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Apricots in autumn: from planting to frost protection

Apricot is most often grown in the southern regions. Apricot is quite a heat-loving plant, therefore it is most often grown in the southern regions.

Nevertheless, the right choice of the variety, the purchase of high-quality planting material, compliance with the planting technology and the requirements of agrotechnology make it possible to get good yields of ripe fruit in home gardening in many areas of our country, including with difficult climatic conditions.

To date, there are a significant number of winter-hardy and frost-resistant varieties of apricots, which are suitable for cultivation in the soil and climatic conditions of different regions of Russia.

Breeders obtained varieties that form the fruits of white, pale yellow, bright yellow, orange, orange-red, red, and even almost black.

Varieties vary in size, yield, type of fruiting and the size of the plant itself, as well as other indicators.

Apricot seedlings are planted in spring or autumn. In the autumn period, it is recommended to plant only the most hardy varieties that are highly resistant and can easily withstand temperature drops and significant frosts.

When choosing planting material should be preferred zoned apricot varieties.

A quality seedling should be well developed and have a strong root system and stem, with no signs of disease or pests. It is recommended to use seedlings no older than two years.

Properly performed apricot planting is a guarantee of quick adaptation of the plant and allows you to get a productive tree in a short time.

To date, there are a significant number of winter-hardy and frost-resistant varieties of apricots.

Planting seedlings

If you wish to plant and cultivate apricots on the plot, you must remember that in the northern regions of our country, seedlings are planted only in early spring.

In the southern regions, it is desirable to plant in the autumn. On the territory of central Russia, landing takes place both in the spring months and not too late in the fall.

It is best to give preference to apricot seedlings sold by nurseries and having a closed root system.

The standard scheme and technology of apricot planting is as follows:

  • we pre-dig the plot for planting, and also carefully remove all weed vegetation,
  • We prepare the landing pit about a month before planting apricots,
  • for planting, a pit with dimensions of not less than 70 x 70 x 70 cm is needed, at the bottom of which a drainage in the form of gravel or gravel is placed, and then a layer of nutrient soil with fertilizers,
  • Before planting, it is required to cut off all rotted, damaged or dried parts of the root system on the planting material and lower the seedling into a thick clay talker with a small amount of mullein,
  • we place the seedling in the planting pit so that the root neck of the plant is about 5 cm high above the ground level.

After planting, abundant watering and mulching of the soil with organic mulch in tree trunks is carried out. In the future, plants will need fertilizing, watering, spraying and pruning.

Watering and feeding

Caring for the apricot trees in the autumn period necessarily includes watering and fertilizing, which are recommended to combine to maximize the effectiveness of these activities. With the onset of autumn, the quantitative indicators of water inflow to the root system of fruit trees must be drastically reduced, which will allow plants to adapt more quickly to the rest period.

Immediately after harvesting, it is recommended to carry out one watering at the rate of 50 liters per each apricot tree.

In the dry period, after the massive yellowing of the foliage, autumn irrigation irrigation is of particular importance.

Such an irrigation event is designed to fill the missing amount of moisture in the soil, as well as it is necessary to obtain abundant, high-quality yields and increase the frost resistance of flower buds next spring.

Apricot seedlings planted in spring or autumn

Fertilization in the fall is required for both young and already productive fruit plantations. In the autumn, basic mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil.

To prepare the plants for the winter, it is necessary to feed the fruit plantations with potassium and phosphorus-containing fertilizers. It is also advisable to add a small amount of calcium to the soil.

In near-trunk circles in the first decade of September, in the process of deep autumn digging, about 4 kg of high-quality humus, 60 g of potash fertilizer and about 35 g of superphosphate per square meter are applied.

Fallen leaves must be removed from the site and burned. The crown of plants should be sprayed with a solution based on urea. Also in the autumn period, whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches of the apricot tree with a composition based on lime, copper sulfate and organic matter is carried out.

Fallen leaves must be removed from the site and burned.

Pruning in the fall

Apricot trees, which are not subjected to timely pruning, after some time cease to regularly form a crop, are often exposed to various diseases, and their branches dry out prematurely.

To get the highest possible and high-quality harvest for the next year, it is very important to carry out the correct autumn apricot pruning. Such an event will allow, among other things, to prepare fruit plantations for a long and cold winter period. In autumn pruning, all dry, weak or diseased branches are subject to removal.

The presence of disease or insect pests on the plant is the reason for the sanitary pruning of apricots. It is desirable to begin such a procedure in mid-October. In order to restore the growth of the fruit tree, a stronger pruning is performed, which allows you to limit the height of the apricot. All places of the cut must be treated with garden pitch.

To get the highest possible and high-quality harvest the following year, it is very important to carry out the correct autumn apricot pruning

Winter Tips

Under the conditions of a long and fairly warm autumn period, apricot trees may experience long shoots growth, which may cause freezing of poorly matured wood and flower buds.

If necessary, forcibly stop the growth of shoots and cause their maximum ripening as fast as possible by watering the fruit plantations with a solution based on wood ash, starting from the last summer month.

In regions with harsh or little snowy winters, it is recommended to carry out activities on the warming of apricot trees.

In the autumn, after whitewashing, it is necessary to tie the lower part of the trunk with fir fir branches, which will prevent rodents from damaging the apricot.

To insulate the root system of the tree, you can use a mulch layer. Good warming involves the use of a layer of mulch at least 10-15 cm high.

How to cut apricot (video)

Experienced gardeners recommend wrapping the basal neck and stem of the apricot tree with several layers of ordinary burlap, and then protect it from rodents with a special mesh with small cells. Only competent and timely implementation of all the autumn events will help preserve the health of garden plants and make the next year's harvest as abundant as possible.

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Planting apricots in the fall - how to perform it on time and without blemishes + video

In some cases, planting apricots in the fall is justified to a greater extent than spring. Next, we look at what it is done for and how to properly prepare seedlings for wintering, as well as how to provide them with care.

The first thing to do before choosing the right apricot and planting in the fall is to find a suitable variety for your region. The fact is that the southern forms are completely unsuitable for the middle band, they simply do not have time to mature in a short growing season.

Therefore, on the basis of the latitude on which your allotment is located, it is necessary to give preference to either the early ripening variety, or the late one, which gives a crop in the second half of August or by the end of summer. In the middle lane, frost-resistant varieties are most appreciated due to the early arrival of cold weather.

It is best to plant a one-year seedling, which received proper care in a special nursery. At the same time, planting material should be taken in proven places that have a certain reputation among gardeners, since deception on the part of sellers cannot be ruled out, because seedlings of different varieties are at first very similar to each other.

Be sure to inspect the root system of the young tree, if it is open, there should be no dangling roots. There should be no defects on the bark, as well as extraneous formations that indicate a possible disease of the plant.

Keep in mind that some diseases can be contagious and will easily cover your entire garden.

Annual apricot seedlings

In order to make sure that the seedling is viable (alas, it also happens that young trees that are deliberately dead are sold), a small incision should be made on the bark. If white wood is visible under its thin layer, this means that the planting material is quite healthy and can be rooted.

If, after the initial and even deeper cut, you see only dark brown fibers - the plant most likely will not survive, even if it has not completely dried out.

If there are fresh cuts on the roots, most likely in the nursery, dried or damaged processes have already been removed and they should not be renewed again, as this will not allow the plant to grow damage before planting.

Best of all, if the seedling is purchased with a root ball, that is, with the ground, it is easier to plant, more convenient container planting material.

What should be the ground?

Now that you have something to plant, you need to decide exactly where to do it. You need to find the right place for the apricot to grow without any interference. The optimum is loamy soil or sandy loam.

Although pure black soil is considered to be the most fertile, it is still a bit heavy for stone trees, which delay the fruiting and ripening of the crop.

As for the soil in which the sand prevails - the water is either too quickly or absorbed by it to a great depth, or evaporates as well, therefore the apricot in such conditions will always hurt from lack of moisture. Clay soils are also too heavy.

Place for planting apricot

It is best of all if you mix sand, clay and humus in equal proportions in the preparation of the soil, as well as high-moor peat. It is very important to thoroughly loosen the fertile layer so that no large lumps remain, so water and air will be easier to penetrate to the roots, which will ensure their rapid adaptation to new conditions.

In no case do not plant apricot where ground water is located close to the surface, as this plant does not like overwetting around the roots, which easily rot.

If, nevertheless, groundwater is close enough, or shallow clay lies, which impedes the absorption of sediment, be sure to drain either the entire plot, allotted for apricots, or at least the pit, where you will be rooting seedlings.

As for the place allotted for planting, as for many other plants, the apricot needs to be as long as possible under the sunlight. Therefore, choose a sunny place, even if not in the south side of the site, while in order to avoid flooding it is better on a small hill or on its slope.

The main thing is that this place should not be in a lowland, since it is there that thawed snow lasts the longest, as well as rainwater, in addition, in such places the occurrence and long-term retention of fog is possible.

And, of course, frosts in the lowlands manifest themselves in the first place, and they linger there for a long time, since the sun's rays are harder to warm such corners, especially under the cover of tree crowns.

Planting procedure - we do everything right

So, you have a suitable place for apricots, and there are their saplings. It remains only to fully engage in the preparation of the soil.

In general, it is customary to do this in the spring, but only in northern latitudes, in the south it is better if you land in the fall. Both variants are used in the middle lane, depending on the variety.

But since frost-resistant forms take root most often, it is better to organize an autumn planting.

The fact is that the greatest danger for a young plant that has high resistance to cold is not the winter, but the spring months. Either melt water, or frequent spring rains necessarily lead to the fact that immature roots are in conditions of high humidity. As a result, the tree dies.

Another thing, if planted shortly before frost, providing a fully fertilizer and sufficiently deeper roots. For a start, 3 weeks before landing, we dig a hole about 70 centimeters deep and at least half a meter in diameter, but better than 80x80.

The distance between the pits should be about 5 meters so that the crowns of trees in the future do not interfere with each other.

At the bottom, be sure to place mid-sized crushed stone or small gravel - this will be a drainage layer to remove moisture from the roots. Then we throw into the pit 3 kilograms of that same mixture of clay, sand and organic matter, after which we moisten and wait for shrinkage.

When it comes time to place the root ball in the pit, it must be done carefully, and it is desirable to drive a pole near one of the walls, to which the tree will be tied.

When digging a hole, be sure to separate the upper and lower layers of the soil, casting away the fertile soil separately, it will be necessary to cover the roots, and only the top of the soil will be laid deeper.

Landing pit with drainage

If you have a sapling without a root clod, it is recommended 3 hours before planting to place the tree with a future underground part in a vat with a mullein solution with clay, the proportion of which should be approximately 1: 3.

Such a coating will briefly protect the thin roots from contact with mineral fertilizers and at the same time will serve as a source of nutrients during adaptation.

Prior to this, the root system can be held slightly in warm water, so that the seedling is saturated with moisture and feels better after planting.

We place the plant in a hole so that the root neck is above the ground surface no less than 5 centimeters. But it is even better, taking into account the fact that we will pour a small shaft at the base of the shtamba, which will provide better insulation of the roots and at the same time will drain rainwater from the root collar.

It is noteworthy that in some cases the plant is not installed strictly vertically, but instead specifically tilted 45 degrees to the ground - the so-called horizontal planting. This gives a few extra degrees of heating from the ground, in addition, it is easier to warm the young tree for its first wintering.

Next, mix with the top layer of soil 1 kilo of superphosphate and throw in a pre-made sand-clay mixture with peat. Then we sprinkle it with deep soil and from it we form a stem circle.

When planting be sure to make potash fertilizers, they are enough 60 grams per well.

It is better to spray the branches and the trunk with a 5% solution of nitrogen fertilizer, and also pour it in a small amount on the tree trunk circle.

Providing proper care for a young tree

The first and foremost is watering. Even if it has recently rained and the land is still wet, the apricot needs water to first get nutrients from the soil.

Therefore, it is mandatory to pour at least 20 liters of water under each tree on the plot, which on average gives about 2 buckets. You can add 1 more if the ground is dry.

If the soil is acidic and exceeds the Ph 6 level, then lime or dolomite flour should be scattered over the surface, about 1 kilogram per square meter.

Watering apricot seedlings

Next, sprinkle the near-barrel circle with mulch, it will become an additional insulant for the roots and, at the same time, will prevent the ingress of excess moisture during precipitation.

You can use chopped straw, sawdust or even peat. The next stage is working with the aboveground part of the plants.

As winter approaches, apricots need warming, in particular, the trunk should be wrapped with roofing paper. Also for this purpose fit burlap.

In no case do not use the wire and do not wrap too tightly, so you can damage the bark, it will be enough to tie the material with a jute or cotton rope.

The next thing to do is to examine the seedling for damaged branches, if there are defects on the bark somewhere, it is recommended to carry out the autumn pruning.

Along the way, you will carry out the first stage of crown formation, so try not to cut everything “under the circle”, that is, at the base, the shoots should have several buds for growth. Carefully cover all damages with garden pitch.

Take care of apricot during wintering

If you have not forgotten about a peg and tying a sapling to it - you can not think about how much snow will be laid on the branches, but if this procedure has not yet been done, this is the time.

It is also useful to install a shield near each tree to protect it from the north wind, which in winter brings with it severe frost.

In extreme cases, you can make small huts of poles and spruce branches, or use straw (reed) mats.

Apricot seedling tied to a peg

You can use the usual polyethylene, which is wrapped in a kind of inverted bag, tied up on top and sprinkled with soil from below. Such shelters are recommended to be dismantled only in the spring.

If your winter temperatures are not too low, and the variety is frost-resistant, you can only limit winding the trunk and especially the root collar, leave the branches open.

However, it should not be allowed to form on them an ice crust or accumulate a lot of snow, especially wet, sticking in large lumps.

All this should be gently shaken off the future crown. At the base, on the contrary, it is necessary to sweep in more snow, so that the drifts protect the roots and shtamb from frost. However, closer to the first thaws, such a layer is better to scrape, otherwise a lot of melt water will be absorbed into the ground, which can lead to rotting of the roots. Especially often it threatens trees in Siberia and other northern regions.

Care in the first spring after planting

This period is very important in the autumn rooting apricot, because it is now the plant will begin to form to the fullest extent.

The first thing to do after wintering is to make sure that the branches and buds on them are not affected by frost. Maybe something will have to be cut.

In general, it is recommended to shorten the skeletal branches by half, the rest of them will begin to appear shoots and, perhaps, the first ovary of flowers.

Ovary of young apricot flowers

It is better to remove them for the first year, since the tree is not yet fully ready for fruiting, it is more correct to set the yield of the crop and the compote of apricots for the next growing season. After spring pruning, the center conductor should rise not less than 0.3 meters above the nearest skeletal processes.

Make sure that several shoots from one node do not appear at once, leave the strongest ones, and remove the rest under the circle. It is very important to pay attention to the first feeding.

Just at this period, it is already possible to add nitrogen-containing preparations - they contribute to the growth of the tree, which has already managed to settle in a new place for it during the winter.

Only 30 grams of nitrogen are needed for each radical circle, and it is better to dilute this amount in 10 liters of water and feed it at the same time as irrigation, so the mineral will reach the root system more easily.

If the soil is acidic, in the spring it is necessary to add fertilizers containing calcium when loosening, this mineral with dolomite flour, in which it contains at least 14%, can be added.

Organic need apricot only 3 years after planting.

How to plant apricot

The tree tolerates frost and drought. At one place apricot can grow up to 30 years without losing its yield. Therefore, before planting, it is important to determine the place and time.

The timing of planting seedlings

The best time to plant seedlings is autumn. Planting time is slightly different in each region. In southern latitudes, it is better to carry out all work at the beginning of October, and in the conditions of the middle band a little earlier.

Important! Works associated with planting a sapling should end a month before the onset of frost.

Choosing an apricot orchard location

Apricot is an oriental culture, therefore it is better to plant trees in well-lit places. The place for the future garden should be well protected from cold northerly winds from all sides.

Despite the fact that apricot belongs to moisture-loving trees, it is preferable to plant it on a relatively dry area. The depth of groundwater should be no higher than 1.5 meters. The plant does not tolerate the mopping of the root system, especially at a young age.

It is important to pay attention to the soil in which it is planned to grow apricot. On sandy soils without additional irrigation, trees age early, the risk of summer burns increases.

On chernozem, apricot begins to bear fruit late, the yield is very low. Apricot categorically can not be grown on heavy clay soils.

It is preferable to plant young trees on light loamy soils with a neutral reaction.

How to prepare the landing pit

The landing pit for a sapling is prepared in advance, approximately 2-3 weeks before the intended work. The depth of the hole should correspond to the root system of the seedling. Experienced gardeners recommend a depth of up to 70-80 cm.

Before planting the pit is well filled with fertilizer. To do this, the earth must be mixed with humus, superphosphate and potassium.

One landing well:

• Humus - 2 buckets,

• Potassium sulphate - 500 gr,

• Superphosphate - 600 gr.

Fertilizers are well mixed with the soil and poured into the pit. The pit is left until the landing. During this time, the earth will settle.

How to choose an apricot seedling for planting in the fall

For planting a tree is better to give preference to purchased seedlings that are grown in compliance with all requirements. In addition, the independent cultivation of apricot from the stone - troublesome business that requires special knowledge.

The best material for planting - young seedlings, whose age does not exceed 3 years. They quickly take root in a new place, it is easier to care for them. What to look for when buying a sapling, so as not to buy wilderness instead of a cultural tree:

1. A young seedling of a varietal apricot has thick skeletal branches without thorns.

2. Pay attention to the vaccination site. There should be a small spike at its base.

3In addition, the root system of the seedling must be alive, otherwise the plant will not take root.

Autumn apricot planting: how to conduct

Before landing prepare the seedling. You need to carefully examine it, remove all rotten and dry roots. Healthy roots must be cut to 1/3. Next, the seedling is placed in a clay talker, in which it is desirable to add a mullein.

Apricot planted in a prepared well. It is necessary to monitor the position of the root collar. It should be 5-6 cm above the soil level. If it is deepened, the risk of fungal diseases of the tree increases.

It is more convenient to carry out all the work associated with planting together. Seedling neatly placed in a hole spread roots and covered with earth. After that, the soil around the tree is tamped and watered abundantly. To preserve moisture, additionally mulch the trunk circle with humus.

If you plan to plant several trees, it is important to respect the distance between the seedlings. Adult apricot requires a large area, up to 5 square meters. m. on one tree.

How to care for apricot in the fall after planting

After the plant is planted, it must be prepared for winter. Particular attention should be paid to the trunk and skeletal branches. They need to whitewash to protect against spring burns. Copper sulphate is added to the working solution. This mixture helps to destroy pests that hibernate under the bark of a tree. The whitewashing of the tree is carried out when the weather is settled, and the rainy period will pass.

In addition, young seedlings need to be protected from rodents that cause harm. For this, fir branches are tied to the trunk. Despite the fact that apricot is a frost-resistant plant, it needs additional warming at a young age. When snow falls, they wrap the tree near the trunk circle.

Important! During periods of thaw, it is necessary to remove melted snow from the root neck of the plant so that moisture does not stagnate in this place.

Apricot protection from pests and diseases

Apricot is unstable to damage by pests and diseases. In the autumn, after planting, apricot is treated with complex preparations. Autumn use copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture. Simultaneously with the treatments, an additional spraying with Zircon, Ecoberin is carried out. They increase the resistance of seedlings to weather conditions and diseases.

How to prune an apricot in the fall

Pruning is an important event when growing apricot. It is carried out in the spring, summer and autumn. Autumn pruning is carried out at the stage of preparing the tree for the winter.

During this period, it is important to pay attention to the broken and damaged shoots that need to be removed. Also cut out all the sick and dry branches. In addition, all growing inside and thickening shoots are cut off.

Important! The first pruning of the tree is carried out a year after planting.

Is it possible to repot the apricot in the fall?

At one place the tree grows long enough and does not tolerate the transplant. But if the need arises, then you can transplant young seedlings. This is best done in the fall. In addition, it is important to adhere to some rules for apricot transplantation.

1. Transplant apricot can be carried out if the age of the seedling does not exceed 5 years.

2. When transplanting it is important to preserve the earthy clod with roots.

3. Apricot is carefully removed from the ground and transferred to a new place, dodging an earthen ball in sackcloth.

Observing these simple rules can make an apricot transplant less painful. Thanks to this plant to recover faster.

Recently, apricot trees are very popular. New breeding allows you to grow this crop, even in the northern regions. Apricot constantly requires care, especially in autumn, when the tree needs to be prepared for winter. Observing all the rules of planting and care, the hardworking gardener will be rewarded with tasty fruits. It's a shame when in the spring it turns out that the apricot is withered.

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Where to plant apricot?

There should be a place for planting apricot high, sunny, warm and closed from cold and strong winds. But it will be a mistake to plant an apricot on the southern slope. Here he will start earlier growing season to the detriment of his own cold resistance.

For planting apricot lowlands are completely unsuitable, where the cold air flows. When choosing a planting site, the biological characteristics of this plant should be considered.

The soil in the place where you plan to plant an apricot orchard should have good breathability.

So apricot roots definitely need a free flow of air throughout the growing season, so even a slight short-term flooding with water and a strong over-wetting of the root zone can result in the death of a plant.

Properly selected soil composition. In one sandy soil with poor moisture, apricot trees get burned in the summer and grow old early. On the non-irrigated chernozem they come into late fruition and give rather poor yields. Apricot is also not suitable clay heavy soil.

Therefore, in clay, for example, one part adds one part of peat, as well as one part of sand. For an apricot, sandy, loamy, light loamy, with a neutral and slightly acidic reaction (pH 6-7) are most favorable.

On soils that contain less than three percent of humus, the minimum dose of semi-matured manure is 3.3 kilograms per square meter. Mineral fertilizers are applied depending on the content of nutrients in the soil. For example, on clay one needs more phosphate fertilizers (at least 100-120 grams per square meter).

It is better to plant apricot in spring. Place the seedlings in the prepared soil: dug deep (up to 45 cm) with simultaneous fertilization. Planting pits are made 60-70 centimeters deep just before the landing itself, bringing in one kilogram of superphosphate and 8-10 kilograms of humus.

In the pit before planting put for the garter tree count. They put the ground in a heap and put flexible young roots along it, pour fertile loose soil layer on them so that there are no voids left. After lay on top of the rest of the land, which is dug out of the pit.

As a result, a slope is formed around the tree, which is tilted away from the tree so that rainwater and irrigation water can penetrate to the roots, and due to the fact that the seedling itself is located on a hill 10-15 centimeters high, the snow will melt when the snow melts. .

Watering apricot after planting is required (20-30 liters), even in cases where there is sufficiently moist soil. So it settles around the tree better, and good conditions are created for growth. Mulch top seedling sawdust, peat chips or other material.
Proper pruning apricots

The further care of the planted trees consists in their timely watering, feeding, and also pruning. Top dressing is done depending on the age of the trees. Thus, two or three summer trees recommend about 10-15 kg of organic fertilizers (compost, humus), 50 grams of potassium chloride, 50-60 grams of ammonium nitrate, 130 grams of superphosphate.

The cutting rate for 4-5 years of life doubles and is 30 kilograms, increasing the amount of nitrate to 100 grams, potassium can be added 50-60 grams, superphosphate - up to 200 grams.

The rate of organic fertilizers for 6-8 years of life is increased by another 15-20 kilograms (approximately 45-50 kilograms are injected), potassium 130-140 g, superphosphate - 210 g, nitrate 110 g.

A nine-year-old adult apricot needs about 80 kilograms of cut, 250 g of potassium chloride, 850-880 g of superphosphate, 350-370 g of ammonium nitrate.

Apricot trees respond well to the application of various nitrogen fertilizers, however, their resistance to various diseases can be reduced by their excess: superlong growth (more than one meter), delayed fruit ripening, gum development. On heavy and acidic soil, the tree responds well to potassium fertilizing. It is recommended to make it in a liquid state. If in the dry to make, then only in the grooves and only before the rain or watering.

Apricot vaccination

Propagation of apricot trees with the help of vaccination makes it possible to obtain seedlings with high garden characteristics. Required for grafting stock and graft.

A young shoots of approximately 10 centimeters (stalk) are used as grafts, with 7-10 buds. It is called stock plant, which is grafted.

For this, as a rule, seedlings from a bone of 1-2 years of age are used, but you can use plants and older ones.

Thus, in order to get a quality seedling, you will need to spend about three years:

  • First year: growing apricot from the stone, which will be used as a stock.
  • Spring of the second year: the stock should be cut five centimeters above the root collar. Inoculation varietal cutting in place of the cut.
  • Spring of the third year: the seedling is ready for transplanting to a permanent place.

Pruning apricots in spring

The main purpose of pruning garden apricots is the clarification of the crown, by removing the branches that grow inside the crown and thicken it. Trimming is stimulated by the annual growth of stronger shoots, where the bulk of apricots form. Warnings of branches and overload of the tree are also warned.

To give the result of pruning apricot in the spring, first the shoots are determined, on which the generative buds are formed. They are formed, as a rule, on the spur and annual shoots. The generative short shoot most often dries in 3-4 years, so it does not have any impact on the formation of the crop. Therefore, the purpose of spring pruning is growth and the formation of strong shoots.

When you stop the growth of shoots carry out anti-aging pruning, which is completely based on the reducing ability of apricot. The correct pruning of apricot is pruned with a length of one-year shoots more than thirty centimeters.

The crown of apricots is most often formed on a sparse-tiered type. You can sometimes find trees that were formed by an improved bowl method, in which the placement of branches is single-layer single with a flattened crown.

Due to the cup-shaped improved crown, earlier fruiting is ensured, and at the same time a high-quality crop is obtained.

Formation of the crown in a rarefied-tiered way consists of 6-7 branches of the first order. There is an arrangement of branches with an interval of 35-40 centimeters.

It is necessary to take into account that the fructification of apricot on the branches of 2-3 years old is more abundant. You should not get carried away with intensive pruning, as it contributes to this reduction in yield.

It is necessary at the same time to delete the old, spawn-bearing branches. If pruning of trees is carried out, side branches can be removed.

For their correct replacement, it is necessary to tie the same number of shoots that are not pruned and do not pinch unnecessarily.

The main pests of apricot

The main pests include aphid, which greatly weakens the plant. Struggling with aphids mechanically, when appearing destroying it, or spraying tobacco infusion, as well as infusions of dandelion or ash. The caterpillars of the butterfly butterfly cause no less damage.

It is also easily destroyed by mechanical means. For apricots, the real danger is black goldfish. Only one larva is enough to penetrate the root system so that the whole tree will die. After the leaves fall off, the tree is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture to fight.

Apricot diseases

All diseases of apricot are divided into three groups: viral, bacterial and fungal.

The most common among fungal diseases is cytosporosis, gray fruit rot, closures, rust.

Among viral diseases, ring "smallpox", viral wilting, and apricot ribbon mosaics prevail.

It is necessary to observe the established rules of agricultural engineering for the prevention of apricot diseases of various etiologies. When working in the garden (pruning, grafting), it is necessary to disinfect hands as well as tools. Warming up for ten minutes at a temperature of fifty degrees Scion lowers the risk of transmission of microorganisms and viruses during vaccination.

Apricot Care

Landscaping the site usually begins with planning the future garden. Apricot is considered to be one of the main participants of the "green company". Without this plant it is impossible to imagine a single yard. However, in addition to the landing is important the right apricot care. Otherwise, high yields can not be seen.

With a lack of time or patience, you can shift the garden work on the shoulders of experienced professionals. Our gardeners will provide proper care for your apricot planting 🙂

Seasonal features

Apricot Care Autumn mainly consists in preparing the plant for the winter frost. Since this is a southern sun-loving tree, it is necessary to provide the most comfortable conditions for wintering. Leaving an apricot without a “fur coat” for a period of frost, you risk the health of the plant. Having received frostbite stump, the plant will certainly die.

In correct spring apricot care necessarily included pruning crown. Only young shoots bear fruit well. Gradually, they grow and “release” new fruitful twigs.

Therefore, without pruning can not do.

Either you will monitor the formation of the crown and regulate its growth in the right direction, or a huge “baobab” will grow on your site with a small amount of crop at the top.

Apricot grown everywhere?

Despite the fact that apricot is considered a primordially southern tree, it can be grown in harsh areas (Siberia, the Urals). True, not every seedling will take root, and not all varieties will survive. Ideal for planting in the "cold" areas suitable only Siberian apricot. This plant tolerates severe cold, withstands temperatures up to -40 ° C.

  1. Apricot care in Siberia and in the Urals is special, because it starts from the time of landing. The fact is that the main danger for young stock is not winter, but spring. Surprised? Yes, it is the thaw time that is the most dangerous stage for a plant. The presence of a large amount of snow leads to an excessive flooding of the root collar, as a result of which it begins to subside. By itself, this leads to the death of the tree. Therefore, before planting an apricot, it is necessary to choose the right place for it, preferably at a height. Also in the care of apricot includes mulching and other ways to drain excess water.
  2. Apricot care in the middle lane more simple. Here the moisture does not strike the root neck, and the chances of frostbite are much lower. But it is necessary to periodically monitor the condition of the soil. The main danger is the lack of moisture. Therefore, in the spring it is often necessary to water the plants, sometimes it is necessary to pour a couple of buckets of water in the summer in the tree trunk circle. The main thing is not to pour in August, otherwise the growth of new branches will slow down.

Not only is the right care for apricots, pruning can play an equally important role. As mentioned above, the formation of the crown affects the yield.

To form a crown, cutting off non-bearing branches, as well as shoots that are “useless” pulling the sap from the plant, you can do it yourself. If pruning is not your thing, give the apricot care to the hands of our professional "apricot scholars." They certainly know how to influence your tree so that it brings a great harvest.

Planting a sunny tree

It is possible to get an apricot happiness by planting a tree.To do this you will need: desire, seedling, shovel, fertilizer and two pairs of hands. Planting and caring for apricots are not the most difficult things in this world, but they require certain rules to be followed.

Apricot planting technology is as follows:

  • Preparation of the pit. The pit is prepared in advance (at least 3-5 days before landing). Sizes such that the roots of young stock can easily fit in the straightened form. A peg is driven in for a future garter. Mineral fertilizers and humus are brought into the pit. All curdling ingredients are buried in the soil.
  • After shrinking the soil, proceed to landing. One person gently inserts a seedling into the pit and holds it in place. The second member of the gardeners team brings in youngsters and gently presses the soil around the post with their foot. At the end of planting, young stockings are tied up (if necessary) and watered.

Now you can put the shovel aside and enjoy the work done 🙂

Electrical tape in the life of the tree ...

When the apricot grew and began to reproduce the first fruits, special attention is paid to the branches on which the orange suns do not grow. It is desirable to get rid of them. The formation of the crown occurs exclusively from fruiting branches.

Often, caring for apricots after harvesting is crowned by marking the shoots that will need to be pruned. You can memorize each twig or think of a way to mark them (for example, stick small pieces of usual blue electrical tape to them - it certainly is in any house).

On the right there is an approximate scheme of trimming a tree depending on age (how to trim apricot, photo).

Feeding rules

In addition to pruning, apricot tree care also includes top dressing. As well as for all fruit-bearing plants, nitrogen compounds are the favorite type of fertilizer in springtime.

Each year, apricots will have to be fed with 20-30 grams of “nitrogen” per square meter of the trunk circle. But do not overdo it with this type of fertilizer. So the care of apricot seedlings consisting of the constant impregnation of the roots with nitrogenous compounds will not lead to rapid growth.

On the contrary, excessive feeding will kill the molonak sooner, without giving him a single chance for survival.

Apricot care includes the following basics of dressing:

  • Organic matter is introduced only 1 time in 3 years,
  • acidic soils periodically flavored with calcium,
  • after the beginning of fruiting, it is desirable to add ammonium nitrate, potassium salt and superphosphate annually (4: 3: 1 ratio). Allowable amount of curd mix 50 grams per 1 sq.m.

Following these rules, the yield of the tree approaches the ideal.

Wintering Secrets

Be sure to save your apricot orchard from frostbite. To do this, create a coat of roofing material or roofing material. Wrap the material around the trunk and secure with a rope or wire. Thus, severe temperature fluctuations in the winter time will not be able to cause fatal harm to the tree.

Remember that apricot care is included. whitewash. Especially important is stacking before winter. Pre-winter whitewashing will help avoid the tragic fate of apricot, when the plant ceases to be the joy of the gardener, and becomes an overnight stop for all sorts of pests. If you whiten the bark after fruiting, the insects in it will not settle for the winter.

Note to gardeners

Experience comes over the years. We are ready to share some observations in the field of gardening, on the basis of which we will give you free advice

  • Note 1. We help the young survive. The first couple of years of life of a young apricot - the most difficult for the tree. As long as it doesn’t “settle down” well in a new place, the plant is threatened with death from drying out, weeds, an overabundance of moisture, etc. Therefore care for apricots in the first years of the seedling’s life consists of maintaining the tree circle in the most acceptable condition: loose soil, a single weed, organic mulch. Allowable loosening depth - 7-8 cm.Having deepened more, you can injure or prune the roots.
  • Note 2. Yield monitoring. As practice shows, overloading the plant with fruits will certainly lead to poor fruiting in the next season. therefore We recommend that you include manual fruit thinning in apricot care. The ratio of leaves and apricot on the tree should be 1:20. Do not forget that during active growth and “pouring” of fruits, the plant needs moisture. Do not be lazy to bring a few buckets of water if necessary.
  • Note 3. Disease. If all sorts of diseases and pests have been thrown on the tree, the best treatment takes place at the initial stage (while few shoots are affected). Treatment in the form of disinfection and spraying poisons will not restore the "dead" areas. It is advisable to remove diseased branches, shoots, fruits and burn them.

We hope that gardening will be one of your favorite hobbies. Plant fruit trees and they will bring a lot of valuable gifts: joy to the eyes, clean air to light and bliss taste buds. And our experienced gardeners will be able to provide the best care for your garden! 🙂

Autumn planting apricot trees

For apricot planting it is correct to choose areas with loamy soil of neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. The soil should be a sufficient amount of humus, fluorine, potassium and nitrogen.

The groundwater in the apricot growing area should be quite deep, the place should be well lit and heated, not exposed to harsh winds. For additional protection of apricots from such traumatic factors, shields and fences, painted for more light reflecting in white, are often used.

The best effect is achieved if you plant apricots 2-3-year-old seedlings. Then they take root faster and begin to bear fruit earlier. The first half of autumn is considered the best time for planting apricots: before frost, seedlings should have time to acclimatize.

For planting apricot trees, it is necessary to prepare a pit with dimensions of 70 x 70 x 70 cm. Fill it in the following sequence:

  • first lay out drainage from branches and gravel,
  • then a nutritious soil mixture consisting of 2-3 buckets of humus, 500 g of superphosphate, 2 kg of ash, which can be replaced with 100 g of potassium salt, 200 g of ammonium nitrate and 1 kg of lime, is laid.

Thoroughly mixed nutrient pit is filled so that a slight elevation is formed. This is done to ensure that the root neck of the tree, even after the shrinkage of the earth, does not sink into the soil. Otherwise, there is a risk of podpryvaniya in the ground, which often leads to fungal diseases of trees.

Before planting a tree, you need to slightly cut off the roots, remove the damaged parts of them, and dip the rest into a talker, consisting of clay, water and a liquid mullein. This is necessary to create a protective layer for the roots. Yes, and the soil will stick to them better, which means that the trees will be more stable.

It is easier for two people to plant trees in order to gently straighten the roots, fill in and compact the ground. A hillock is formed around the tree, a groove is made outside of it, into which 2 buckets of water are poured. With this inIt is important to ensure that the roots do not erode or become bare. If this happens, you need to fill them with earth.

Trimming schemes

Apricot fruits grow on the annual bouquet of sprigs. Therefore, systematic pruning of the crown for its rejuvenation and increasing the yield of trees is indispensable.

In the fall, they mostly perform sanitary pruning of trees, that is, they remove dried, unfruitful and diseased shoots. They are very harmful to the tree, as they often serve as a haven for insect pests.

Pruning is performed taking into account the age and condition of the fruit tree:

  • young branches need to be shortened only slightly,
  • An adult tree needs a thorough pruning of the lateral and skeletal branches, which are cut by at least one third, leaving about half of the strongest shoots,
  • old trees pruned the top, all lowered and non-fruitful branches.

Sometimes you have to remove large branches that have not been bearing fruit for a long time. As a result of such manipulations in spring, the tree comes to life and fruit buds appear on it in those places where there had not been many years before due to insufficient lighting of the fruit.

The trimming tool must be decontaminated and well sharpened so that the procedure is quick and painless. Small sections are not processed by anything, and large sections are painted with oil paint.

Feeding and preparation for wintering

Autumn plant feeding is carried out after the collection and destruction of fallen leaves and shallow digging of the earth. Phosphate fertilizers are applied in the amount of 50 g per tree, and potash fertilizers in the amount of 30 g. Apricots are fed with organics in the form of humus or compost based on the rate of 4-6 kg per tree every 3-5 years.

If plants bear bad fruit due to acidification of the soil, then every 5-6 years in the autumn it is lime, bringing 5-10 kg of fertilizer under the tree. Note that the older the tree and the larger its crown, the more lime it needs.

In the fall, you also need to take care of protecting the bark and tree branches from spring burns. To do this, they are treated with a solution consisting of 2 kg of lime, a glass of flour paste and 200 g of copper sulfate, diluted in a bucket of water. You can also use for this purpose water-based paint or garden whitewash.

Protection from rodents are brushwood or spruce branches, tied down along the trunk with needles down. Without a loss, frost apricots can be helped by wrapping trunks with snow. When thaws, the snow must be otgresti from the root of the neck, so that the frozen during the night frosts water does not accumulate in this place.

Protection against diseases and their prevention

Apricot trees have many enemies: excessive moisture, drought, frost, winter cold, harsh winds, large temperature fluctuations, as well as specific diseases. The cause of the disease is most often a violation of agrotechnology. Sick trees more than others need feeding with potassium and lime.

Adding an article to a new collection

Apricot seedlings quickly grow. In the first 2-3 years, many gardeners do not touch the tree, admiring its growing crown and the first flowers. Alas, this approach is fundamentally wrong, and instead of rich harvests you only get a sick tree, which will die in a few years.

Proper pruning of the apricot implies annual growth control, starting from the moment of planting. A tree grows branches so fast that one pruning per season may not be enough. If you see that the apricot grows too rapidly and thickens, in addition to spring pruning, also spend the autumn. Also, autumn pruning is a way out for those who rarely come to the country and in the early spring is not visited there.

Why prune apricot in the fall

Autumn pruning of trees is usually intended to stimulate fruiting, but with apricot everything is different. Unlike apple or pear trees, it is not able to regulate the number of fruits on its own, and in the first few years it produces so abundant crops that it is quickly depleted and dying. Therefore, the task of zealous gardener is to adjust the ratio of fruit and deciduous branches. By pruning the fruit branches, we reduce the harvest, which we will receive in the next season, however, we increase the years of life and fruiting of the tree.

In the autumn, only early and mid-early apricot varieties can be cut. If your apricot fruits late, only spring pruning is suitable for it, and removing a part of the branches in the fall will only hurt and weaken the tree.

How to prune an apricot in the fall

In the middle lane, apricot pruning is in the middle of October.If you live in a region where the climate is different, choose a period when sap flow has already slowed down, but there are still 2-3 weeks left before the first frost.

Scheme pruning apricots of different ages in the fall

To work prepare:

  • sharp hacksaw,
  • pruner,
  • sharp knife
  • step ladder
  • garden pitch

Cut the apricot in one day, do not stretch it over time and always immediately treat the wounds applied to the tree.

Autumn pruning apricot in the 1st year of life

Apricot, just brought and planted on the plot, as a rule, looks like a thin, short stick, but he also needs pruning. Regardless of whether you planted it in spring or autumn, it should be carried out immediately, shortening the trunk by 10-15 cm, and thereby stimulating the growth of the lateral branches.

If you have not done this when planting, be sure to shorten the trunk for the next year in the fall, otherwise the side branches will be weak and the first harvest will be delayed for several years.

Correct shortening of the trunk or branch

Cut apricots need to be careful not to damage the kidneys, at an angle of 45 degrees to the nearest kidney on top. Be sure to cut with a sharp tool so as not to shred the bark and wood once again.

Autumn pruning apricot for the 2-3rd year of life

If you did everything correctly, and the sapling selected in the nursery was healthy and strong, then in the second year it will form 3-4 side branches. In the fall, they will also need to be shortened by 10-15 cm to stimulate branching. Do not postpone work until cold weather - the tree should have time to lay new buds and accumulate strength for wintering.

If there are more branches, cut some of them into a ring. Remove too thin branches that grow at an acute angle to the trunk or very close to larger branches. Try to form the crown in one tier - this will facilitate the work with it in the future.

Ring trimming

In the third year, when each skeletal branch will give a lot of increments, and the crown will resemble a ball, the autumn pruning of the apricot will take you more time, but you still cannot miss it. Leave 3-5 sturdy shoots on each skeletal branch and shorten them by 20-30 cm. Cut excess branches on the ring.

Autumn pruning of adult apricots

The scheme for pruning an adult apricot in the fall at first glance is quite complex in execution, but if you figure out which branches you need and which only get in the way, then in 2-3 hours you can cope with that.

Apricots more easily tolerate small regular pruning than one large-scale. Therefore, the tree will be better if you become pruned in spring and autumn, without missing a single season.

Without thinking, remove dry, too thin, growing deep into the crown of the branch. Shorten those skeletal branches that grow too fast and "break out" of the crown. Remove leaf sprigs that appear on fruit-bearing shoots and “hide” apricots in the foliage, making it difficult to ripen and air the fruits.

Transfer to the side branch

The trunk itself, if it has already reached the desired height, cut to branching. You will no longer need the center conductor, and ideally the upper crown should be easily accessible from a stepladder or ladder.

Remember that the crown of an adult apricot should be clearly visible, and you should reach out to any branch with your hands freely, without squeezing through the wilds. Given the growth rate of apricot, it is better to cut a couple of extra branches than to allow thickening.

Pruning of old apricot

If you got a garden with old trees already growing in it that you never really cut, or you yourself decided to start pruning trees 5 or more years after planting, then consider the following.

  1. The life of the fruit branches of apricot is 2-3 years, after which they must be removed. Therefore, tidying up the old tree, you have to cut down all or almost all the branches on which the buds are tied in the spring.
  2. In addition, all the dry, diseased, criss-crossed crowns and branches affected by lichen, as well as those on which the cracks bark and move away from the wood, will have to be cut.
  3. Leave two tiers of strong branches, 5-7 pieces in each, clean them from small shoots and pinch the ends.
  4. After pruning, be sure to treat all wounds and feed the tree with an autumn fertilizer complex to minimize stress.
  5. Be prepared for the fact that in the near summer the fruit will not be tied up, they will appear only after 2-3 years, and during these years you will also need to carry out sanitary and formative pruning.

If you still doubt whether apricot pruning is necessary and you have a couple of trees in the garden for the experiment, try one of them to carry out timely pruning (in autumn or spring), and the other to give yourself and in a couple of years you will see the difference.

Tips for planting apricot autumn

Each gardener dreams of a beautiful and well-groomed garden to grow spreading bushes, amazing flowers, many fruit-bearing trees. A sight for sore eyes!

One of the beautiful fruit trees is apricot, it pleases our eyes with delicate flowers, and the aroma and taste of apricot is unmatched.

Apricot is not a very whimsical tree, and with proper care rewards us, for our efforts, with high yields.

What soil is suitable

Apricot best land on high ground, solar and warm side of the site, in a sheltered place from the cold wind. On the southern side, it is not recommended to plant apricots, since the vegetative process starts too early, the tree loses its ability to resist frost.

The main requirement for the soil is good breathability, because the roots of the tree need a constant flow of air throughout the vegetation period. Apricot has a negative impact on flooding the site with water for a short period of time, an excess of moisture for the root system can be detrimental and lead to tree fading.

When choosing a place for the future garden apricot, you should pay attention to the composition of the soil. Black soil would be an excellent option, but sandy loamy, medium loamy, well-breathable soils are also suitable, so this land warms up quickly and easily allows air and water to pass through.

Do not plant apricot seedlings on clay soils. They retain moisture, and for this reason, the growth period of the tree does not have time to end towards the onset of cold weather, and subsequently it does not tolerate the winter and slowly stops bearing fruit.

The soil composition should be neutral or slightly alkaline. Acidic soils need liming. It will not be superfluous to add dolomite flour to the ground when loosening the ground in the near-stem circle

Preparing the soil for planting

To prepare the soil for the future apricot orchard, you need 1 or 2 years before planting. The soil should be processed as deep as possible. After all, the greater the depth of the treated soil, the richer the fertile layer melts. Trees grow well and delight with excellent yields.

Spring soil digging up shovel or cultivator to a depth of about 10 cm. Subsequent tillage of the land until the end of the growing season is done to a depth of 8 cm. The number of soil treatments in the summer depends on how often the garden is watered, it is about 4–5 treatments.

In the autumn, the garden is plowed, the depth should be about 20 cm between the rows, and 15 cm near the tree itself. In the summer, the soil is cultivated by a cultivator to a depth of 10 cm.

Also, the land is not recommended for a long time to leave in the form of black steam, its physical properties deteriorate. The negative impact of steam can be reduced by sowing white lupine, pea or mustard, and manure applied to the soil.

The land of the future garden must be kept clean, weeds must be removed in a timely manner. Watering make furrows or sprinkling.

Do not forget about fertilizer

In autumn, the soil is fertilized with mineral fertilizers. And before the onset of winter, the earth needs potassium and phosphorus, and Calcium will not be superfluous. Most of the potassium and phosphorus are found in wood ash, and a large amount of calcium is in chalk, or it is possible to buy in specialized stores, preparations that include calcium.

Pit for planting: depth

Planting seedlings begins with digging a planting pit, which must be excavated and prepared in advance, at least one month. The width of the pit is 100 cm, and in depth they dig 70–80 cm. At the bottom of the landing pit, drainage is made of branches and gravel, and only then the prepared soil is poured.

Fill it with chernozem, which is mixed with one bucket of humus, with the addition of ash and mineral fertilizers. The pit is filled with layers, and at the same time each layer is very well tamped to the formation of a small mound, the root neck should be above ground level.

Choosing a sapling for planting

Young apricot trees should be purchased in specialized stores or nurseries. When buying seedlings, it is necessary to carefully examine the root system, make sure that there are no dried or frozen roots that may not settle down.

Faster in a new place are taken trees with closed root systemthat are grown in containers. They are planted at any time of the year, regardless of the climate of the area.

It is better to buy two-year-old saplings, because the root system of them is quite well developed, it has at least 3-4 main roots. But you can also plant annual plants, you need to ensure that at the time of planting there were no dried roots.

Preparing a seedling before planting

Before planting an apricot, cut the tips of the roots, removing, thus, the damaged and diseased roots. They are dipped in a specially prepared mixture, which consists of water, clay and fresh mullein.

The prepared mixture should be of medium thickness, the thickness of the applied layer of the mixture is about 3 cm. At first glance this procedure may seem meaningless, but this is far from being the case. The earth will adhere perfectly to the root system, plus it is able to protect the roots from heat.

When can I plant?

Almost all gardeners insist that the best time of year for planting apricot is autumnAfter all, with the onset of winter, the ability of the soil fungi to actively vital activity decreases, thereby reducing the risk of infecting the tree. Planting an apricot is the first and main step in growing apricots.

Apricots are planted at least 60 cm deep.

Fertilizing

Since rotted organic fertilizers are introduced into the planting pit, In the first year after planting a tree, no fertilizer is applied.. After all, their surplus increases and delays growth, seedlings may not have time to prepare for the onset of cold weather.

From the second year, they begin to make fertilizers with a nitrogen content (early spring) and phosphate (with the arrival of summer). The amount of fertilizer applied depends on the external state of the tree, with strong growth and large shoots it is recommended to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizers, and, conversely, with weak growth they add.

All the leaves that have fallen from the tree are collected and burned, since various infections can overwinter in the leaves of the fruit tree, in particular, the fungal infection.

For the formation of flower buds, 2-3 weeks before the beginning of this period, apricots fertilize with nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. Apricot trees need and potash fertilizers, they are made when digging the soil along with phosphorus. Organic fertilizers are applied once every two or three years.

First about watering

Trees after autumn planting need to be watered abundantly in both spring and summer. Constant watering contributes to the formation of new roots in wet soil.

With the onset of August, the number of waterings is reduced, and then completely stop watering, so as not to contribute to unnecessary growth until the arrival of winter. The earth in the tree wheel is constantly maintained in a loose state, without weeds.

Treesregardless of age need additional watering in Mayso that apricot with an intensive growth of all its processes does not experience a lack of moisture. To restore the strength that was spent on ripening the fruit, the tree, after the last apricot was torn off, is watered.

There is a perception that apricot does not need frequent watering, as it rather easily tolerates drought. But, to ensure comfortable conditions, this type of care is absolutely not to be neglected.

Also need to feed

Fed apricots in the spring, make fertilizer in the ground. When poor soil they are made annually.

From the second year, in the beginning of spring or autumn, after planting the plant, they make complex mineral fertilizers. Organic fertilizers are applied every 3–5 years: manure, peat or compost. You can use bird droppings as a type of organic fertilizer.

To apricot fruit well, make mineral fertilizers. In the second or third year, ammonium nitrate is applied - 60 g, potassium chloride - 40 g, and superphosphate - 130 g. Since the fifth, seventh year of tree growth, the amount of mineral fertilizers slightly increases.

We protect our tree

The apricot tree needs protection from diseases and pests, from the onset of cold weather. Wounds and freezers are treated with garden pitch. This procedure is carried out in early May.

The most dangerous disease for apricot, as, indeed, for other stone trees, is monilioz. Start the fight right away. Moniliosis is able to destroy the crop more often than the winter frost. To get rid of it, the trees are sprayed about three times with a solution of copper sulfate. Hurry up and spray the apricots before the buds form.

Since August, the amount of watering is reduced and fertilizing with phosphate-potassium fertilizer is done for more successful ripening of wood. The tree is whitewashed from sunburn, late autumn or early February, with particular attention to the stem and the skeletal branches of the tree. Copper sulfate and clay are added to the slaked lime.

Apricots do not cover for the winter. The snow near the tree is raked, because the stagnation of water has a negative effect on the tree more than a slight frost.

Features of the autumn planting

Apricot is among the fruit trees, planting in the fall is undesirable. Yet this plant is considered to come from the southern edges, and it is best to take root in warm conditions. And in general, the autumn planting is more suitable for regions with mild winters.

True, there are gardeners who claim that it is autumn that is the best time, because with the onset of winter, soil fungi in the soil significantly reduce their activity, and the risk of seeing a plant diseased decreases sharply. However, thanks to the efforts of breeders in our time, many interesting varieties have been developed that can take root in the conditions of even those regions where cold winters are observed.

In addition, planting in the fall has some advantages over spring. And if we add to this the fact that sufficient or even heavy snow cover is usually observed in Siberia and the Urals, our event no longer seems hopeless.

Choose zoned apricot varieties to be sure that the tree will take root well and easily survive the winter

So why is autumn so good? First of all, it is an opportunity to create all the conditions for the full hardening of the plant. True, this will be ensured only if the necessary interval - at least a month - is maintained between the landing and the first serious frosts. During this time, the root system usually manages to take root in a new place and tolerates cold more easily.

Autumn planting simplifies caring for a plant - it is enough to water a tree only once, the rest will be done by rains. True, there is one thing - apricot does not like excess water, and it is undesirable to keep it at the roots. Unlike apple or pear, apricot prefers to hibernate with more or less dry soil. If there is at least a small amount of moisture, its roots continue to grow, and before the coming winter this growth is undesirable.

Despite the fact that apricot is not the most frost-resistant plant, it is not covered for the winter, and snow is raked around the tree to avoid stagnation of water, which can harm more than frost.

Remember that relying on the stated resistance of the seller of any kind is not worth it. Apricot, even adapted to local conditions, is still not the most resistant to winter temperatures tree, and, therefore, needs additional shelter.

When planting an apricot, the necessary fertilizers and nutrients are added to the pit, which will be enough for the next year. That is, next season you will not have to think about the issue of feeding.

The best varieties of apricot for growing in central Russia

  • Hardy - a variety of late ripening (first half of August). The first fruits can be removed for 5-6 years of tree life. Harvest from one plant - up to 80 kg. A fruit weighing 30-40 grams has an excellent taste and can be used both fresh and canned.
  • Red-cheeked - gives a harvest in the second half of July. The first fruits can be removed for 3-4 year. The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness and drought resistance. The weight of one orange fruit with red specks - 40-60 gr.
  • Sunny - one of the best hybrids for central Russia. It has excellent winter hardiness. The color of the fruit is yellow with a weak blush, the average weight of one fruit is 45 grams. Crop is removed in the second half of July. Regular and rich yields are noted.
  • Northern triumph - has a high winter hardiness of the tree and medium in flower buds. Included in the State Register in the Central Black Earth region (its southern part). Fruits of yellow-orange color reach a weight of 55 grams. In the food goes fresh. The first harvest is removed in the fourth year of the tree.
  • Honey - a variety of free pollination with an excellent indicator of winter hardiness. Fruits with sweet and aromatic pulp have an average weight of 15 gr. The color of the fruit is yellow and small red dots. Up to 20 kg of crop is removed from one tree.
  • Snegiryok - champion among winter-hardy varieties, the most reliable option for central Russia. The tree is undersized - 120-150 cm, and with shelter for the winter, it can be grown even in the Urals and in the northern regions. From one tree can be removed from 7 to 10 kg of crop. Fruits are small - 15-18 grams with dense pulp and excellent taste. Cream peel in the period of maturity is covered with purple blush.
  • A cup - a dwarf-type tree (up to 150 cm) with a cupped crown is distinguished by increased winter-resistance. Productivity varieties high, and fruiting occurs every year. The fruit has an average weight of 25-30 grams. Cream peel is covered with a faint blush. The flesh is friable, tender, sweet with a bright aroma.
  • Other varieties such as Alyosha, Tsarsky, Lel, Monastyrsky, Piquant, Rossiyanin and others can also be noted.

The most suitable varieties for the Urals

These varieties are distinguished by resistance to low temperatures and the ability of fruits to ripen in a short summer, not inferior in quality to their southern counterparts.

  • Cupid - winter-hardy and drought-resistant, has a good yield - up to 40 kg per tree. The weight of one fruit covered with yellow ruddy peel - 30 gr.
  • Khabarovsk - high yield - up to 35 kg per tree. Fruits of pale yellow color are harvested from mid-July to early August.
  • Seraphim - every year at the end of July yields up to 30 kg of crop from a tree. Considered one of the earliest varieties. Cream colored fruits have a sweet and sour taste.

These varieties are considered the most popular in the Urals. However, the most winter-hardy are Minusinsk ruddy, Minusinsk amber and Siberian Baikalov.

The best varieties for cultivation in Siberia

The Khabarovsk variety is also good for cultivation in Siberian latitudes, like Siberian Baikalov. And if you already know a little about the first, then you still have to get acquainted with the second.

  • Siberian Baikalov is a rather large tree - up to 3.5 meters high and up to 4 meters in diameter. The average size of the fruit - 25 gr. Fruits with a small blush have dense and fragrant pulp. Harvest from a tree - 20 kg.
  • Sayan - tree height up to 3 meters. Fruits of round shape weighing 25-30 grams are not covered with blush. Productivity - up to 15 kg per tree.
  • Northern Lights - has rounded fruits with a clearly defined seam. They have good taste and a mass of 25-30 grams. The variety is considered late. Adapted to the conditions of Siberia and tolerates cold even in winters with little snow.
  • Mountain Abakan is a tree up to 3 meters high with good winter hardiness. The fruit with dense orange pulp has a mass of up to 25-30 grams.
  • Among other varieties we can mention the Amur already familiar to us, as well as East Siberian, Handsome, Laureate, Triumph of the North, etc.

Apricot Features

Apricot is a fruit tree that is deciduous, its height varies from 5 to 8 meters. The color of the bark is brown-gray, on old trunks it is cracking. Young glossy brown-red stems are bare. The alternate leaf plates have petioles and an ovate-rounded shape, they are drawn at the top and have a finely toothed edge (sometimes double-toothed). In length, the leaves reach 9 centimeters. The diameter of sessile single flowers is from 2.5 to 3 centimeters, they are white with pink veins and are located on very short pedicels. Flowering begins in March or April before the appearance of leaf plates. Such a fruit tree during flowering looks very impressive, like a pear, cherry, apple or cherry. The fruit is an orange-yellow succulent odnopostok elliptical, round or obovate, on the surface there is a longitudinal groove. The thick-walled bone is smooth or rough and is located inside the fetus.

Such a tree can live for about 100 years. After apricot is 3 years old, it begins to bear fruit, its duration is 30–40 years. The root system of the tree penetrates deep into the ground, thanks to which the plant is resistant to drought. Most varieties are not afraid of lowering the temperature to minus 25 degrees. The most frost-resistant varieties can withstand frost not more than minus 30 degrees. Such a fruit tree is related to plum, rowan, quince, dog rose, pear, peach, irga, chokeberry, loquat and apple trees.

What time to plant

Apricot planting in open soil in northern latitudes should be at the beginning of the spring period, and more precisely, in the second half of April, while you need to have time before the start of budding. In the southern latitudes, it is recommended to plant such a plant in the autumn in the first days of October, and it should be noted that the seedling should take root before the onset of the winter period. In mid-latitudes, apricots are planted in open soil in spring and autumn. Apricot is a very warm and light-loving plant, so for its landing it is recommended to choose a sunny area on a hill with reliable protection from strong gusts of wind, while cold air must necessarily flow to lower places. Such a plant can not be grown on sour soil, in connection with this before planting it will need to lime. Best of all, this tree grows on light loam.

Spring landing

For planting the pit you need to prepare in advance and it should be done in the autumn, regardless of when exactly you are going to plant the apricot.The approximate size of the pit is 0.8x0.8x0.8 meters, but the size of the root system of the transplanted plant affects its final size. First you need to determine the middle of the excavated excavation pit and drive a peg into it, which should rise 50 centimeters above the surface of the plot. After that, a drainage layer is made at the bottom of the pit and crushed stone is used for this. The ground taken out of the pit during its preparation should be combined with humus or peat in a 2: 1 ratio, and 2 kilograms of wood ash and half a kilogram of superphosphate should be poured into it. The obtained mixture should be thoroughly mixed and poured into the pit in such a way that a slide is formed above the ground surface. Then the landing pit is left for precipitation.

Experienced gardeners recommend using one-year-old apricot seedlings for planting. The fact is that they take root relatively quickly, and their crown lends itself well to shaping. If you want to buy a good varietal sapling, then you should go to this nursery or a specialized store that has a good reputation, otherwise there is a high probability that you will buy a wild. If the seedling is a cultivar, its annual branches will be thick and devoid of thorns, and there must be a spike at the base of the inoculation. Carefully inspect the root system of the seedlings. If a sapling has dried or frozen roots, then it is better not to buy it, since it most likely will not be able to take root.

With the onset of the spring period, a hole should be dug in a prepared pit, while its size should be equal to the size of the seedling root system. Inspect the roots of the plant and cut out any injured, rotten or dried, and the rest should be slightly shortened. The root system should be immersed for some time in a clay mash with the addition of a mullein, then it is placed in the planting hole. The seedling should be placed in such a way that the root neck rises 50–60 mm above the surface of the site. The pit should be buried with soil mixture, which must be well compacted. Planted plants need to be watered well, so, 20-30 liters of water are poured under one bush. After the water is fully absorbed into the soil, the root neck of the plant should be at the level of the surface area. Only after that the plant will have to be tied to a pre-set peg.

How to care in the spring

In the spring before the start of sap flow in apricots, it is necessary to make shaping and sanitary pruning, and it is necessary to cut out all the branches and stems damaged by frost and disease. The base of the skeletal branches and tree trunks should be painted with a solution of lime.

In spring, this fruit tree must be fed. What is best to use for feeding apricot? The first top dressing of the plant in spring, which is also a treatment, is carried out using a urea solution. This tool is able to destroy pests and pathogens of various diseases that have wintered in the bark or in the soil of the trunk circle, and it is also a source of nitrogen, which is necessary for apricot in springtime. But this kind of treatment must be done before the buds on the branches of the apricot swell, otherwise they may burn.

In the event that for some reason the plant grower did not manage to spray the urea on time, it would have to be treated as a preventive measure against diseases and pests with Iskra-bio solution, Healthy Garden, Agravertine or Akarin. At the same time, top dressing is introduced into the soil of the stem of the trunk circle in a dry form, 50 grams of ammonium nitrate and 70 grams of nitrogen fertilizer are taken for 1 plant. During the second feeding in the spring in the ground you need to make organic. However, such dressing is made no more than 1 time in 2 years.

If the winter period turned out to be little snowy, and there was no rain in the spring, the tree should be watered well.

How to care in the summer

Apricot needs to be watered during the summer drought. If in May he was not watered, then be sure to do it in June.

In the summer, young fruit branches begin to grow; therefore, it is necessary to make a mandatory pruning. Otherwise, the crown will become very thick, which will negatively affect the ripening of the fruit, and the tree will actively grow and become a real giant, from which it will be rather difficult to harvest.

If necessary, treat the plant against seasonal diseases and pests.

It is in the summer time that apricot fruits are collected and processed. Remember that the fruits harvested immature will not be able to ripen, therefore, they must be plucked in a timely manner. Collection of fruits begin with the lower branches.

When all the fruits are collected, the tree will need to be watered well, as a rule, this time is in August. This watering will be the last for the season, it is also called podzimny, so the ground must be well fed with water so that the plant can survive the winter.

How to care in the fall

In the autumn, you need to prepare apricot for the winter period. To do this, the first thing you need to make sanitary pruning. Cut out any injured as well as dried and disease-damaged branches and stems.

When the fall of the leaves is over, it is necessary to free the surface of the site from plant residues; one should also carry out digging of the soil in the near-ground circle. Even in the autumn, it is necessary to make a prophylactic spraying of the plant stem and the surface of the circle around the trunk, since it is there that the pests and pathogens take shelter for the winter.

Apricot processing

Apricot can suffer from various pests and diseases, but in order to avoid this, it is necessary to resort to timely preventive treatments. To do this, the tree must be sprayed in the spring and autumn with specially designated means. The first time to process the plant should be in early spring, while the kidneys are not yet swollen, for this purpose use a solution of urea (for 1 bucket of water, 0.7 liters of the substance). However, if you did not have time to do the treatment for dormant kidneys, you cannot use urea, it should be replaced with Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate or the means listed above. Together with such prophylactic treatment, it is recommended to spray the plant with a solution of Ecoberin or Zircon, this will make the apricot more resistant to diseases and adverse natural conditions.

The second treatment is carried out before flowering, while the air temperature should not be below 18 degrees. This treatment is aimed at the destruction of ticks, their larvae, as a rule, overwinter in the ground, for this they use Neoron or colloidal sulfur. We can get rid of leafworms and weevils with the help of Kinmiks or Decis. When the plant has faded, it should be treated with monilioz for preventive purposes with Ridomil or Oxyhom, while doing everything according to the instructions.

When fruits grow on apricot, it needs to be treated with colloidal sulfur or Horus to protect against powdery mildew and coccomycosis. However, remember that 14 days before harvesting, any processing of the plant should be stopped.

In autumn, when the leaf fall ends, the tree can be re-sprayed with a solution of urea.

Apricot top dressing

Throughout the growing season, apricot will need a few fertilizing. In the springtime, this tree needs nitrogen, while the fertilizer is mainly applied to the soil. Before the summer period, apricot can be fed with nitrogen 2 or 3 times, namely: in early spring, before the plant blooms and at the end of flowering. For dressing use slurry, saltpeter, urea or chicken manure.

In summer, the plant is fed by foliage.To feed it at this time you need fertilizers containing nitrogen, and also solutions of those trace elements that apricot needs most in this period. From the middle of summer, the tree is stopped to be fed with nitrogen, and instead of it phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used for spraying.

When all the fruits are harvested (in the last days of August or in September), apricot is given top dressing with mineral fertilizer, which contains potassium and phosphorus. Both of these elements are part of the wood ash. Even at this time, it is recommended to add a small amount of calcium in the form of chalk to the soil.

Please note that apricot can be fed with manure only once every 2 or years, with 4 kilograms of organic matter taken per square meter. Compost should also be applied to the soil (per square meter from 5 to 6 kilograms), it should be mixed with mineral fertilizer. The composition of chicken manure includes potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus, it should also be brought into the soil (0.3 kilograms is taken per 1 square meter), but do not forget to pre-mix it with compost. Organic apricot is fed only 1 time in 2 or 3 years. It should be noted that trees grown under sodding do not need organic fertilizers.

Fertilizers containing nitrogen, contribute to the fact that the shoots begin to grow more slowly, as a result of this decreases their winter hardiness. In this regard, it is not recommended to feed the plant with nitrogen from the middle of the summer period. During the three spring dressings, nitrogen fertilizers are taken from 30 to 40 grams per 1 square meter.

When the fruit begins to ripen, apricot needs potassium. Fertilizing produce potassium salt (40%) several times with an interval of 4 weeks. Fertilizer should be embedded in deep (depth from 0.2 to 0.3 m) grooves that need to be made around the perimeter of the trunk circle, while 40 to 60 grams are taken per square meter.

During the growth, shaping and ripening of apricot fruits, he needs phosphorus in the form of superphosphate. This fertilizer should be applied to the soil before the plant blooms, as well as at the end of flowering at the rate of 0.2 kilogram per 1 square meter.

Feeding on the foliage of boron and manganese suit in the summer. For example, you can feed a plant 2 or 3 times during a season with a solution consisting of 1 bucket of water and 1 big spoon of boric acid. After opening the leaf plates, apricot should be sprayed with a solution of manganese sulphate (1%). After 4-6 weeks, the tree should be sprayed again.

Apricot Wintering

Apricot possesses the most winter-resistant root system of all stone fruit plants; therefore, the winter of middle latitudes is not terrible for it. However, while the tree is young, it should be covered for the winter. To do this, for annuals and biennial seedlings it is necessary to wrap the whole stem with lap twigs, and tie a spunbond or lutrasil on top. Then it should be very high spud the lower part of the trunk. Shelter must be removed in the last days of March.

What time is pruned

Apricot needs regular formative, rejuvenating and sanitary pruning. Pruned plant every year, and this is a very important point in the care of the plant.

Apricot differs from other fruit trees in that it does not discharge ovaries. In this regard, the plant is often overloaded with fruits, which leads to injury of its branches. In mid-October, apricot should be pruned, which will result in the formation of a crown, adjustment of the balance of branches, fruits and foliage, and this procedure should be carried out for sanitary purposes.

Before the leaves unfold at the very beginning of the spring period, it is necessary to make a formative and sanitary pruning, but at the same time it should be warm outside. All branches and stems injured and frost-damaged should be cut.And it is also necessary to prune the branches and the conductor to form the crown.

1 time in 3 years in the summer in mid-June should be pruned for sanitary and rejuvenating purposes, this helps to stimulate the growth of new shoots by 0.3–0.5 m, as well as laying the buds on secondary shoots.

Already after 12 months after planting the seedling in open soil should be his first pruning.

Spring pruning

Since the fetuses die off, there is a gradual exposure of skeletal branches. Pruning a fruit tree helps to maintain its active growth, in this case, its annual growth will be not less than 0.4–0.5 m. After reducing the growth to 0.3 m, it is necessary to stamp the stems on two-year-old wood. Also in the springtime should thin out the crown. To do this, remove the weakened and dry branches, and you should also transfer the skeletal and semi-skeletal branches to the outer and lateral branches, which are located in free space. For 1 time should be cut 2-4 blade-opening, with the exact number depends on the thickness and size of the crown of the plant.

Summer pruning

If apricot is grown in a region with a warm climate, it will need pruning in the summer. It will be necessary to cut stems from 0.3 to 0.4 m in length, cut in half. Pruning in the summer increases the abundance of growth even before the end of the current year. Until the end of the growing season, the plant has time to fully restore the leaves, and also on the shoots of the second wave, the bud of the generative buds occurs. But in order for an apricot cut in the summer to fully recover, it will need a sufficient amount of moisture and nutrients. In that case, if watering the plant in the summertime is irregular, it is better to refuse pruning.

Apricot reproduction

Apricot can be propagated by generative (seed) and vegetative way. Since most apricot varieties are cross-pollinated, which plants will grow from these seeds is difficult to predict. However, the Dwarf variety, unlike the others, can be easily propagated by seeds, since they completely inherit all the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.

If you want to be completely sure what kind of apricot you grow, give preference to vegetative propagation methods. Often gardeners propagate apricot grafting, but only when propagated by root offspring or undergrowth, the grown tree will retain all the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.

Propagation of root suckers or shoots

As a rule, shoots around the plant appear due to the fact that it was heavily damaged by frost, animals, or too much pruning. At the same time, the appearance of root scions indicates that the root system was injured. On the one hand, this method of propagation of apricot is very easy, and on the other - quite complicated, since neither healthy seedlings nor shoots appear in a healthy, undamaged plant. If they do exist, then select a yearling sprout that is at a sufficiently large distance from the tree, as when digging up, the roots of an adult plant can be injured. Then the process is dug out and planted in a new place. Remember that only root-bearing trees can be propagated in this way, as in grafted plants, shoots appear from the rootstock, and not from the varietal graft.

Apricot seed propagation

If there is a great desire, then the apricot can be quite grown from a brush. Grown from the seed of self-fruiting apricot plant is highly resistant to climatic conditions.

Planting of the seeds is carried out in the first half of autumn, but before that they should be thoroughly washed and soaked for 24 hours in water.The sprouted seeds should be thrown out, those that remain should be planted wet in the open soil, while they are buried in the ground by only 6 centimeters. If the seeds are sown later, then rodents can take them away. Tumble the bed surface with a layer of humus and grass, and also make sure that the soil is always slightly wet. Sowing can be done in the middle of the spring period, but in this case, the seeds will need preliminary stratification, for this they are put in a box filled with sand, which is cleaned in a refrigerator, where it will stay until spring. Emerged shoots should be covered on top with a plastic bottle, in which you first need to cut the neck. Emerged shoots need to be watered, weeded, fed and loosened the surface of the soil. By September, seedlings grow up, and they can be planted in a permanent place.

Klesterosporiosis, or perforated spotting

If brown spots appear on the leaf plates, turning into holes in the course of time, this means that the plant is infected with a phlebitis (perforated spotting). Spots are also formed on the surface of the stems, and then cracks appear in their place, from which the gum flows. The affected parts of the plant become ugly. In order to get rid of this kind of spotting, it is necessary at the beginning of the spring period, as well as in the fall at the end of the leaf fall, spray the tree with Bordeaux mixture (4%) or copper sulfate solution (1%). If there is a large amount of rain in the summertime, then apricot will need to be processed once a fortnight. At a time when the green buds change their color to pink, instead of the listed preparations, Horus can be processed.

Mushroom valsa

If orange growths-ulcers appeared on the tree, it means that it is infected with an infectious disease like the Valsa mushroom. For the purposes of prophylaxis, experts do not advise apricot pruning during the rest period. It is also necessary that the surface of the soil near the stem during the growing season be loose. Spray the infected plant with Switch (with 1 bucket of water, 10 grams of substance). It is necessary to carry out the treatment several times with a break of 1-1.5 weeks. However, remember that a fortnight before harvesting, it is necessary to stop all treatments. Also spray the plant can be fungicidal spray. For the purpose of prevention, do not forget to sterilize all garden tools before pruning.

Verticillary wilting

If the foliage turned yellow in the lower part of the plant, while the tip did not change its color, this is a sure sign of its infection with verticillary wilt. The accumulation of the fungus occurs in the veins and petioles of the leaf plates, during the ablation of which it falls into the ground, which leads to infection of the rest, most often young plants. In order to prevent this disease, do not allow the overmoistening of the soil, and you should not grow strawberries and plants of the nightshade near the apricot. Also, as a preventive measure, in the springtime and when the leaf fall ends in the fall, spray the plant with a solution of Topsin-M, Fundazole, Bordeaux liquid, Previcur or Vitaros.

If depressed spots and brown stripes are formed on the surface of the fruit, this means that the plant is infected with a viral disease called smallpox. Near the spots the pulp dries out. Fruit ripening occurs earlier than expected, while their taste is significantly reduced.

Viral wilting

To understand that a tree is infected with viral wilting is possible in the process of blooming leaf plates during the flowering period. On the surface of the foliage there are spots of pale green color, while the plate itself becomes thicker and curls. The flesh near the stone in the appeared fruit becomes dark and gradually dies off.The transmission of such a disease occurs, as a rule, in the process of vaccination.

Ribbon mosaic

About infection of apricot with a viral disease such as ribbon mosaic can be understood by the strips of yellow color appearing on the leaf plates, which eventually form a lace pattern. Infected foliage dies.

What are the ways to fight viral diseases? It should be remembered that to cure the plant from such a disease today is impossible. In this regard, it is important to prevent infection with apricots. In this case, good prevention will be the correct fit and care of the tree. For planting in open ground, you should choose completely healthy seedlings, and you should take the top of the plant as a graft. Make sure the site is always clean and all plants are healthy. Immediately proceed to the destruction of pests that are carriers of dangerous diseases. Before proceeding with pruning or vaccination, do not forget to sterilize the entire instrument. Do not forget to treat the surface of the plant with lime mixed with copper sulfate.

Apricot Pests

Apricot pest damage is not very often, but sometimes it still happens.

Aphid is a fairly common pest; this sucking insect feeds on plant sap, which leads to their significant weakening. In the presence of aphids on the foliage often settles black fungus that eats the waste of such pests. Also aphid is considered the main carrier of incurable viral diseases. To get the plant out of aphids, it must be sprayed with a solution of soap, ash or tobacco. In the event that insects do not all die, the tree should be treated with Karbofos or Aktellik.

Moth

Moth is a small butterfly that winters in a cocoon, hiding in the cracks of the trunk or in the upper layer of the soil. The moths fly out in early June, and they lay eggs in the fruit ovary and on the leaf stalks. From the middle to the end of the summer period, the second generation of insects, which also produce egg laying, occurs. In the fight with the codling moth, good results are observed with systematic preventive treatments in spring and autumn. You also need to constantly loosen the surface of the wheel circle. And still it is necessary to paint the base of skeletal branches and boles with lime mixed with copper sulphate in a timely manner.

Sheet wrench

Caterpillars moth overwinter in the upper layer of soil or in the bark of apricot. After awakening, they begin to devour the foliage and buds of the plant. Then they pupate, and in July, butterflies appear, which start laying eggs on leaf plates and apricot stems. In the fight against such a pest, the base of the skeletal branches and trunks should be treated with a solution of Chlorophos, which should be concentrated. Such spraying is carried out in the springtime, when the air temperature rises to 15 degrees, as well as after the collection of fruits.

In order for your tree to always remain healthy, it is necessary in the autumn time to make a mandatory cleaning of the site, while the plant residues must be destroyed. Also make digging soil in pristvolnom circle and do not forget about preventive treatments in the spring and autumn.

Apricot varieties for the Moscow region

Since in Ukraine there is a rather mild climate, apricots grow there almost everywhere, and they produce a bountiful crop, while often no one prunes or feeds them. The suburbs have a colder climate, so not all varieties of apricot can be grown here, and besides, such a tree in this region needs good care. The best varieties for the Moscow region:

  1. Red-cheeked. This samoplodny grade differs in productivity and resistance to diseases and frosts. Spreading crown has a rounded shape.Large fruits, round-flat or ovoid, weigh about 50 grams and have an orange-golden color with a bright blush. Fruits are covered with thin skin, fragrant pale orange flesh is sweet with a slight sourness. The fruits are eaten fresh, and also jams, compotes are made from them, and dried fruits are made.
  2. Honey. This tall variety is fruitful and highly resistant to frost. Small yellow equilateral fruits are covered with small red dots. Fruits are slightly pubescent. The fibrous, dense yellow flesh is sweet enough. Fruits are eaten fresh and used for the preparation of blanks.
  3. Triumph of the north. The high-yielding variety is resistant to diseases. The large orange-yellow oval fruit weighs about 55 grams, there is a small green on the shady surface. On the average thickness of the skin is pubescence. Homogeneous orange pulp has a pleasant taste.
  4. Hardy. Such a self-fertile variety, resistant to diseases and pests, has a stable and high yield. A large tree begins to bear fruit 5–6 years after planting in the garden. Medium flat-rounded fruits weigh about 45 grams, have an orange-golden color with a rich red blush. Peel trimmed. The rich orange fragrant flesh is very sweet. The bone can be easily separated.
  5. Snegirek. The most winter-resistant variety, reaching a height of 150 cm. Such a self-fertile high-yielding variety is undemanding to the composition of the soil. However, it is easily affected by moniliosis and leaf spot. If stored elastic fruits correctly, they will not spoil until the middle of the winter period.

Early apricot varieties

Today there are more than 50 varieties that are bred both in Russia and abroad. They are divided into 3 groups of ripening time. Early apricots are the first group, the fruits ripen in early July. Early varieties:

  1. Melitopol Early. Cold-resistant variety is resistant to diseases. Crohn high pyramidal shape. Large yellow-orange oval, slightly flattened fruit weigh about 60 grams. The fruit is covered with a thin peel, and its dense, fragrant, fiber-free pulp is sweet.
  2. Leskore. This early variety is bred by Czech breeders. Crohn high obrantopyramidalnogo form. Average fragrant fruit weighs about 45 grams, it tastes good. Easily infected with moniliasis.
  3. Alesha. Winter resistant crop. Saturated yellow rounded fruits are covered with small dots of red, they weigh about 20 grams. Sweet-sour pulp is colored orange.
  4. Voronezh early. This hybrid variety was created using the Michurin variety Tovarishch and the Central Asian variety Akhrori. This dessert partially self-fertile variety is the earliest, winter hardiness is average, small fruits weigh about 20 grams. Sweet fruits have a slight acidity, the bone can be easily separated from the pulp.
  5. Early of Morden. Frost-resistant Canadian grade. The tree begins to systematically and abundantly bear fruit from the second year. Average fruit weighs about 50 grams, not very sweet, but the bone can be quickly separated from the pulp of the orange color.

Also early varieties are Sambur Early, Tsarsky, Iceberg, June, Alliance, Early Marusich, Chervnevy, Veteran of Sevastopol.

Mid-season varieties

Ripening occurs in the second half of July. Popular varieties:

  1. Polesia large-fruited. The skoroplodny fruit-resistant winter-resistant variety is resistant to fungi. The shape of the crown is rounded. Delicate fragrant sweet-sour fruits weigh about 55 grams, they are rich orange with a red blush. The tree is not too high, but the fruits can only be reached with a stepladder.
  2. Pineapple. The early unpretentious common variety has a high yield. The crown is not very thick. Yummy big fruits are pretty sweet. Easily infected with spotting.Fruits are eaten fresh and used for the preparation of blanks.
  3. Rattle. The variety is partly self-multipurpose. Yellow-green oval fruits slightly flattened from the sides do not have a blush. Dense yellow-orange flesh is very sweet. The bone can be easily removed from the pulp.
  4. Kuybyshev anniversary. This variety is resistant to drought, cold and fungi. Orange fruits are slightly flattened, they have a light blush on the surface turned to the sun. They weigh about 25 grams. A thin peel covers the orange juicy slightly fibrous sweet-sour pulp.
  5. Dessert. The variety is productive winter hardy with a thick crown. Medium pale yellow sweet-sour fruits weigh about 30 grams. The thin peel covers the tender flesh.

Also middle-ripening varieties are Botsadovsky, Zaporozhets, Shalamark, Sardonyx, Sheludko, Dessert, Reliable, Michurinets, Yaltynets, Amur, Aquarius, Monastic, Molodezhniy, Aviator, Petrel, Phelps, Olympus, Altair.

Landing rules

Place for landing should be prepared at least two weeks before the event, so that the earth will have time to sink a little. Place for landing choose sunny, but with protection from drafts. Groundwater should not be closer than two meters to the surface, because it is at such depth that apricot roots usually go. If this rule is not observed, there is a need to build a small mound that will raise the seedling to the desired height, saving its future roots from contact with the aquifer. However, unlike an apple or pear, apricot calmly transfers close proximity to groundwater.

Apricot loves sunny open spaces, but protected from the northern drafts

It is not recommended to plant apricots on the southern side of the plot, because in this case the tree growing season starts too early and the tree loses its winter hardiness.

Landing in Siberia is carried out on an elevation to prevent rotting of the root collar. It is best to plant apricot on the mound, which must be gentle to protect the roots from freezing.

The pit for planting apricot should be spacious and be at least 70 cm in diameter and in depth

A landing pit is dug out spacious - 70 cm in diameter and 70 cm in depth. Apricot has one feature - its root system in diameter is twice the size of the crown, therefore between seedlings (if several trees are planted) they are kept for at least three meters. In the Urals, this size increases to five meters.

At the bottom of the pit stack a mixture of mineral and organic fertilizers. It consists of humus (2-3 buckets), a glass of ash, 400 grams of potassium sulphide and 700 grams of superphosphate.

To make the apricot easier to take root in the new place, regardless of the region of growth, it is recommended to buy a seedling with a closed root system in a specialized store or nursery. The best option is a biennial plant with a well-developed root system.

Apricot does not like clay soils, because they are slightly saturated with oxygen and retain moisture for a long time. To remedy the situation, in addition to local soil, peat and coarse-grained river sand are added to the landing pit, which are mixed in a 1: 1: 1 ratio. If the soil is sandy or sandy, it is necessary to increase its moisture capacity and fertility. To do this, a layer of clay 20-30 cm thick is laid on the bottom of the landing pit, with a deadwood, brushwood or grass on top of it to maintain humidity. Next will go the upper fertile layer of the earth mixed with the nutrient mixture.

A peg is driven into the middle of the pit, to which a sapling will later be tied up - this is an obligatory protection from the wind in the first years of the apricot's life.

Step-by-step instruction

It is best to plant apricot together - one person holds a sapling by the shtamb, not letting it fall, the second one falls asleep the ground.A tree is placed on a mound of nutrient mixture and a fertile layer of earth and straightens its roots down the slopes if the root system is open. Next, the planting pit is filled with earth and periodically shaken the seedling behind the stem so that there are no voids between the roots. The root neck should be located 3 to 4 centimeters above ground level.

Apricot is better to plant together - so much easier

The earth around the seedling is compacted, and a watering circle is erected around the perimeter, which will hold the water when watering, preventing it from spreading. On one sapling 2-3 buckets of water are required. After watering the ground around the seedling mulch with humus or peat.

The pictures 1 and 2 show the wrong garter of a sapling, the picture 3 shows the correct

Now it remains only to tie the plant to the peg, and the landing will be considered complete.

Care rules

The apricot planted in the fall is in need of moisture in spring and summer, with the exception of its second half. Periodic watering contributes to enhanced growth of roots and young shoots. In August, its regularity is reduced, gradually reducing to zero, so that the shoots cease to appear. Especially important is additional watering in May and after removing the last fruit for a tree of any age.

The land near the seedling is periodically weeded from weeds to a depth of no more than 6-8 centimeters in order not to damage the roots.

Top dressing is carried out annually if the soil is not rich in nutrients. It is best to produce it in early spring or autumn. Once in 3-5 years you can make compost (5-6 kg per 1 sq. M.), Manure (4 kg per 1 sq. M.) Or bird droppings (a 1:10 solution).

For good fruiting use mineral fertilizers. In the second or third year of life, 60 grams of ammonium nitrate, 40 grams of potassium chloride and 130 grams of superphosphate are added to the seedlings. For 5-7 years of apricot life, these proportions increase slightly.

To strengthen the health of the tree, its wounds and freezers must be smeared.

Since apricot does not have high winter hardiness, it is recommended to additionally protect it from severe frosts. If there are wounds or freezers on the tree, they should be covered with garden pitch. It is best to carry out this procedure in early May.

Of all the pernicious factors, moniliosis (fruit rot) is considered the most common and dangerous for apricots, therefore, it is necessary to start protecting the tree immediately. The best tool in the fight against this disease is a solution of copper sulfate (100 grams per 10 liters), which is used to spray three times before the buds begin to form.

Whitewashing helps protect the tree from pests and sunburn.

To protect against rodents, as well as against sunburn in late autumn or early February, the tree trunk and the beginning of the skeletal branches are whitened. The mixture for whitewashing consists of lime-fluff (300 g), copper sulfate (1 tbsp. L.), Table glue or PVA (2 tbsp. L.) And 2 liters of water. Instead of glue, you can use 0.5 cups of milk.

Pruning is important for the growth and development of apricot. It requires the formation of a crown and the removal of parasitic branches. This requires pruning of the crown and garter to a solid foundation for proper growth. Annual shoots are shortened to a height of 70-80 cm above ground level. The skeletal branches of young saplings are shortened by a third, and the center conductor must always be 30 cm higher than the nearest skeletal shoots. You cannot leave several branches growing from one point at a time. In spring, fruit-bearing branches are shortened to stimulate the growth of flowers on the rest of the shoots.

Apricot crown formation pattern by year

It is possible to plant and grow apricot with success not only in central Russia, but also in the Urals and in Siberia, which indicates a high level of modern breeding, which creates varieties resistant to severe frosts. However, one should not rely only on this factor.Without proper and timely care, all the best qualities of a particular variety will be nullified. Therefore, carefully and carefully treat the planted plants, and then you can count on a decent harvest.

Determine suitable planting material

The first thing to do before choosing the right apricot and planting in the fall is to find a suitable variety for your region. The fact is that the southern forms are completely unsuitable for the middle band, they simply do not have time to mature in a short growing season. Therefore, on the basis of the latitude on which your allotment is located, it is necessary to give preference to either the early ripening variety, or the late one, which gives a crop in the second half of August or by the end of summer. In the middle lane, frost-resistant varieties are most appreciated due to the early arrival of cold weather.

It is best to plant a one-year seedling, which received proper care in a special nursery. At the same time, planting material should be taken in proven places that have a certain reputation among gardeners, since deception on the part of sellers cannot be ruled out, because seedlings of different varieties are at first very similar to each other. Be sure to inspect the root of the young tree, if it is open, there should be no dangling roots. There should be no defects on the bark, as well as extraneous formations that indicate a possible disease of the plant. Keep in mind that some diseases can be contagious and will easily cover your entire garden.

Annual apricot seedlings

In order to make sure that the seedling is viable (alas, it also happens that young trees that are deliberately dead are sold), a small incision should be made on the bark. If white wood is visible under its thin layer, this means that the planting material is quite healthy and can be rooted. If, after the initial and even deeper cut, you see only dark brown fibers - the plant most likely will not survive, even if it has not completely dried out. If there are fresh cuts on the roots, most likely in the nursery, dried or damaged processes have already been removed and they should not be renewed again, as this will not allow the plant to grow damage before planting.

Best of all, if the seedling is purchased with a root ball, that is, with the ground, it is easier to plant, more convenient container planting material.

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Ovary of young apricot flowers

It is better to remove them for the first year, since the tree is not yet fully ready for fruiting, it is more correct to set the yield of the crop and the compote of apricots for the next growing season. After spring pruning, the center conductor should rise not less than 0.3 meters above the nearest skeletal processes. Make sure that several shoots from one node do not appear at once, leave the strongest ones, and remove the rest under the circle. It is very important to pay attention to the first feeding. Just at this period, it is already possible to add nitrogen-containing preparations - they contribute to the growth of the tree, which has already managed to settle in a new place for it during the winter.

Only 30 grams of nitrogen are needed for each radical circle, and it is better to dilute this amount in 10 liters of water and feed it at the same time as irrigation, so the mineral will reach the root system more easily. If the soil is acidic, in the spring it is necessary to add fertilizers containing calcium when loosening, this mineral with dolomite flour, in which it contains at least 14%, can be added. Organic need apricot only 3 years after planting.

Watch the video: Apricot - Prunus armeniacum - How to Grow Apricots - How to prune Apricot Tree (December 2019).

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