruiting part of the tree with a more interesting variety, while maintaining the root system and sometimes the central conductor. There are several options for grafting and re-grafting of an old tree, each of which is suitable for its own case.
All vaccinations in this case are carried out during active sap flow (ideally from the second half of May).
Inoculation on an old tree with a healthy root neck
If your tree has a dry or rotting trunk, covered with hollows, cracks, loses bark and branches, but its lower part still looks alive and juicy, you can proceed as follows. Cut down the tree at a level slightly higher than the root collar (25 cm from the ground), remove the root growth and prepare the graft with the prepared bark directly into the resulting stump. Depending on the cut diameter, insert 2-4 cuttings behind the bark, process the cut and the joints of the garden putty.
In the future, leave 1-2 of the largest processes and form a new tree from them on the old stock.
Inoculation on an old tree with a healthy root growth
If the main tree trunk has completely become unusable, and the root growth around looks healthy, you can get a graft directly into it. It is important to choose the growth that is most efficiently and deeply attached to the root system (at a depth of at least 10 cm), in order to further prevent it from breaking off. Carry out the graft, splitting, bark or vpriklad, depending on the thickness of the stock and the scion, and then form a tree, as usual.
Grafting on an old tree with a healthy root system
On the surface of the fruit tree and there are no traces, and the roots when trying to uproot look alive and ooze? Then you can try to implement the vaccination directly into the root system.
To do this, dig the roots to a depth of 15 cm and graft them with a graft by the bark method. After this, the joints are wrapped with cloth or twine, covered with garden pitch and covered with earth so that part of the scion is hidden. A month later, the on-site bandage is loosened, and is completely removed by the end of the season. At the same time, the formed tree can be separated from the parent root system (if it has already given its roots) or left as it is.
Complete replanting of old fruit tree
If the rejuvenating pruning of the tree has yielded results, and it began to bear fruit again, but the quality of the crop does not please you, you can also change the variety that you grow.
Re-grafting is done in the spring (from the beginning of sap flow to mid-May), observing the following rules:
- cut out all the skeletal branches of the crown (extra on the ring, left for grafting on the stump, but so that the cut-off diameter was not more than 4 cm),
- cut off the upper branches closer to the trunk, lower ones farther from it, so that the crown before grafting resembles a herringbone,
- make a complete re-grafting not for 1 time, but for 2 years, and starting from the upper branches,
- In sections of more than 3 cm in diameter, graft 2 cuttings at once,
- use the following vaccination methods: behind the bark with a saddle, butt, improved copulation,
- in the following years, form a low shtamb of wood and do not let it grow more than 3 m in height and width.
Replacement of plantings in the garden
No matter how hard you try to restore the garden, remember that trees are not eternal, and they need a young change. Start planting young plants in the old garden almost immediately, especially if more than half of the trees in it are no longer amenable to rehabilitation and look dying. Feel free to compact the planting - at first, the trees will not interfere with each other, especially if you bring all the necessary fertilizers into the planting pit, and you will not miss watering.
Do not plant a new tree in the place where you recently uprooted the old one. The probability is high that the tree did not die from old age, but from the disease, and its pathogens were preserved in the soil. So you put at risk the young seedlings.
In order not to thicken the planting, leave between the trees from 3 to 6 m (depending on the size of the crown in the adult state). Shadowing and poor airing lead to lower yields and the risk of numerous diseases, so it is better to plant fewer trees, or choose seedlings for short and medium-sized rootstock or columnar varieties.
Speaking of varieties. No matter how you like the time-tested options that were still in your grandmother's garden, take a look at the new ones. Modern fruit trees not only have a variety of taste, color and flavor of the fruit, but also resistant to many diseases that are destructive for older varieties. For example, apple trees Kitayka Long, Chinaka arcade, Red fries, Borovinka red, Koop-10, Shtreyfling lezhky, Celandine, Imrus, Aport blood-red and pears Muscovite, Cosmic, August dew, Krasnobakaya resistant to scab.
Remember that despite all the efforts, you can donate a “second youth” to the garden for a short time, for a maximum of 5-6 years. After you still have to plant new trees and delete old ones.
Hacksaw and other tools for pruning trees in the garden
To pruning trees was not only convenient, but also passed by all the rules, it is necessary to choose the appropriate tool. The most suitable tool for this process is a pruner, with which you can get rid of excess branches in the trees and bushes. To summer residents who care for quite young garden, it is quite enough to have only this tool in an arsenal. Well, those who are going to cut trees and branches thicker than 50 cm, can not do without a garden saw or a hacksaw.
The basic requirements for a garden tool are quite simple - it must be very sharp in order for the cuts to be even and smooth. In addition, the cutting tool must be safe for the gardener himself. In order for the pruner or the hacksaw to be comfortable in the hand and to trim them, they must be light in weight but ensure maximum load. Choose a tool that is not cumbersome and convenient to use, it will provide easy access to the branches at any height or distance.
A hacksaw is ideal for cutting thick branches. Some gardeners use the usual hacksaw, forgetting that such a tool is designed for “dead” wood.To trim living branches, you need to get a tool whose work surface is as gentle as possible for wood. In high-quality garden hacksaws, the height of the cutting teeth should be at least 5-8 mm with wide openings and sharp sharpening. Such a tool copes with pruning branches and is not clogged with wood.
How to prune an apple tree in the fall (video)
Molding pruning helps form the crown and leaves on the tree. Through this approach, it is possible to achieve a perfectly formed shape of the skeletal part of the trunk. Decorative pruning in a certain month also affects the further growth of the branches. For example, if you do the procedure at the end of February - they will grow more intensively. If you choose the beginning of spring for the procedure, it will slow down growth.
Molding pruning helps form the crown and leaves on the tree
Fruit tree pruning schemes for beginners in the fall
Fruit trees have their own pruning features. What month to carry out the procedure? The right approach will ensure a rich harvest. Apple trees are best cut in the fall, immediately after harvest. This should be done very carefully, so as not to accidentally remove the “live” fruit-bearing branches. New young branches often look worse and begin to compete with old ones for moisture and food. therefore when pruning it is necessary to provide optimal conditions for future harvest.
For example, pears or plums, peaches, and other types of stone trees are pruned along with apple trees. Since each of the trees has its own structure, it is impossible to say which branch exactly needs to be cut and which one to leave. It is necessary to observe which branches had the most fruits last year, and which only take moisture and hinder the development of the tree.
In fruit trees, you need to cut those branches that are located "inside" the tree. If there are small processes on the trunk that grow at a certain angle of an already grown branch, they should be removed. You also need to remove those branches that are intertwined with each other, even if they are located far from each other, but still are woven and touching. You need to start with the driest and oldest branches, if the bark on it is cracked - it definitely needs to be removed. In order not to accidentally remove the branches-fruits, be aware that all knots, broken or cracked branches should be removed. In fruit trees, you need to carefully examine the lower part of the trunk - there may be young buds that will bear fruit next year. Cut the top of the tree with a pruner or a hacksaw to ensure the formation of a magnificent crown and a rich harvest in the next season.
Is it possible to rejuvenate old fruit trees
Many problems arise with gardeners with pruning old trees. Immediately the question arises - what tree is considered old? Old age in trees is determined by annual growths. If they are less than 15-20 cm, then you need to carry out anti-aging pruning. But it usually occurs at the age of 30-40. 20-25-year-old gardens on the middle-growing rootstock are not old, they can be fruitful for another 10 years or more. It all depends on the care and regular rejuvenation.
Apple trees and pears bear fruit mainly on fruit - perennial fruit formations. And when the growth will weaken, the tree will produce another 3-4 years of harvest, but with very small fruits. The full life of the tree will prolong anti-aging pruning.
But it happens that with the aging of trees, gardeners are found much earlier if the trees are incorrectly pruned or not pruned at all.
If annual gains are less than 25 cm, a light rejuvenation is carried out, which will quickly restore fruiting and will enhance growth. The branches in this case cut into 3-4-year-old wood.
But easy rejuvenation will not help the tree if annual growths are not more than 10 cm. In this case, a very strong rejuvenation and reduction of the crown is carried out, literally removing the entire crown, except for skeletal branches and overgrowing twigs.
Anti-aging pruning old garden.
After such a strong pruning, tops will grow 50-100 cm long. From them we will form a crown again, cutting out unnecessary tops. It is better to first shorten the branches on one half of the crown to the desired height. When the crown is heavily thinned, removing the perennial branches, the following year many large tops will grow on large saw cuts, since there are many nutrients in the cuts.
All the tops growing inside the crown, cut out on the ring, and leave well-placed tops in the right place. The remaining tops in the cuts are shortened, leaving 2-3 buds. From growing shoots can be formed crown.
Spud shoots on an old tree at the site of distant branches can be used for grafting.
If tops appear on old trees - this is a signal that the tree needs rejuvenation. In this case, they are not removed, but are used to create a new tree crown, and the old crown is cut into a 3-4-year increment. Often rejuvenate the crown (partial rejuvenation), removing the branches to the point of appearance of tops.
Tops, or fat shoots, appear after freezing the tree. At the same time, some of the tops are cut, and some are turned into fruit wood with the help of pinching and trimming. And only a small part is left to restore the crown.
The appointment and timing of autumn pruning coniferous trees
In the garden, in addition to fruit trees, conifers can also grow. In the suburbs they are often used for landscaping household plots. To create optimal conditions for growth for the coniferous tree and to ensure adaptation during the cutting period, it is necessary to choose the right time. It is better to do this in the late fall, when the temperature does not fall below + 5 °, but not in winter. Each conifer species has a period of active growth.when resin is released from the trunk. At this time, the plant is better not to touch, and to ensure him peace.
If there are several coniferous plants in the garden area and there is an urgent need to give them a decorative look, you first need to strengthen their stems and stems. This can be done with the help of special fertilizers. Already after the branches of the plant become stronger and a strong structure is created, they can be subjected to decorative trimming. Pruning of coniferous trees is done not only with, in order to give them a decorative and attractive look, but also in order to get rid of dry and old branches, which take a lot of energy and moisture from the plant.
Pruned conifer trees are cut in order to get rid of dry and old branches that take a lot of energy and moisture from a plant.
Top dressing of an old garden
Rejuvenated trees require good nutrition and water supply. So, you need to feed the apple tree 3-4 times per season.
First feeding - in the end of April. Take 5-6 buckets of humus and 500 grams. urea and scatter on the crown projection.
Second feeding - before flowering. If there is no precipitation and it is hot, then take a 200-liter barrel of water: 800 gr. potassium sulfate, 1 kg of superphosphate, 5 l. bird droppings or 10 liters of slurry (or, in their absence, 500 grams of urea). All mix and insist week. When feeding additional consumption of 1 fruit-bearing tree - 4 - 5 buckets. One barrel for 4-5 apple trees (Watering should be on the projection of the crown departing from the trunk by 50-60 cm.
Third dressing - in the phase of fruit loading.
On a 200-liter barrel take: 3 kg. nitrofoski, 20 gr. dry sodium humate. Pre-pour the powder with a small amount of water to mix well. Consumption - 3 buckets per fruit tree.
Fourth dressing - after harvesting: 300 grams are poured under each tree. potassium sulfate and superphosphate. In the absence of rain fertilizer is best diluted with water.
Rules and optimal time for pruning fall fruit bushes
Fruit bushes on the gardens of Belarus provide a rich harvest. The annual pruning of berry bushes makes it possible to achieve their maintenance in a productive state and healthy form. Removal of dry and old branches ensures the growth of young shoots and optimal penetration of sunlight into the bush. You should not worry if you accidentally remove buds with old branches, because the newly grown shoots will produce more fruit and berries.
For a regular and rich harvest of berries in the garden, you must follow some rules when pruning:
- bushes should be cut regularly, but not at a temperature lower than -7 °,
- need to use only high-quality garden tools,
- when pruning it is necessary to remove all dried and dead branches and fruits,
- before work, wipe the surface of the instrument with alcohol - this will exclude the possibility of infection of plants and trees,
- when cutting branches growing in one direction, you can correctly form the crown of the shrub,
- correctly growing branch should depart from a trunk at an angle of 50-60 °,
- when pruning apple trees, pears, plums, peaches and apricot trees, emphasis should be placed on pruning the upper part of the trunk,
- when pruning dry or diseased branches you give growth to young shoots that will give a rich harvest in the new season,
- after each pruning, check the condition of the branches for the presence of wounds or infections,
- observe the condition of the trees and bushes during pruning and use the knowledge gained for subsequent procedures.
The annual pruning of berry bushes makes it possible to achieve their maintenance in a productive state and healthy form.
For what purpose and how to lubricate the sections after trimming
After pruning dry branches, you need to cover up the resulting "wounds" and the place of cuts. Experienced gardeners use garden pitch, vegetable paint and other mixtures for this purpose. But such a procedure is losing its popularity. This is because the artificial smearing of wounds complicates the process of natural healing of cuts on the branches. Bare wood after cutting is rarely completely sterile, which means “smearing the wounds” can do more harm than good.
In this matter, gardeners were divided into two camps - some argue that the processing of branches after cuts is necessary, others - on the contrary. In general, it is recommended to handle cutting sites on branches whose diameter exceeds 1-3 cm. Slices of smaller diameter should not be processed. When using garden vara, which includes a mixture of ceresin, paraffin and wax, you need to pay attention to the proportions of the components. This mixture can be prepared independently at home.
Garden restoration: repair of old trees
A flowering garden on the summer cottage (foto0
In accordance with the growing conditions of fruit plantations, their breed and varietal composition, age, and agricultural technology used, which determined the nature and extent of frost damage to the gardens, various ways of reviving them are outlined. The restoration of old trees is carried out by repairing the remaining fruit plantations and laying new ones both at the site of the dead gardens and in other areas.
Repair of fruit plantations is carried out by planting trees at the places of fallen trees, grafting trees with a dead aerial part, but with a well-preserved root system, compacting existing fruit plantations and restoring trees, due to regrowth.
Old trees are repaired in gardens, where the trees have a damaged above-ground part, or in varying degrees, but mostly retain a viable root system.
Rejuvenation of the old garden is useless if the trees are in the last period of life. If more than half of the landings have died, the second is no longer being repaired. Such gardens are subject to replacement with new ones.
One of the ways to rejuvenate an old garden is to plant new seedlings nearby. Tree replanting is carried out both in young and in fruit-bearing gardens at the places where trees are finally dead or are perishing. Orchards under the age of 15–20 years old, having a lunge of less than half of the total number of trees, should be planted with old varieties if they are standard, stable, and meet planned targets. When more than half of the trees in the garden fall out, replanting is done with both old and new varieties. The replanting of older fruit trees, regardless of the percentage of lunge, is produced by more precocious varieties in order to create a garden array with more or less the same life span of the trees.
Sticking out fallen trees with simultaneous preparation of planting pits is done in advance: during spring planting - from autumn, during autumn - no later than a month before planting.
In young gardens, pits need to be dug at their usual size, i.e., 1-1.25 m wide and 0.6 m deep, in fruit-bearing ones, depending on the age of the trees, but not less than 1.5-2 m wide and 0 , 6—0.7 m deep.
Before restoring the garden, 30–40 kg of rotted manure or compost should be applied to each new planting pit, and 15–20 kg each with mineral fertilizers added to smaller pits: 300–400 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium salt or 200 g of ash and 60 g of ammonium nitrate. Fertilizer must be thoroughly mixed with the ground.
How to plant an old fruit tree in the garden
One of the most important techniques for rejuvenating a tree is grafting. This method is relevant if the plant is not more than 30 years old. In older gardens, vaccination is usually not done. The graft gives the best results on young trees under the age of 10–15 years, since their more vital root system provides better nutrition of the grafted tree and faster fructification in 3–4 years after grafting, and often before.
Depending on the condition and regrowth of the affected old tree, grafting is done by various methods.
- If there is a well-preserved lower part of the trunk with a healthy and juicy bark, inoculate the stem with the root neck or a little higher, first cutting down the tree trunk here. In the stump insert "saddle over the bark" 2-4 cuttings, depending on the size of the area of the slice.
- With complete death or severe damage to the trunk, together with the root collar, but with well-growing stumps from the base or root suckers, they are vaccinated in either. The shoots for grafting choose the most firmly attached to the root neck of a tree, approximately at a depth of 10-15 cm, which further protects young trees from breaking off.
It is preferable to vaccinate on highly developed root shoots located near the base of the tree. Subsequently, separated from the mother tree, they develop their own root system well and form durable trees.
If there are several seedlings or offspring near the trunk (stump) of a dead tree, 2–4 of the best ones are selected for vaccination, allowing them to develop well within 2–4 years.
During the repair of trees in the garden, depending on the age and development of the seedlings or offsprings, the inoculation is carried out either at the base, or in the crown, leaving the “wild” trunk. The trees on these trunks are more resistant to frostburns. In the event that a crown is formed on them, an inoculation is done in each main branch, and in the absence of a well-laid crown, directly into the trunk, but at the height of the crown.
Vaccination should be done by cutting or budding (sleeping eye), depending on the age and condition of the stock, as well as the presence of cuttings for grafting (or budding). Sprouts and offsprings that are thicker than cuttings are grafted with one of the methods of a graft graft (saddle behind the bark, buttress, geyfus, bladder, etc.), and having the same thickness with them - with an improved copulation method.
For the rejuvenation of fruit trees with a well-preserved root system, but severe damage to the entire aboveground part, including the root collar, with weak regrowth or even complete lack of regrowth of sprouts and offsprings, graft cutting is done directly into the main roots by the side grafting or saddle behind the bark.
At the same time, the roots are either cut off from the root collar, or left uncut. For staging, the roots are dug to a depth of 10-15 cm. Later, after the root grows together with the graft and the latter forms shoots up to 10-15 cm, the root with the base of the graft is covered with earth, which can cause the graft to form its own roots.
For a better accretion of the cutting and stock, the place of inoculation must be firmly tied with bast or twine, putting garden putty over the dressing. Carefully plastered and cut surface of the tree.
In about a month, the dressing on the vaccine should be loosened so that it does not crash into the thickened wood, does not hamper the development and does not cause a fracture of the cutting at the vaccination site.
When rejuvenating old trees to protect graft cuttings from kink (by wind, birds, tools during processing, etc.), they are tied to pegs set to grafted trees, while growing shoots of grafted cuttings are tied to them.
To get a stronger growth of shoots on grafted cuttings, you must leave them one by one, usually the top shoot, and pinch the rest. Growing shoots on the stumps of grafted trees are removed.
During the summer, the dressing and putty are checked and corrected and, if the latter has disappeared, they make a secondary putty of the cut. A re-garter is also produced to the pegs of the growing shoots of grafting.
By the end of the summer, vaccinations usually give an increment of shoots of about one meter.
How the old tree is grafted is shown in the video below:
Grafting and re-grafting of old fruit trees (with video)
How to plant an old tree in the garden cuttings? The grafting is done at the beginning of the intensified sap flow at the rootstocks in the first half of May, and the buds are made at the end of July and the beginning of August.
For spring grafting, cuttings of the corresponding varieties are harvested at the end of autumn (October - November) or in early spring - at the end of March - beginning of April (before bud break). For cuttings, growing trees are available locally, and in the absence of cuttings, they are acquired from the nearest nurseries.
In order to avoid premature blooming of buds before vaccination, harvested cuttings should be stored in a cool place (in snow or glacier).
And how to plant on an old tree with budding with a sleeping eye? To do this, the cuttings are cut immediately before budding.
Trees that are renewed by grafting in the indicated ways are grown in half-stem and low-stem forms, but more often in cluster, the basis of which is laid by the grafting itself in several cuttings. For this purpose, for the next spring, all strong shoots-buttocks are pruned to the crown at a height of 60-70 cm from the grafting site, and during the summer they form a crown of a standard tree or shrub.
In subsequent years, in order to further form the crown and regulate the growth and fruit branches, the crown is mainly cut through - removing less important and thickening branches from it and partially cutting off the ends of the branches.
In order to avoid the breaking off of grafted trees by the wind at the grafting sites for 2–3 years, until a firm adhesion occurs, they are tied to stakes.
For a more durable graft with the rootstock, especially when setting up several inoculations in one stump, it is recommended that the bark be plowed into the grafting sites (in the second or third year). Furrowing - a longitudinal section of the bark - is done in the spring after the leaves bloom, and the incision must pass through the stock and the base of the scion.
Replanting fruit trees. Trees of non-standard and low-grade varieties should be shipped to the crown with standard varieties. Plant in the crown should also be trees, "grains" (seedlings of cultivated varieties) and wild, if those in the plantations are available. Tree grafting can be performed at any age, with the exception of the period of dying. However, it is advisable to do it on trees no older than 35 years and healthy.
Re-grafting is done in the spring, from the beginning of sap flow to mid-May, following the guidelines below.
- To rejuvenate fruit trees, before grafting, you need to trim all skeletal branches, starting from the top.
- The upper branches should be cut off closer to the main branch, and the lower ones further, so that there is no advantage in the inflow of nutrients to the upper branches.
- The diameter of the branches of the branches should not exceed 3-4 cm, since large sections of badly overgrown and cracked.
- Completely cut unnecessary branches from the crown.
Re-grafting of old trees with a large number of branches must be done within 2 years.
Re-grafting is done in various ways: with a saddle behind the bark, with priklad, improved copulation, lateral, etc.
As shown in the photo, re-grafting of old trees starts from the upper branches, gradually moving to the lower ones:
In branches with a diameter of 3-4 cm, 2 cuttings should be put on each to ensure the best overgrowth of the cut. The development of vaccinations must be strictly monitored by simultaneously loosening the strings and the garter of the grafted cuttings, along with the shoots growing from them to thin pegs attached to the branch below the inoculation site.
The grafted crown in the following years is periodically cut, depending on the development of the branches. The grafted trees from the 3-4th year (sometimes from the 2nd) begin to bear fruit.
In the video “Rejuvenation of Trees” you can see how vaccination and re-vaccination is done:
Sealing fruit trees in the garden
As mentioned above, more concentrated plantings create better conditions for mutual protection from adverse meteorological influences. Meanwhile, in industrial gardens (especially young ones), the distance between trees was 10 x 10 m or 10 x8 m, calculated on the tractor row spacing. These distances significantly exceed the required ones even with the full development of trees. At such distances, young trees remain singly standing for a number of years and are adversely affected by winds, dry winds, and frost, especially in the absence of good protection. Significant tree loosening from freezing to an even greater degree increases the thinness of the gardens.
Such gardens should be consolidated by planting fruit trees and especially early-growing species such as berries and stone fruits.
The compaction of fruit trees in the garden can be done according to the following schemes.
- In young gardens with wide aisles, at the same time as planting trees in fallen trees, plant new rows of trees in the middle of the rows (one by one between the rows), keeping the existing distance in the rows. Thus, at a distance of 10x10 and 10x8 m, the compacted planting will be with a distance of 10x5 and 8x5 m. This feeding area is quite sufficient for normal development and fruiting of trees.
- Only in rows, planting on a single tree between apple trees: either apple trees - early and early varieties, or stone fruits (cherry and plum).
- Berry bushes (currants and gooseberries) planting them in rows between apple trees, with a distance of 1.25 - 1.5 m between bushes.
Compaction of plantings should be made taking into account the possibility of mechanized tillage.
Condensed plantations, as mentioned above, by the time of the full development of the trees of the main planting are diluted: berry berries - in 12-15 years, stone fruit - in 20 - 25 years.
Watch the “Rejuvenation of the Old Garden” video to better understand how restoration activities are performed:
Proper pruning of old fruit trees for rejuvenation
Tree restoration is possible due to regrowth. Slightly damaged plants can be restored by increasing the remaining parts.
In fruit-bearing and young trees with the trunk and main skeletal branches of the crown preserved in varying degrees, pruning should be done (rejuvenated) of all frozen and dried branches to healthy parts, capable of sprouting mainly from dormant buds. Due to these shoots, the crown of the tree is restored.
Pruning of old fruit trees in gardens with fully damaged crowns and partly trunks is made in the spring to a healthy place. At the same time, when pruning old trees with a well-preserved trunk or most of it, if there are side shoots growing on it to restore the crown, leave only 3-5 shoots uncut, thus starting the formation of a tree in a low-stemming form (reduction of the crown). In the case of a strong deviation in the direction of the upper escape, it must be tied to the left hemp.
When pruning fruit trees for rejuvenation and heavily damaged young trees, one of them is left at the growth of cultivated shoots in the lower part of the trunk, the best in development and position, the rest are cut. An abandoned shoot in order to straighten it and prevent it from breaking off must be tied to a hemp or a peg next to it. By the end of growth, the shoot will represent a well-developed annual.
The following spring, in all old fruit trees, after the correct pruning, the crown is restored due to the shoots growing on the trunks. Next, cut out the hemp, and the slices are covered with garden putty. The side shoots of the crown and the continuation of the shoots are cut to 14 -1/3 lengths in order to form, and the one-year-old trees at a height of 60-70 cm per crown. In the future, the formation of the crown is made by conventional methods.
To restore the old fruit tree by pruning for rejuvenation leave 3-5 best seedlings, growing from a well-preserved and healthy lower part of the trunk. In case of weak growth of overgrowths or the presence of damage in the lower part of the trunks, the bush is resumed due to stronger offspring, selected among 3-5 and distributed more or less evenly within the near-stem circle with an area of about 1 square meter. m
In autumn or spring, all the excess, not reaching for the restoration of bushes, scoops dig up both in rows and in the rows.
Restored by pruning old trees for rejuvenation, cherry and plum plantations, representing the type of nesting planting, as they develop in the coming years, create favorable conditions for the mutual protection of both individual nest plants and the entire planting. They also contribute to greater snow accumulation, improving the moisture regime of the soil and the air temperature within the crown. After pruning trees for rejuvenation, you can hope for good growth, healthy planting and an annual high yield.
In the gardens, which represent continuous thickets from overgrowing of sprouts and offsprings, they are preliminarily dug out (stubbing) between rows and rows, and in pristvolny circles there are slightly more stumps and offsprings left than is required for a normal bush. A year later, the final thinning (normalization) of the bushes is made, leaving 3-5 shoots or offspring in them.
When raskorchevke and thinning it is necessary to ensure that the correctness of the direction of the rows, the distance between them and the bushes in the rows. The width of the rows should correspond to the varietal characteristics of the culture and the conditions of mechanized processing.
In trees (bushes) with intact trunks and bases of skeletal branches, crown is restored by rejuvenation.
All grafted trees with the deceased aerial parts are uprooted, and new ones are planted instead.
Watch the video: 10 Tips How to Prune a Ton of Fruit Trees (December 2019).Loading...