More than 50,000 subspecies of ticks are known to modern science, but most of them are of no interest to us in this article.
We consider only the dangerous species of ticks for humans or domestic animals that are found in our latitudes. Below are descriptions of the species of ticks you may encounter.
In our region, this tick is one of the most common and is a serious danger to people and animals, because it is a carrier of encephalitis infection. By the way, this is not a separate breed or a subspecies of ticks, different representatives of the Ixodes subspecies can be carriers of the disease.
Encephalitis is a very dangerous disease that can be fatal if measures are not taken in time.
Unfortunately, by "appearance" it is impossible to determine whether it is infected or not.
Therefore, you should always remember about the potential danger and take all necessary actions when a tick bite.
The ixodic tick is also often called the hard tick. This name originated from a special shell that covers his body. This tick can carry encephalitis infection, dog and taiga ticks - these are the most common representatives of this subspecies.
- Tick size: can reach 25mm.
- Starts to be activated at a temperature of about 3-5 degrees of heat.
- It has a characteristic chitinous shell.
Also ixodic ticks are called forest ticks, which indicates their habitat. They love shady, wet terrain, so when going for a walk in the forest, especially in the spring, do not forget about the precautions.
This breed of mites is the causative agent of scabies. Previously, there were two versions of how such a tick changes its owner:
- He can move from one victim to another.
- Moves through everyday objects.
But scientists have established that they actually do this ticks only in the first way.
Itch mites can use as owners not only people, but also domestic animals or livestock. If such a tick attacks a person, the manifestations of scabies may be less bright and not so painful.
- The female tick usually reaches no more than 0.5 mm in length.
- To transfer a tick from one host to another, a sufficiently long bodily contact is necessary. Usually a fertilized female moves to a new victim, for this migration she needs about half an hour, for which she manages to make a hole in the skin of the new owner and gain a foothold there.
- Such mites feed on lysate - a substance that is formed when their saliva interacts with the host's skin secretion.
As it becomes clear from the name, this type of ticks lives in places very close to humans. He is attracted by accumulations of dust and fuzz, so most often it can be found in bed, but it is also found in public places: cafes, hairdressers, hotels, theaters.
These ticks do not bite people and do not use them as hosts. They feed on peeled epidermis. Although, at first glance, they seem less dangerous, it is not.
The life span of such a tick reaches 4 months, during which time it manages to isolate a huge amount of excrement, approximately 200 times its own weight.
Excreta is the cause of irritation and itching on the skin of people who come into contact with the surface affected by dust mites. In fact, this is an allergic reaction, not the result of a bite.
Also the bed mite leaves abundant offspring, the female produces up to 300 new individuals.
Tetranychus tellarius, Two-spotted spider mite, Spider mite, Spider mite
Red spider mite
Acariform mites - Acariformes
Mite spiderweb - small arthropod. A dangerous pest that damages more than two hundred species of cultivated plants. From fruit and berry crops, fodder plants are apple trees, all stone fruit, gooseberries, strawberries and currants. Damaged leaves turn brown and dry. Fertilized females winter. Reproduction is bisexual and parthenogenetic. From unfertilized eggs males hatch. The development is incomplete. In different climatic conditions gives from 8 to 18 generations per year.
Click on photo to enlarge
Imago. Tick size 0.25–0.43 mm. Body shape is oval.  Like all members of the family of spider mites, the peritremums are located in the wall of the cheliceral funnel. The end part of the peritrem does not protrude beyond the front edge of the body. The chelicera segments are fused and form a stylophor moving longitudinally along the hypostome. Distal segments retractable, long. The shin of the tentacles is provided with a massive claw. Two pairs of eyes and three paws of setae are located dorsally on the propodosome. Parietal setae one pair. 8-10 pairs of setae are located on the hysterosome. [one]
Sexual dimorphism. The body of the female is oval, 0.43 mm. The color of the females body at the beginning of summer is gray-green, with small spots on the sides, from the end of summer to the beginning of spring it is orange-red. The dorsal surface is covered with long, slightly pubescent setae located in six transverse rows. Trailer department peritrem consists of four chambers. The last one is the longest.  On the hysterosome, the longitudinal folds of the skin are located between the inner sacral and lumbar setae and the bends form a figure close to a rhombus. 
The body of the male is characterized by an elongated shape, sharply narrowed towards the posterior end, length - 0.25 mm.  The length of the penis barb is 2–2.2 microns. It is 5-6 times shorter than the handle. The anterior and posterior processes of the beard are pointed, the shape is uniformly convex. 
Egg. The shape is spherical, diameter - 0.14 mm. At first greenish-transparent color, later gets a pearl shade. 
Larva. The shape of the body is hemispherical. The length is 0.13–0.14 mm. It has three pairs of legs. 
Nymph. Body shape is close to an adult female. The legs are four pairs. It differs from an adult individual in smaller sizes and less slender, massive segments of legs. Different nymph ages differ from each other, as well as from adult mites, by the location and number of setae on the ventral side of the body. 
Phenology of development (in days)
Imago. Unfavorable winter conditions are experienced only by fertilized females. Wintering places - plant remains, exfoliated bark of trees.
In spring, when the temperature rises to 12–14 ° C, females leave the winter shelter and settle on the lower side of the leaf blades. Soon the females start weaving a thick web of thin, silky threads and laying eggs into it, which are located in the web one by one. For 15–20 days, the female lays up to 150 eggs.
In the spring generation, all eggs are fertilized. In summer generations, females can lay unfertilized eggs. Only males develop from them, whereas individuals of both sexes develop from fertilized ones. 
When preparing for winter, females change color from greyish-green to orange-red, stop feeding and breeding, and acquire increased resistance to low temperatures. Thus, summer females die already at 0 ° C, while winter ones are able to survive temperatures down to –27–28 ° C. 
Egg. The duration of development of the embryo depends on air temperature. 
Larva develops within 8–20 days depending on the ambient temperature. Like adult individuals, the larvae feed on the juice of green shoots, leaves and fruits. 
Imago. It takes from 8 to 20 days or more to complete a full cycle from egg to imago. The first generations are developing on weeds (nettle, plantain, field bindweed, quinoa). By the middle of summer, the mite migrates to fruit trees and multiplies on them until autumn.By the beginning of August (Leningrad) or in September (Central Asia) diapausing (winter) females appear in the colonies. The appearance of winter females is observed with the reduction of daylight hours to 16 hours. With a day length of 14 hours or less, only winter females develop. 
Development features. The number of generations depends on the climate of the distribution area. The development of 8–10 generations is observed in the Leningrad Region, 12 in the Crimea, and 14–18 in Central Asia. Generations are layered on each other, and during the entire vegetation period, all stages of tick development are observed simultaneously. The most rapid development and reproduction of ticks occur at a temperature of 29–31 ° C and a relative humidity of 35–55%. 
Ear ticks do not pose a great danger to humans, since their main victims are domestic animals. Such ticks are started up in different ways: an animal can pick it up on the street, or you can bring it into the house by stroking another's animal.
Such mites feed with earwax and skin fat. The entire life cycle lasts no more than 2 months.
What is the danger of this tick? Ixodes, which can carry encephalitis, are sometimes mistaken for ears, which is why they do not take all the necessary precautions. Therefore, it is very important to learn to distinguish these two breeds, and it is better to contact specialists.
Another subspecies of ticks, which is not dangerous to humans, but can seriously harm plants.
He, as a rule, is fixed in the lower part of the plant, begins to suck the juice out of it and weave around the web.
As a result, such a plant literally dries up and can also become infected with gray rot.
The life cycle of such a tick varies from a week to a month.
Hopefully, the photos and names of the species of ticks will help you navigate in their diversity and learn to distinguish them.
What are dangerous ticks for a person?
The most dangerous for humans are Ixodes ticks, which can be carriers of encephalitis and many other very dangerous diseases, including Lyme disease, borreliosis, and typhus.
Each subspecies of these animals has its own characteristics of existence, but usually the neighborhood with them does not bring anything good.
It is therefore very important when detecting ticks immediately begin to take action to neutralize them.
We examined the most common types of insect mites, and found out what their danger is. It is very important to understand this when you come across them in order to take adequate measures.
Common spider mite - Tetranychus urticae
Class: Arachnids -Arachnida
Squad: Thrombidiform ticks - Trombidiformes
Family: Spider mites - Tetranychidae
Polyphagous pest infects almost all plants. When damaged by spider mites, small dots appear on the leaves (traces of punctures).
This pest feeds on the sap of plants, so if they become defeated over time, necrotic spots first appear on the leaves, and then the leaves die off completely.
Characteristic of a pest is the formation of a web in which they are visible.
Spider mites have a small size (0.3-0.6 mm), rounded body, under magnification rare bristles can be seen on it. Females are slightly larger than males. All types of this pest with the defeat of a plant are covered with its light web.
Spider mites live in colonies of hundreds of representatives. Pests are hidden in the soil, on the underside of the leaves, under plant debris. Both larvae and imago are harmful.
The color of the body of spider mites is most often yellow, brown or green. Sometimes have dark spots on the sides of the body. Wintering non-feeding females usually have a red or red hue.
The development of ticks lasts an average of 15-26 days, depending on weather conditions. Adult females live up to 4 weeks and in their life they lay hundreds of eggs.
After three eggs lay young eggs hatch.
At the same time, eggs can maintain their viability for up to 5 years, which makes the fight against the pest impossible, if not to make preparations acting on the eggs.
All adult spider mites have 4 pairs of legs and belong to the genus of spiders.
Types of spider mites
There are several common types of spider mites.
This pest is from South America. In Europe, it can be seen in homes or enclosed spaces.
Most of all this insect loves such plants:
The mite itself is small, only 0.3 mm. The body is oval, brown in color with red splashes.
Lives on the bottom of the sheet.
Spider mite, how to learn, methods of struggle:
This is one of the most dangerous pests. Such a tick affects up to 200 species of plants. Differs omnivorous. It is very difficult to see, as it is small in size and gray. Females only at the end of the summer become reddish-red. The larvae are faded. Living conditions: humidity 40% -50%, temperature - 28 -30 degrees.
Occurs in such places:
- Near East.
- Middle Asia.
- Primorsky Krai.
This type of tick belong to the polymorphic parasites. Impresses legumes, pome, ornamental plants.
Size 0.6 mm, insect color green. Pale green larvae.
It is a inhabitant of the tropics, loves the conditions of high humidity. In Europe, it can be seen on indoor plants and in greenhouses.
This tick does not spin webs, so it is very difficult to recognize it.
The size of the spider mite is small - 0.3 mm in length, the body is greenish or reddish.
Such a parasite is found throughout Europe. Mite of this type loves heat more than others, therefore for it the optimum temperature will be 30 degrees and higher.
The red mite is affected by indoor, greenhouse plants, but it may also feel good on open ground.
In the width of such an insect - 0.2 - 0.4 mm red shade. The larvae are faded.
Also tropical tick, in Europe found on indoor plants and in greenhouses. He likes high temperatures, but is afraid of high humidity.
Dwells on cyclamen plants, geraniums, chrysanthemums, balsamic.
This is a very small tick (0.1-0.2 mm). Torso pale color. Most often going to the top of the sheet. Large clusters of parasite look like dust.
Distributed everywhere, may even be on trees and shrubs. When young leaves are damaged, blisters form on them.
Body length is not more than 0.3 mm, the shape of the body resembles a spindle.
Root (bulbous) mite
Meets everywhere. This species differs in that it settles in a bulb and feeds on its juices, turning it into dust.
To find a tick can only dig up a plant. The body length of the parasite reaches 1.5 mm. The color of the body is pale.
It is found on the territory of the CIS countries, Japan, China, Korea, Western Europe. It affects fruit trees.
Females are larger 0.55 mm, males - 0.4 mm. Female reddish, male - greenish.
Considered very malicious. In the period of drought begins to actively multiply, entangling the plant with cobwebs. May lead to his death.
Great fecundity, gluttony - that is what characterizes the spider mites. But to fight with them is possible.
Red fruit mite
Red fruit mite – Panonychus ulmi Koch.
This pest is widespread everywhere; it damages almost all fruit crops and many ornamental plants. The greatest harm is caused to apple and plum.
The female is red or brown, up to 0.44 mm long, the back is convex with long pubescent points. The male is smaller, up to 0.3 mm, orange-red, the male body is narrowed from the rear edge. Eggs are round, 0,14-0,15 mm, red with long stems. Larva with three pairs of legs.
Red fruit mite overwinters in the egg stage in diapause on the bark, on the branches and shoots.In the pink bud phase, the larvae begin to emerge mass, they crawl to the buds and young leaves and begin to feed. The females of the red fruit mite live up to 39 days, during which time they lay up to 150 eggs. In the temperate zone gives 5-6 generations.
The larvae and adults suck the juice from the buds and leaves. On the damaged leaves, yellow necrotic spots appear along the veins, after the leaf turns gray and falls.
Onion Root Mite
Onion Root Mite – Rhizoglyphus echinopus F. et R.
The most damaging onions, shallots, leeks, garlic, bulbs ornamental plants. It can also feed on potato tubers, dahlia, rotting cabbage heads, radishes, carrots and radish. Onions damage both in soil and during storage.
Onion root mite is oval-shaped, whitish-glassy in color, legs are short, thick red-brown, of this color and mouthparts. The length of the females is 1.1 mm, while the males are 0.78 mm. Can live in the open, and in closed ground, and in storage. The female lays from 100 to 800 eggs. After birth, a tick penetrates under the husk through the bottom of the bulb and feeds there. The damaged bottom lags behind and the bulb begins to rot.
Ways to protect against spider mites
Prevention of pest occurrence is to observe crop rotation, weed control, timely harvesting the field from plant debris. Also, spider mites do not like moisture, so frequent watering or spraying will reduce the possibility of a pest.
When protecting crops from an onion root tick, it is necessary to warm the planting material at a temperature of 35-37 ° C for 5-7 days, just do it with the harvest, so that the tick is not settled in the store.
Marigolds scare away spider mites, they can protect planting of vegetable crops and flowers. For this, the marigolds are planted between the rows or along the perimeter of the plot.
If you want to protect the backyard territory from spider mites, then you can use traditional methods - infusions and decoctions of onions, onion peel, garlic, cyclamen tubers, dandelions, tops of potatoes. These broths are sprayed on affected plants.
The biological methods of control include the use of phytoseiulus predatory mites. Phytoseiulus persimilis. And to protect cucumbers from spider mites, they use the drug Aktofit, ke. 2 ml / m 2.
The chemical method of control include the treatment of plants with insecticides. With the defeat of vegetables by a pest during the growing season, use the drug Talstar, ke. 0.48-0.60 l / ha, Actellic 500 EU, Cand. 3-5 l / ha. The number of treatments - 2-3, waiting lines for 3 days.
On fruit crops, spraying is carried out before bud blooming with preparation 30B, c. 40 l / ha. In the phase of the green cone, before the pink bud or after the flowering of the stone rocks, insecticaroacaricides are used - Bi-58 new, ke 0.8-2 l / ha, Zolone 35, ke 2.5-3 l / ha, Dursban 480, ke 2 l / ha, Commander, vrr. 0.2 l / ha and others.
To protect the storage, disinsection is carried out with sulfuric gas (100 g of sulfur per 1 m 2).
Apollo cv (active substance clofentezin, 500 g / l)
The drug has a detrimental effect on the eggs of spider mites and their early stages of development. Apply on grapes, fruit crops and strawberries. Sprayed plants during vegetation.
Rate of application, l / ha:
- Grapes - 0.24 - 0.36
- Apple tree - 0.4 - 0.6
- Strawberries - 0.3 - 0.4
Actofit, k.e. - biological drug. Application rate: tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, fruit crops, grapes, hops, ornamental plants - 4 ml / l, strawberries - 5 ml / l.
What does a spider mite look like?
Almost every gardener and gardener is familiar with the appearance of a spider mite. It is a representative of arachnids and is very similar to a small spider. The body has an oval shape with a length of 0.3 to 0.8 mm. Females can be almost twice the size of males. The tick has four pairs of limbs, at the ends of which are located sharp hooks, with the help of which it deftly moves over the leaves of a plant.
The larvae are small spiders of pale green or brown flowers with 6 limbs. Adults have a bright orange or red color.
The laying of eggs looks like translucent round-shaped beads of a yellowish shade scattered on the underside of a leaf.
Photo spider mite and its larvae are presented below.
Spider mite can be of several types:
- the red spider mite mainly lives on flowers: roses, callas, orchids, cinerarias,
- cyclamen - prefers cyclamens, balsamines, chrysanthemums,
- a wide spider mite infects cacti, oleander, citrus leaves, rubber plants,
- bulbous root mite - strikes plant bulbs underground, gnawing the middle and turning it into dust,
- Atlantic and Pacific - the closest relatives of the common mite, live in warm and humid regions and feed on citrus leaves and palm trees,
- flat orange mite or flatrope is often found on the leaves of violets.
In an unfavorable climate, they turn into a state of diapause. This is a condition in which all physiological processes slow down dramatically by 3-4 times, something like anabiosis.
For offspring, the female lays eggs in small groups of 1-2-3 pieces. In total, it can produce about 2 hundred eggs. Subsequently, females will emerge from the fertilized, males will emerge from the unfertilized. Egg stage lasts three daysthen the larvae appear.
The duration of their development is not more than a day, then the nymph stage begins. Male nymph molts 3 times and lives 1-2 stages of development, nymph females 3 molts and 2 stages of development. It takes 4 days. After a week, adults appear.capable of producing offspring.
What do they look like spider mite eggs? The egg has a spherical shape, slightly flattened at the top and bottom. At the top is a thin elongated tail.
The surface is smooth, shiny, color - light, beige.
The female can lay eggs on the roots of plants, in the ground, under fallen leaves, on the inside of living leaves, on the walls of flower pots.
Under adverse environmental conditions, the development of eggs stops and can even resume. after 4-5 years.
Harm to mites for plants
The common spider mite got its name due to weaving a fine web from the inside of the leaf, where it is most often located. The tick is considered to be a pest because of its food preference - it sucks the sap from the plants, after which the leaves turn yellow and dry. When a parasite destroys a large number of leaves of a plant, the process of photosynthesis is disturbed, which entails a decrease in yield and even death of the culture.
The first signs of a spider mite that can be seen with the naked eye are the appearance of yellow and brown spots on the leaves. In these places, the parasites suck the sap of the plant. Also on the back of the sheet visible thin film of white web. If you look more closely, you can see the red or orange dots moving erratically, - this is the spider mite.
Many beginning gardeners at the sight of the affected vegetable tops of vegetables may think: is a tick dangerous to humans? There is no threat to human health from these small creatures.
Garden and garden parasites are very prolific. Under favorable conditions, one female can lay more than a hundred eggs in her short life of 30 days. After 2-3 days of them appear gluttonous larvae, and after 2 weeks, not less voracious adults. When their numbers increase to several hundred thousand, the plant on which they live has a hard time.
The affected leaves of room or garden crops cannot synthesize sunlight, and gradually the plant weakens, becomes vulnerable to diseases and viruses. If you do not notice the symptoms of infection in time and do not begin to fight the plant mite, the representative of the flora dies.
Pest control methods
When a parasitic spider is found on a vegetable or flower crop, you can use folk remedies to get rid of it. Among the most popular ways there are several:
- The easiest method is spraying with ice water. This option is suitable for saving roses.
- Well helps against spider mite treatment with infusion onion peel. It is necessary to fill with one liter of water a handful of husk, tightly cover and wait 6-7 hours. The resulting liquid is sprinkled on the affected leaves.
- Infusion on garlic is a versatile remedy against garden mites. His recipe is simple: 150-200 grams of finely chopped garlic is infused in one liter of water in a closed container for 5 days. The resulting concentrate in the amount of 6-10 grams is diluted in a liter of water. The working solution is used for spraying the foliage.
- The soap solution is suitable for processing both indoor flowers and vegetable crops. To do this, 50 grams of soap tinder grated and dissolved in a liter of water. Soap medicine is sprayed onto the plant.
- Alcohol can be a good way to protect a plant from a flower tick. You need to put on a cotton swab a few drops of alcohol and rub them with each leaf of a flower. Abundant use of alcohol can cause burns on delicate leaves.
- To destroy the spider mite, you can purchase its natural enemy of the predatory phytoseylus mite. It multiplies rapidly and will help in a short time to get rid of parasites at all stages of development. And when the food ends, the predator will die.
When infection with a spider pest turned into a large-scale disease, it is necessary to move to radical methods. Chemical insecticidal and acaricidal drugs can save the plant even when it is almost completely exposed to this scourge. Among them are very popular:
- Karbofos is an organophosphorus agent based on the active ingredient malathion. It has a detrimental effect on the parasites and, if it comes into contact with them, causes paralysis and poisoning. Processing of garden crop tops should take place in windless dry weather early in the morning. Protective effect lasts for 7-10 days.
- Apollo is an effective acaricide, which is aimed at poisoning eggs and tick larvae. An adult individual, by direct contact with a chemical preparation, ceases to be capable of reproduction.
- Fitoverm is a biological insecticide. It can be used for indoor plants without the fear of chemical poisoning. The ampoule with the drug is diluted in water and sprayed with foliage. Protective effect lasts up to three weeks.
- Plant Pin Sticks are a new way to protect the flora from ticks. The sticks are impregnated with the active substance butoxycarboxyme. They are stuck in a pot around the perimeter of the stem of the plant. The number of sticks depends on the diameter of the pot. The larger it is, the greater the number of sticks to be inserted into the pot. When watering, water dissolves the insecticide and permeates the roots. The plant becomes invulnerable to parasites for 2 months.
Prevention of plant pests
To prevent the occurrence of a spider pest, it is necessary to eliminate any possibility of infecting plants with it. To do this, you need to know where the spider mite comes from. He can crawl from a nearby plant, fly with a gust of wind, accidentally be brought from the street. To prevent these accidents from happening, you need to follow certain rules:
- check for the presence of pests every plant at least once a week,
- do not place a new flower brought from outside next to flower crops until it passes a two-week quarantine period,
- not to bring cut flowers in the house into the house and not to put them on the windowsill,
- more often carry out wet cleaning of the room, wash windows, window sill, frames, wash curtains,
- often spray the foliage of plants with plain water or soapy water,
- as a preventive measure, lower the temperature in a room with flowers, ventilate the room,
- clean up in the garden and in the garden of fallen leaves, grass, tops,
- destroy weeds in the garden,
- to repel pests, you can plant garlic or marigold next to vegetable crops,
- When buying flower land in a store or taking it on the street, you need to ignite it in the microwave or in the oven,
- when a tick is found on one of the indoor plants, it is necessary to remove it away from other plants.
All these simple measures will reduce the risk of infection with a dangerous parasite. The main thing is to be attentive to your favorite plants and to have in stock several ways to save them from spider mites.
Types of ticks
Ticks are small, often microscopic sizes, diverse in external structure, representatives of the arachnid class (Arachnida).
They are of great importance for humans, be it a parasitic form on animals and humans, or plant pests.
In this article you will learn about the types of ticks and measures to combat them.
Varieties of ticks are as follows: - a number of haymakers - a number of parasitoid - a number of acariform
First of all, we are interested in parasitic mites, it is they who parasitize people and animals, transmitting terrible diseases.
Gamasid Ticks –Gamasoidea
Gamasis mites 0.3-0.4 mm in size, light brown in color. These are parasites of reptiles and birds, on mammals only some subspecies of this family parasitize.
Gamasid mites do not parasitize in humans, but in single cases they can be bitten.
Gamasid mites do not cause dermatitis and other diseases, but they tolerate piroplasmosis, tularemia, parasitizing rodents.
Argasi mites – Argasidae
Argas pincers from 3 to 30 mm in size. The body is flat, oval, reddish-brown. Argasi mites parasitize on warm-blooded people, domestic animals, poultry, etc.
After they bite, redness and itching appear on the body. Argasi mites have toxic saliva, which can cause tick-borne paralysis.
They also carry plague, fever, piroplasmosis, arbovirus infections and tick-borne typhoid fever.
Hypodermic tick (hair mite) - Demodex
This tick lives on the human body, namely on the face. The body is 0.4-0.5 mm long, the body is oblong, and has a light yellow color.
The subcutaneous mite lives in the sebaceous glands, skin pores, in the eyelid glands and hair follicles of the head.
Eating under the skin, hair mite releases toxic substances that cause an allergic reaction: itching, redness, rash.
Subcutaneous mites in people on the face can not be seen with the naked eye, but only under a microscope. A tick in the skin lays eggs, develops and leaves behind feces and strokes, which leads to the above listed diseases.
Tracheal mite - Sternostomatracheacolum
Tracheal tick - bird tick, such as parrots, canaries, etc. Parasite size 0.4-0.6 mm. The tracheal mite is dangerous because females lay eggs in the host’s lungs, after which the hatched larvae begin to actively drink blood.
Tracheal mites irritate the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, resulting in the release of mucus, coughing, wheezing, sneezing. The bird may die from suffocation due to severe coughing and dead epithelium in the respiratory organs.
Tracheal mites are transmitted from adult birds to chicks during feeding.
Dust mites –Dermatophagoidesfarinae
Body size 0.1-0.5 mm. Dust mites are saprophytic mites, that is, they feed on processed products of human, animal and plant life.
This is a household mite that lives in pillows, mattresses, linen, house dust. It is also often called farina, sofa or paper mite. Ticks home can cause an allergic reaction, asthma.
Heat treatment of linen, pillows and regular wet cleaning in the house is necessary.
Chicken Mite - Dermanyssusgallinae
The chicken mite has a dark red body (0.7 mm). It is a parasite that feeds on the blood of domestic and wild birds, sometimes mammals.Chicken mite lives in wood cracks, in bird nests and other places.
They leave from there only at night, in order to refresh themselves. Chicken mites are dangerous because they can tolerate dangerous diseases such as the avian pox virus, piroplasmosis, Newcastle virus and avian cholera.
Chicken mite can significantly reduce chicken production and the quality of chicken meat.
Microscopic feather tongs - 0.5 mm. Down and feather pillows for them the perfect habitat.
A feather tick is dangerous for a person because it causes allergic reactions, urticaria, bronchial asthma, edema of the respiratory tract and dermatitis. Mites home irritate the epidermis of our skin.
You can get rid of them by treating pillows with steam or washing them in hot water. And best of all to get pillows from a non-natural filler.
Elk mite - Lipopténacérvi
It is not a tick at all, but a fly, although it bears such a name. And this parasite got it because of the similarity of the way of life with ticks. The elk tick feeds on blood mainly of deer and elk and can lay eggs in the skin of their skin.
They tolerate babesiosis and piroplasmosis. Elk mite can also attack a person and feed on his blood, which affects our body. It depends on the size of the body. They are unlikely to attack young children.
With its bite, an elk tick causes itching, redness and a rash on the human body.
Soil mite (root)
The soil mite has an oval light body (0.5-1 mm). The root tick lives in the soil by biting into the roots and roots, and this is harmful to agriculture.
Damaged root crops become rotten and often rot. Damage to crops by a soil mite can also occur during storage.
In the fight against soil mites you will help acaricides (drugs against ticks).
The main prerequisite for the emergence of true spider mites is dry air and low air humidity, so high air humidity and regular spraying of the outer part of the plant is a good prevention of the occurrence and reproduction of the pest. However, high humidity of air helps only with defeats by a true spider mite, a false spider mite, on the contrary, loves it very much. Nevertheless, practice shows that orchids are most often attacked by true spider mites, rather than false ones.
When spraying a plant, one must be very careful that the water does not remain in the core of the plant and the grooves of the leaves for a long time, as this can very easily lead to rotting. Particularly careful to be in the winter, as at low light and low temperatures water evaporates slowly enough. Fully immersing a plant in water is unlikely to help, since insects protect themselves with air bubbles that cover them when they come into contact with water.
It is also necessary to peel off old fallen leaves, remove faded flowers, periodically gently remove dust with a soft brush.
Very good as the prevention of the occurrence of spider mites has proven itself tree oil Neem. It acts reliably and well tolerated by plants. This product contains many treating substances against which ticks do not produce immunity.
Methods of dealing with spider mites
The first thing to start with is the treatment - it is a good washing of the outer part of the plant with warm water and laundry soap or dishwashing detergent. This event will not completely destroy insects, but at least half reduce their population.
All suspicious plants must be immediately isolated.
The plant can be watered well and cover with a transparent plastic bag for 3 days. From high humidity inside the package, all mites will die. However, for orchids you need to constantly watch so that her leaves burn from the heat.
The pest does not tolerate spraying water.Frequent spraying of plants with water or a solution of Intavira, Fitoverma, Karbofos and other insecticides.
"Aldicarb" (or "Temik") - a potent granular preparation for entering directly into the soil.
To destroy the spider mite, and later the offspring, it is necessary to conduct detailed small-drop spraying with sulfuric or phosphoric preparations, and all the cracks and secluded places should be processed. It is highly advisable to alternate the preparations so that the tick does not develop races resistant to pesticides.
Spider mites also do not tolerate ultraviolet radiation, so they hide from the underside of the leaves. It is possible to reduce the tick population by irradiating the leaves on the underside with ultraviolet light.
When killing spider mites, it is necessary not only to wash and treat the plants themselves, but also the window sill on which they stood, as well as saucers and pots.
Folk remedies to combat spider mites
- If the plant can withstand, it helps pouring cold water (for example - roses).
- Infusion of finely chopped onions (15 gr.) Or onion scales (6 gr.) - insist in 1 l. water 5-7 hours in a sealed container.
- Medicinal dandelion (sold in pharmacies). 20-30 grams. crushed roots insist in 1 l. warm water for 1-2 hours.
- Garlic. Finely pounded garlic (170 g) insist in 1 l. water for 5 days in a dark, tightly closed container. When preparing the working solution, take 6 g of concentrate per 1 l of water.
- For plants that cannot be sprayed, the following method is recommended: chopped garlic or a jar with a small amount of turpentine should be placed near the plant, and cover it with a plastic bag for several hours.
- A decoction of cyclomen tubers - the tubers are cut into several pieces and boiled in boiling water for about 40 minutes. After this, the broth is cooled, the day is infused and decanted. Re-treatment of the plant is carried out with an interval of 5 days.
- Treatment with medical alcohol - this type of treatment can be applied only in relation to hard-leaved orchids, such as Cattleya. The leaves are rubbed with a cotton swab moistened with alcohol. Alcohol should be applied in a thin layer so that it can evaporate quickly without causing burns. Before the operation, it is best to conduct a small test on one of the sheets.
Important! Be sure to re-process the plants to destroy more resistant individuals and their eggs.
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Terms of development
Duration life cycle depends on ambient temperature. At 20 °, the tick goes through all stages of development in 20 days, at 25 ° - in 10-12 days, at 30-32 ° - in 5-6 days.
How long does an adult spider mite live? Under favorable climatic conditions, without falling into diapause, an adult individual exists from 16 to 30 days.
- Plant residues - tops of cultivated plants, weeds.
- The top layer of the earth - the tick can hide to a depth of 20 cm.
- Bee hives.
- Parts of greenhouse structures.
- Fences and storage boxes.
Harm to plants
Where does it come from on plants? It is a logical question! How does a spider mite enter homes, greenhouses, front gardens and garden beds? There are many ways of penetration.
At home you can bring it with newly acquired plantspurchased to replenish the collection.
Therefore, it is recommended to keep all new copies in quarantine first.
In addition, in apartments and other enclosed areas, ticks can be brought on clothes or accessories, for example, on bags and umbrellas.
They can be on the bouquets of flowers. And elementary carried by the wind. In open areas, a tick may appear, transferred by air flow, with seedlings or saplings bought at a market or shop.
Where can I find? This pest is capable of striking most plants available. He settled in the garden, in flowerbeds, on vegetables and fruit bushes, can attack indoor flowers. Of course, he has his own preferences. What plants are striking?
Moreover, some gardeners are trying to get rid of the pest by placing Saintpaulia near the affected flowers. Still these vegetarians do not tolerate aloe and never sit on it. But ticks just love:
However, do not think that other mite plants will bypass! His attack may undergo almost all flowers, including cacti. Learn more in the article "How to deal with spider mites on houseplants at home?"
It is easier to say that the spider mite does not like it, because the list of its preferences is almost impossible to describe. Pest never settle on:
- calendula (marigold),
Moreover, ticks can be repelled from plants, planting these flowers between them. After all, these pests completely odorless. Details in the article "Spider mite: treatment of roses, apples, marijuana and other plants."
Salvation can only elder. All other cultures mites love very much, especially strawberries and strawberries. "The fight against spider mites on a berry" is described in detail in the article of our site.
In the affected cultures does not happen not a single variety of onion, and even garlic. In addition, these plants are often used against ticks, as described in detail in the article "Fighting spider mites on vegetables." But cucumbers, eggplants, peppers - pets ticks - gourmets.
In the article "Fighting spider mite on cucumbers" you will learn how to effectively destroy the pest and prevent it from appearing again.
Medicinal herbs and spices
There are relatively few feed plants for ticks here. The greatest danger is exposed mint and lemon balm. But many herbs help to get rid of the pest.
In addition to these plants, spider mites can be found on different grape varieties, legumes and cereals, forest plants, including trees. According to scientific classification, spider mites belong to polyphagous pests.
Definition of lesion
This is how the affected plant looks like - photo:
The most obvious and characteristic feature is the presence of a thin cobweb, braid plant on all sides. It is located on the stems, leaves and flowers.
The leaves and petals of flowers acquire specific traces - they are "decorated" with multiple punctate punctures. They look like tiny bright specks. This is actually necrotic fociresulting from the harmful activity of ticks. These dots gradually grow and begin to merge, forming a large dried area.
The plant loses its decorative and healthy appearance. Leaf blades begin twist in an unnatural way, fall off in large quantities. In bright light on the leaves you can see silvery stripes and spots - the allocation of a tick.
What harm does a spider mite cause to plants? Feeding on plant sap, tick damages cellsthat make up the leaves. As a result, the intensity of photosynthesis processes decreases, which leads to a decrease in the amount of useful nutrients.
The lack of power affects the weakening of the protective forces susceptibility to various diseases. Some of them are brought by the tick itself, which is a carrier of gray rot and many viral diseases.
The attack on ornamental plants reduces their beauty, often leads to death. Garden, berry, fruit and grain crops suffer losses in the quality and quantity of the crop. They can reach from 30 to 70% of the total.
The most radical and effective. It consists in the use of various chemicals - acaricides.
Conventional insecticides on ticks, as representatives of Arachnids, do not work.
Among most popular tools one can mention Actellic, Omait, Neoron, Sunmite, Apollo, Nissoran, Demitan, Talstar, Flumate and Fufanon.
Their use is capable completely withdraw population of ticks and their eggs.
This use of funds of biological origin. It is quite diverse and includes:
- Using natural enemies of vegetarians - ticks of predators.
- Accommodation of plantspest repellent.
- Application biological acaricides. These include Akarin, Fitoverm, Agravertin, Bitoxibacillin, Vertimek.
It helps to prevent their occurrence and reduce the population, but does not completely eliminate pests.
Is to use home remediesable to get rid of spider mites. Popular because of its availability, economy and ease of use. The difficulty lies in the selection fairly effective means, not all drugs work well enough.
To kill and scare ticks, decoctions, tinctures and tinctures of plants, some medications (iodine, potassium permanganate, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia solution), food and household items are used.
In our article "Methods and measures to combat spider mites" the necessary information is given in details and in detail.
Flour (mealy) or granary tick
Mealy mite microscopic, with a body length of 0.32-0.67 mm. Flour mite eats cereals, flour, meat products, dried fruit. Barn mite is a pest of storage products in the house.
Corn that has damaged the flour mite is not suitable for food. The flour mite carries E. coli and various bacteria. Their skin causes allergies and dermatosis, especially in children.
Flour mite also contributes to gastrointestinal disease, shortness of breath, anaphylaxis, kidney disease. The flour mite does not tolerate low temperatures.
For fumigation of large rooms, it is advised to use acaricides Fostoxin, Fostek.
Bastard Mite - Oribatida
The shell mite has a dark brown body color (0.7-0.9 mm). It is not harmful to humans and agriculture.
On the contrary, it helps regulate the decomposition of organic substances and microorganisms living in the soil. The soil becomes friable and favorable for plant growth.
The armored tick feeds on plant and animal rotting remains.
Rat mite - Ornithonyssusbacoti
The rat mite attacks mainly on rats, but can also drink the blood of other rodents. Body 0.75 to 1.44 mm gray or black. A rat mite can also attack other mammals, including humans.
The rat mite on the human body leaves redness, itching, swelling, rash. A rat tick is dangerous because it suffers dangerous diseases such as rat tick dermatitis, tularemia, typhoid fever.
A rat can easily transmit these diseases to humans.
Black currant mite - Cecidophyopsis ribis
Black Currant Mite
White currant mite, vermiform (0.2 mm). Bud mite is a pest of currants and gooseberries. Kidney tick on currants eats plant juices. On plants gets with the help insects, birds, wind.
The kidney mite, wintering currants in the kidneys, damages them, which leads to the deformation and death of the kidneys. A kidney tick on a currant can inhabit 8 individuals in one bud. To combat it, they use acaricides and follow the rules of agrotechnology.
Bud mite on currants gives five generations for a year.
Gall mite - Eriophyoidea
A gall mite-damaged gall sheet
Gall mite has a worm-like body shape (0.1-0.3 mm). It inhabits both cultivated and wild-growing trees, bushes and shrubs.
Gall mite sucks the juices from the leaves of plants, as a result of which photosynthesis and water balance are disturbed, which ultimately leads to the deformation and drying of the leaves.
Also on the leaves appear small processes - galls, in which the gall mite hides and lays its eggs.
It is necessary to spray the plants with acaricides and insecticides, adhere to the rules of agrotechnology and thus gall mite will not harm your plants anymore.
Strawberry Mite - Phytonemuspallidus
The body is oval in shape, translucent, pale yellow (0.1-0.2 mm). Strawberry mite feeds on leaf sap and is located on the lower side of the leaf plate.
Strawberry mite attacks the plant during the production of the antennae. The harm that a strawberry mite carries to strawberries is wilting, drying and dying off of the leaves. For the year strawberry mite gives about 7 generations.
So the scale of its settlement are quite large.
Ixodic (forest / taiga) tick - Ixodidae
The body is flat, round or oval in shape (1-10mm). It is a gray tick, sometimes light yellow to brown, or almost black tick. Taiga ticks are bloodsuckers by nature.
Drinking with blood, this forest tick becomes gray or pinkish-yellowish. Stages of development of ixodid ticks: egg, larva, nymph and adult representative.
The usual victims of larvae and nymphs are small animals, but ticks are found in humans at least. They are usually attached to the head or in other places with a scalp.
A forest tick most often suffers Lyme disease, that is, a lot of well-known encephalitis, piroplasmosis and others. It is spread all over the world. These are the most dangerous ticks.
What are the types of ticks: 9 species + description
Everyone has heard about ticks, but unfortunately, not all people know how they look and when there is a period of their activity. You need to know the enemy by sight, so today we will tell you about everything.
The most common question among our readers - in which month they appear? We answer, the peak of their activity is in early spring, then they continue their hunt until the very autumn.
In fact, there are about fifty thousand ticks in the world, which means how little we know about them. The very first fact known to a narrow circle of people is that ticks are not insects at all, but spider-like animals. They also include scorpions, spiders and haymakers.
We all saw spiders and haymakers, their appearance is familiar to us. Scorpions are rare in our latitudes, and you don’t really want to stumble upon them.
Such a large number of various parasites is due to the fact that these parasites have an amazing ability to survive in any conditions - from the environment with sub-zero temperatures to hot tropical forests.
But their life is not long, many factors can influence it, scientists every day discover more and more reasons why the tick lives more or less.
These parasites are very small - their calf size is about 0.4-0.8 mm, some species can reach 3 mm. Pests can sometimes be confused with bed bugs, but remember, you can hardly find a tick in your city apartment.
According to external signs, they are easy to distinguish - at the bug - 3 pairs of legs, and at the tick - 4 pairs.
Only some species of ticks are dangerous for humans, while others prefer to eat the sap of plants and trees, parasitize arthropods. In this article we consider the most popular parasites, and what danger they carry in themselves.
The effects of tick bites conceal a lot of trouble for humanity and animals. These parasites can carry about sixty diseases, from the names of which will be scary.
Here are a few of them that a person can get:
- Lyme disease
- Hemorrhagic fever
- Tick-borne encephalitis
- Tick-borne typhus
- Q fever
Cattle ticks are also not spared, animals can become victims of diseases such as anaplasmosis and Texas fever. Horse owners should beware of parasites due to the risk of encephalomyelitis and encephalitis.
If you still cling to a terrible tick, then you need to remove it according to this instruction, be very careful and attentive!
To prevent the disease from becoming an unpleasant surprise, it is better to take a tick to your doctor that bit you or pets.
On the eye, you can not distinguish the usual parasite from the infected, it can be done only in laboratory conditions.
If a disease is suspected, the hospital will immediately help you and begin immediate treatment.
With a constant stay in the territory where a large number of ticks live, it is recommended to make a special vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis before the beginning of the hunting season of parasites. This action will protect you from undesirable consequences.
Let us consider in more detail the description of what ticks are, which a person should avoid and, if possible, get rid of them.
1. Encephalitis mite - not a separate type of parasite. Any tick can be them, and be the carrier of this dangerous disease. Infection with encephalitis can be fatal.
A huge disadvantage is that a normal pest cannot be distinguished from an infected one, so take a live parasite in a jar to the hospital when you bite to find out if your tick contained any danger.
2. Argasovy. If we consider the most dangerous, these parasites can be attributed to the Persian and Koshar ticks. The latter usually live on sheep, and the former prefer birds; they also will not refuse human blood.
They are also sometimes called trailing, that is, these bloodsuckers prefer to live in solitary places, such as burrows, nests, caves, cracks. It is known that some individuals of these bloodsuckers can live up to 25 years.
Their bite is very dangerous - in just one minute this pest can infect a person with recurrent typhoid, and the puncture site on the skin will remind itself of a few weeks of itching and pain.
3. Itch mite - transmitted after contact between people. Usually, the female, which is already fertilized, passes, therefore, when the victim gets on the epidermis, it immediately begins to gnaw deep into the path.
After a while, she lays eggs, nymphs are chosen from them and spread under the skin for two weeks.
After this time, the larvae mature and are ready to breed. They feed on a special substance, which is obtained by the reaction of skin secretion with tick saliva.
4. Subcutaneous tick - the name speaks for itself, it is also called Demodex. When infected, small parasites crawl over the skin and feed on skin particles in humans, but as soon as the victim weakens the immune system, the tick goes deeper under the skin.
Usually irritation from the habitat of parasites on the epidermis can be found on the hair parts of the body.
After mating, males die, and females live for about two to three months, laying eggs in hair follicles. You can get infected with this scourge anywhere, through another person, an animal.
5. Bed rest - mites live not on the skin of a person, but in a bed and a down of blankets and pillows, dust, eating pieces of skin.
Although the pests themselves are small, they leave behind a lot of waste products.
6. Ear tick - these parasites are not dangerous to humans, because they prefer the ears of cats and dogs. Therefore, our pets can suffer from them.
They can get infected on the street. Pests feed on skin fat and earwax.
7. Spider mite - harm not to people, but to plants. They live on the back of the leaves, sucking the juice.
Excessive reproduction threatens them with death for most of the crop or houseplants, so there are many insecticides that will help gardeners and gardeners to stand up for their crops.
They tolerate various serious plant diseases. They live very little - from a week to a month.
8. Gamasovy - these bloodsuckers live for about seven months. They prefer to live on birds and small animals (rats, mice).
They are called appropriately - chicken, mouse, rat. But in the absence of a main source of food, ticks will bite everyone who has blood. Although they are very small, but the saliva of bloodsuckers is very toxic.
9. Ixodes tick - most often these parasites are carriers of encephalitis.
These include several pests - forest, taiga, dog, forest. The larvae begin to wake up in early spring, when the earth gradually warms up under the rays of the sun.
The season when ticks wake up and begin to wait in the grass and bushes for their victims, falls from May to August. This means that all summer you need to be careful and attentive so that the parasite cannot reach you.
But the danger is only in wild forests and fields, in cities ticks are rare, because parks are usually treated with pests, but in the spring and the city dweller must follow some rules for self-preservation.
Some people think that parasites usually sit in trees and wait for people to pass by. Pests, in fact, do not like to move a lot, in their whole life they can crawl a few meters.
And on trees, mites sit in rare cases, usually their habitat is grass and bushes up to a meter tall.
Parasites prefer to dwell in the wet grass, in areas where there is a lot of shade. On a hot day, they avoid open sunny places and also do not like heavy rain. But in the rain and you are unlikely to walk through the forests, so we will describe some ways to protect against pests.
An important protective barrier against pests is well-chosen clothing. It will not be easy to see a small parasite on yourself, so it is better to dress in light colors in order to take off the pest in time.
Also plays a big role fabric outerwear. It should be smooth, without roughness, for example, bolonevye. On it clawed paws of ticks will not be able to catch and will slide off.
Shirts and T-shirts need to be tucked into pants, it’s best to tighten everything with a belt to prevent the parasite from getting to bare skin. Sleeves should be long. The legs and sleeves also need to be tightened with a rubber band or tape at the ends.
The cap must be, the hood is also necessary - it will not let the parasites slip into the back of the head. If not, then with a hat you can temporarily protect yourself from pests.
In an ordinary forest, you need to inspect yourself every couple of hours, in places with a large accumulation of ticks, it is better to check in half an hour.
Before the walk it is better to sprinkle with a special insecticide all the weak points through which the parasite can crawl.
Keep in mind that the use of Russian-made drugs is recommended, because European insecticides may not affect our pests, they are designed for ticks living in very different natural conditions.
The same applies to the protection of pets, the best means - Dana Ultra, Api-San, Bolfo. The preparations are made in the form of a spray and drops, which are applied to the withers of the animal. On sale there are also special collars, which should indicate that they protect it from ticks.
It is now known that there are ticks, and that many may in some way adversely affect a person.
They not only bite and carry various serious diseases, but also attack domestic animals, livestock, poultry, ruin the crop, feeding on the sap of crops or garden plants.
Due to their wide distribution, you will definitely encounter a parasite in your life.Therefore, it is better to use preventive measures to protect your life from the appearance of these pests in it.
General view of the diversity of tick species
Ticks (Acari) are combined into a large subclass in the arachnid class. Interestingly, the spiders themselves in this class form a detachment, and among ticks, scientists have identified several different orders, and therefore for their association had to form a subclass.
The variety of mites is exclusive even for the type of arthropod. Among them are both microscopically small forms that can be seen only through a microscope, and animals with a body size of up to 10 mm (especially after saturation). They have very different colors, different body shapes and very effective and fancy accessories for their lifestyle. It is not surprising that it is not so easy to give a general description of this subclass.
The photo below shows the Argass mite:
In the subclass of ticks, there are species with virtually all known forms of nutrition in animals - herbivorous, predators, parasites, and even omovampiry (attacking well-fed fellows and sucking the contents of their bodies).
Ticks live in a wide variety of biotopes, from dry steppes to tropical forests, from earth bedding to carpets in apartments. There are even known species that live under water. In large quantities they inhabit the upper layers of the soil, where sometimes hundreds of individuals are found in 1 cm3 of land.
Not surprisingly, these invertebrates have spread throughout the world. They inhabit all continents, including Antarctica, where they constantly live in nesting places of seabirds, parasitizing them in nests. According to the conditions of life, they have acquired various adaptations - a strong, or, on the contrary, soft body, the ability to starve for a long time, a high reproduction rate, special devices for fastening on the host body (for parasitic forms) and many others.
A significant problem is the classification of all this species diversity. As a rule, they are divided into groups according to anatomy, various physiological features and lifestyle. Groups of the same order (taxa) are included in the composition of higher associations, as a result, groups and families are formed, each of which is characterized by certain features of their representatives.
Thus, the entire Acari subclass is divided into such supernatants:
- Parasitiform ticks, which included more than 12 thousand species. In this super-detachment, a detachment of Ixodes ticks (the ones that carry encephalitis), a detachment of mesostigmata (among which phytoseiulusus mites, widely used in agriculture for the destruction of ticks that damage plants) and hamase ticks (animal and human parasites, some species of which are known for very painful bites). Also, parasitiformes include highly original spider mites, more like spiders,
- Acariform mites, among which the scabby itch, granary mites, armouflaged, feather (not always parasites, and sometimes only commensals) and carnivorous mite mites are especially known. The most famous human parasites from this super-detachment belong to the group of sarcoptiform ticks.
This division is very conditional. The systematics of the subclass is constantly reviewed, and many experts offer their options for dividing the group into subgroups. In particular, the selection as a super-order mowing pliers for their very specific structure.
The photo below shows the mite (Opilioacarus segmentatus):
Among the ticks, there are especially noteworthy representatives who are worth mentioning separately ...
This nadryad is remarkable in that it includes the most famous ticks in the nation - Ixodidae, the very ones that urban residents of middle Eurasia fear in panic because some members of some of their species may be infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and if they are bitten, they can infect a person .Since this disease is deadly, intensive care is required after infection, while reliable prevention of the disease is quite complicated.
More details about ixodic ticks will be discussed below, but now we’ll dwell on the features of the supra-order parasitiform ticks. It is noteworthy in the first place because compared to acariform, its representatives are considered to be evolutionarily more developed. Some of them have certain aromorphoses that make them highly specialized parasites. In other (predatory species), the features of the structure indicate a significant evolutionary progress towards increasing the efficiency of reproduction and the survival of the offspring.
Another interesting feature of this group is its very low representation in paleontological remains. The reason for this “gap” in the evolutionary record is not fully understood, but this is what leads to difficulty in tracking the path of development of this group of ticks. Some soil gamaz mites are considered to be the closest to the original forms, and various predatory forms of the same group are considered to be the most highly developed. Although it is unequivocal to talk about the evolutionary superiority of one group to another is not entirely correct.
Among parasitiform ticks are predators, saprophages (and feeding on both dead animals and plant debris), and parasites. Interestingly, the parasitic forms here demonstrate truly unique adaptive qualities. For example, in this order there are cavitary parasites (a relative rarity for arthropods) - forms that live inside the organisms of host animals. This, in particular:
- Mites of the Entonyssidae family colonizing air bags in snakes,
- Rhinonyssidae settling in the nasal cavity of birds
- Halarachnidae - parasites that affect the trachea and lungs of mammals.
It is believed that these families are descended from nested trap parasite ticks.
The photo below shows the parasitic mite Pneumonyssoides caninum in the dog’s nasal cavity:
It is incorrect to speak about saprophyte ticks. Only microorganisms are referred to as saprophytes - bacteria or unicellular fungi. Ticks that feed on decaying organic matter are called saprophages. It is also incorrect to call ticks saprotrophs - the fundamental difference between saprotrophs and saprophages is that saprotrophs are not left after feeding on solid waste products (excreta), and saprotrophs are left.
A remarkable group in this super-detachment is uropod mites, which mainly inhabit the soil. Among them are:
- species that have a predatory lifestyle, some of which are very highly specialized - for example, they only suck out soil nematodes or live only in anthills,
- parasitic forms, mainly affecting insects and other arthropods,
- as well as species sucking sap plants.
But still the most famous among parasitiform ticks are Ixodides. Consider them in more detail.
Ixodides as the most famous parasites
Ixodes ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae are highly specialized waiting parasites of vertebrates, including humans. Both the larvae and the adults feed on their blood, clinging to the outer covers of the host, biting through the skin and the wall of the blood vessel.
The oral apparatus of these parasites is adapted not only for sucking blood, but also for secure attachment to the host. It is very difficult to tear off a sucked tick - in some cases, if it is not properly removed, its body detaches from the head, which remains in the skin of a person.
Ixodic mites, along with scabby itching and iron mites, are one of the most common types of people. At the same time, most people do not know about ironcats at all (although almost every adult has these parasites).A scabies itch is not perceived as a serious danger because of the relative ease of treatment of scabies they cause.
The reason for concerns about Ixodic tick bites in residents of the forest-steppe and forest zones of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and some Western European countries is infection of a certain part of the populations of parasites with tick-borne encephalitis and lime borreliosis infections, which are deadly dangerous for humans.
According to statistics, only 6% of ticks even in the most epidemiologically dangerous regions (Siberia and the Urals, the western outskirts of the European part of Russia, north and northeast of Ukraine, the western part of Belarus) are infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus. And even with the bite of an infected tick, the risk of developing the disease is approximately 4%. In fact, an average of 2-3 cases per 1000 bites of ixodic ticks. This is not so much, but the deaths from tick-borne encephalitis and the high frequency of bites in some regions have provided disrepute to these parasites.
The most epidemiologically significant species are:
- The dog tick (Ixodes ricinus) is the main carrier of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. It is widespread in the Leningrad and Moscow regions, but encephalitis here is extremely rare. It belongs to the species inhabiting open biotopes - pastures, fields, meadows,
- Taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus) - "replaces" a dog tick in Siberia, the Urals and the Far East, it is also the cause of the greatest absolute number of infections with tick-borne encephalitis. By its ecology, it is a more “forest” species than a dog tick,
- The Australian tick, Ixodes holocyclus, lives along the east coast of Australia and is notorious for biting off a neurotoxin in the wound that can lead to paralysis,
4. Ticks of the genus Hyalomma (chialoma), carrying some types of hemorrhagic fevers.
Tick-borne encephalitis carries several more types of ticks: Ixodes pavlovskyi, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermatocentor marginatus and others. A total of 14 species that look quite similar to each other, and in some cases it is extremely difficult to identify them (especially if we are talking about immature individuals). For this reason, the common name is fixed in the people - “encephalitis tick”, which sometimes extends also to those types of ixodides that do not transmit the virus, but outwardly resemble true carriers.
It is ixodic ticks that are most often confused with bed bugs - also human bloodsucking parasites. However, the differences between these creatures are greater than the similarities. At least, all ticks have 8 legs, and bugs have 6. In addition, bugs attack a person in a dwelling, and ticks - in nature. The bugs bite quickly and try to hide at the slightest danger, while Ixodides until the last try to hold onto the host’s body, and sometimes it is extremely difficult to tear them away from the skin.
Also among the Ixodides it is necessary to mention the argas mites, also mostly parasites, but mostly nesting. Many of their species live in the burrows of mammals in steppes and deserts, they eat occasionally, when either a permanent host or an occasional guest is found in the hole. It is notorious for carrying tick-borne relapsing fever.
Calc name for this group in Latin is tiroglyphoid mites. The group received its Russian-language name for the fact that its representatives very often settle and multiply in enormous quantities in the storage of agricultural products. Here, various species feed on grain, husk, mold fungi, animal products.
Among the mites, there are also species that parasitize insects that harm stored products - grinder bugs, skin crawlers, weevils, and moth bugs.
The most notable among barn mites are the following types:
- Flour mite, damaging flour, starch, bran, various products of grain processing,
- Cheese mite, which is often found in long-stored cheeses,
- Sugar mite, damaging sugar and raw materials for its production,
- Wine mite, settling on the surface of the wine, if the container with it is not closed tightly,
- Bulb mite, pest stocks of onions, potatoes, garlic, beets.
All of them lead to damage and deterioration in the quality of stored products.
A particularly remarkable feature of barn mites is their ability to survive when they enter the human digestive tract. Here, these arthropods can bite into the intestinal epithelium, eat mucosal cells or food that enters the intestine, and cause a disease called intestinal acariasis. As a result, develop abdominal pain, nausea, allergic reactions. There is evidence that in some cases, sugar, cheese and grain mites can even multiply in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of oxygen - in some patients in the rectum and excrement found a large number of these parasites at different stages of development.
Under this name several genera of intradermal parasites of people, other mammals and birds are combined. Representatives of this group have mastered a very original form of parasitism - they bite into the skin, constantly pierce it in their passages, feeding on skin cells and secretions of the skin glands, and females lay eggs in the skin as such activities.
The scabies of itching can sometimes be seen under the skin with the naked eye - they look like a mesh of lines.
The larvae that come out of eggs feed on the epidermis for some time in maternal passages, turn into nymphs, crawl to the surface of the skin, where males turn into adults and mate with immature females. After that, the females gnaw into the skin and begin to make their own moves.
The vital activity of scabies pruritus causes severe itching in a person - the disease itself is called scabies. Similarly, scabies can be observed in cats, dogs, rats and many other animals.
Zheleznitsa - very specific mites. At least in appearance, they are very different from other ticks, because they have an elongated rear part of the body that looks like a tail. At the same time, their length together with such a “tail” is no more than 0.3-0.4 mm.
The most interesting of these ticks is that they constantly live on the human body. Of these, the two most common types are:
- Demodex folliculorum - most of the time lives in the hair follicles,
- Demodex brevis - inhabits the sebaceous glands, the secret of which is displayed in the hair follicles.
Both species feed on secretions of the glands and normally do not harm humans. However, with abundant reproduction, they can cause demodicosis, a dermatological disease in which skin peels off, foci of inflammation develop and itching occurs.
According to research data, these ticks are widespread - almost 100% of the world's population is infected with them. And precisely because the infestation by them practically does not manifest in any way, most people do not even know about such infection, just as they do not know about the existence of the iron ores themselves.
The so-called dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.)
This group includes several species of very small ticks that have adapted to human habitation and feeding here with peeling skin particles present in household dust.
It is known that each person loses approximately 1.5 g of dry dead epidermis per day - it is him who is consumed by these creatures. And this amount of "food" is enough for the existence of a population in the room.
Today, the ability of dust mites to eat, including molds, has been discovered.
Due to the microscopic size, dust mites can settle inside the mattresses and upholstered in upholstered furniture, where it is almost impossible to drive them out.They also inhabit carpets, cracks behind plinths, dust in the corners of the room in large quantities, and therefore the fight against them in most cases is a difficult task.
The photo below shows the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus dust mite in the carpet:
At the same time, dust mites can cause severe allergies. It is believed that most cases of asthma develop in response to the constant inhalation of air, which is covered with dust from the excrement and chitinous covers of these creatures. The excrement contains specific digestive proteins that cause sensitization in humans.
Types of spider mites, harmful to agriculture
Perhaps, of all the ticks that are pests of agriculture, spider webs are best known.
First, they are diverse and more than 1,200 species of them are known. Secondly, they are very versatile in nutrition. The typical species of this family - the common spider mite - is widespread throughout the world and affects at least about 200 species of plants. Moreover, these 200 species - only those that are known to scientists. Perhaps the diet of this tick is even more diverse. It is capable of striking most of the garden crops grown in central Russia, but most of all it suffers from cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants, bell peppers and strawberries.
His relatives are less universal, but they are no less harmful. Gardens, hawthorn, citrus and other mites of this group are considered to be a real disaster in the gardens.
Finally, spider mites lead to serious damage to plants, significantly reducing the yield of fields and gardens. In addition, mites infect flowers and trees in natural biotopes.
This group of pests received its name because, by infecting plants, ticks entangle their habitat with thick cobwebs, in which, as in a shelter, they feed and multiply.
It is not surprising that spider mites are actively fighting, and the most effective and rational way to destroy them is to attract other mites to this ...
Enemies of spider mites - phytoseiulus
Phytoseiulus is the most numerous family of gamasid mites. They number more than 2000 species, the overwhelming number of which are voracious predators, destroying many small invertebrates.
In this group, Phytoseiulus persimilis, which is used in the biological control of spider mites, has the greatest economic importance. One adult individual of this predator eats up to 20 adult spider mites, their eggs and larvae per day, and the more intensively it feeds, the more eggs it lays and the more voracious larvae and nymphs are born.
Phytoseiulyuses feed not only on spider mites, but also on thrips, nematodes and some other harmful invertebrates. Therefore, their use in biological control is considered an integrated method of plant protection.
Today in Europe, nurseries are already working on growing phytoseiulus, which are sold in lots to greenhouses and garden farms. Here they are released on plants, and within a few weeks their number is rapidly growing due to a decrease in the number of spider mites. So it is possible to protect the crop without insecticides and other chemicals.
Redies mites and other predatory species
These mites saw, perhaps, every man. They come across in large numbers in spring and early summer under stones in the forest or in vegetable gardens, where they move smoothly, as if they “float” on the ground in search of their victims - small insects and other ticks.
It is interesting that the larvae of the reddish beetles are parasites, and only when they mature they pass on to a predatory way of life. They parasitize insects, but they can bite vertebrates, including humans.
In Japan and on the Pacific Islands, these mites carry the tsutsugamushi fever pathogen.
Feather mites like parasites of birds
Representatives of this group are of significant economic importance, since they can cause serious diseases in poultry.
Normally, these ticks are commensal and do not lead to serious consequences for birds. They live in the feathers and feed on their walls. Each has its own colony reformed, from which ticks can move to neighboring feathers.
Wild birds usually carry out some hygienic procedures that help control the number of these ticks, and a significant proportion of such “planters” die during molting. However, when keeping birds in close enclosures, ticks multiply here in large quantities, cause itching, inflammation, breaking off feathers, due to which birds do not gain the necessary weight and even die.
The most famous parasite of this group is Syringophilus bipectinatus, which parasitizes chickens, guinea fowls, turkeys and other birds, causing them to have a specific disease, syringophilosis.
Oribatid mites as carriers of helminthiasis
Oribatides are generally considered to be useful mites involved in soil formation. Millions of them can live in one cubic decimeter of forest soil - they constantly eat up the remains of plants and animals and turn them into a substrate digestible by the plants.
The ability of oribatids to distribute helminth eggs is important. Thus, some species of this group of mites eat the eggs of the Lentets of the Anoplocephalata family, after which the larvae hatch from their bodies in their bodies, and then the mites and plants are eaten by cattle. Already in the digestive tract of the animal, the mites die, and the larvae of the worms are released and penetrated into the intestinal epithelium, causing moniesiosis. This disease slows down the growth of young cows, sheep, goats, reduces milk yields and sometimes even kills animals.
The photo shows a winged mite of the Galumnidae family, a carrier of cattle helminth infections:
In conclusion, we note that even the main groups of ticks are difficult to consider at least briefly. Nevertheless, the above information is already enough to roughly imagine the diversity and the huge number of varieties of ticks, as well as their significance for ecosystems and human life.