Crop production

Apple tree varieties - Sinap Orlovsky

Variety Orlovsky Sinap was launched in 1955 in the All-Union Research Institute. V.I. Michurin. The basis of the new varieties were taken apple Northern Sinap and Michurin's Memory.

The Oryol Sinap passed state tests from 1979 to 1989, and was included in the State Registry in the Central Black Earth, Central, Middle Volga and North-West regions of our country.

The grade is very widespread not only in personal plots, but also in industrial gardening. Therefore, we present to your attention the description, photos and reviews of this variety.

Grade advantages:

  • good winter hardiness
  • unpretentious care,
  • large and tasty fruits,
  • long crop storage,
  • fruiting every year, without frequency.

Disadvantages:

  • sensitivity in soil calcium,
  • strength of the tree, if not graft it on a semi-dwarf or dwarf stock.

Crown width

It is proportional to the height of the tree, and rarely exceeds it.

Crohn young Orlovsky synapse.

Strong, massive, depart from the trunk at right angles, but grow with this up.

Large, pubescent, oval. Can be both flat and convex.

Variety description

The main advantage of apple trees of the Sinap Orlovsky variety is fruits that have an unusually pleasant honey taste and the following parameters:

Description of apple varieties"Sinap Orlovsky":

  1. Power-growing (up to 8 m in height) trees of this variety have a sprawling wide crown, always proportional to their height, largely dependent on the stock on which the seedling was formed. The most widespread are semi-dwarf trees, not exceeding 5 meters in height.
  2. Crohn, having a rounded or pyramidal shape, due to the small number of fruit bearing branches does not have a special thickness, which facilitates the care of a tree.
  3. Strong branches, extending at right angles from the trunk, but growing upwards, are characterized by massiveness and a large number of branches.
  4. Dark green pubescent leaves, able to be both convex and flat, have an oval shape and medium size.
  5. Apple trees of the Sinap Orlovsky variety are partially self-bearing trees, requiring the presence of additional pollinators on the site, without which the level of yield may drop by 60%. The best varieties of pollinators for them are varieties "Welsey" and "Antonovka".
  6. During the flowering period, which falls in the middle of May, the apple trees of this variety strike with an abundance of large pale pink flowers, in which the pistil stigma is located below the anthers, in rare cases at their level.

Suitable region and climate

Despite the fact that more than six decades have passed since the creation of the Sinap Orlovsky variety, it is considered relatively new, since it passed the state certification only in 1979.

Another 10 years were required for the zoning of the variety in the following regions of the Russian Federation:

  • Central,
  • Central Black Earth,
  • Middle Volga
  • Northwest.

Apple varieties of this variety are also successfully grown in six regions of the Republic of Belarus: both in private household plots and in industrial gardens.

Inference history

Sort "Sinap" has two types: "Sinap Orlovsky" and "Sinap northern".

The author of the variety “Sinap Severny”, bred in 1927 by free pollination of seedlings obtained from the seeds of the Michurin variety Kandil-Kitayka, is an outstanding breeder S. I. Isaev. In the work on the variety he was helped by the staff of the Research Institute of Horticulture them. Michurin and naturalists biostation them. K.A. Timiryazeva.

Sort "Sinap Orlovsky", obtained in 1955 on the basis of the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding Fruit Crops and the All-Union Research Institute of Horticulture. I. Michurin by crossing parental varieties "Sinap Severny" and "Michurin's Memory", is a high-yielding crop with a taste of the northern synapa.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of Sinap Orlovsky apple trees are presented:

  1. Skoroplodnost, giving the opportunity to receive the first fruits in the fourth year after planting seedlings.
  2. High and stable yield.
  3. Excellent transportability, long-term keeping quality, high taste and commodity qualities of the fruit.
  4. Good winter hardiness, allowing trees to tolerate winter frosts down to -28 degrees.

The disadvantages of the Sinap Orlovsky variety are:

  1. In the large size of trees requiring large planting areas.
  2. In the presence of additional pollinators, without which the yield can be reduced to 40%.
  3. In high sensitivity to a lack of calcium in the soil. To avoid problems, before planting an apple of this variety, it is necessary to perform soil analysis. Otherwise, the entire crop may be damaged by bitter pitting, a disease that provokes the indentation of dark brown spots on the surface of the fruit.
  4. In low resistance to disease (especially scab and powdery mildew) and damage from pests.

Growing up

Given the massiveness of adult trees, the place for planting a seedling should be quite spacious (between plants should be left at least 5-7 m), protected from the wind and well lit. The presence of partial shade is allowed.

Lack of illumination can lead to lower yields and sugar content of apples.

For the cultivation of apple varieties "Sinap Orlovsky" fit:

  • sandy soil
  • loam,
  • leached black soil,
  • sandy soil (subject to annual fertilization).

If the soil on the site is too heavy and oily, it is necessary to add sand to it: such a measure will help improve the moisture and air permeability of the soil. In the sandy soil will be useful to add some amount of black soil.

The acidity of the soil (pH level) can vary between 5.7-6.0. The soil should be moisture-absorbing and breathable, the groundwater level should be no higher than 2 meters, because the apple trees do not tolerate prolonged stagnation of moisture in the soil. Seedlings grown on the site with the existing threat of flooding, need good drainage or planting on a hill.

The best time for planting seedlings varieties "Sinap Orlovsky" is the second decade of September - mid-October. For autumn planting, it is advisable to use seedlings of three or four years of age, since they tolerate low winter temperatures rather well.

Some gardeners prefer to plant apple trees in mid-April, when the soil will thaw out and the threat of spring frosts will pass (due to them, the young planting material may not take root).

For spring planting, it is better to use one-two-year-old seedlings with good adaptability to new growing conditions. Those who decide to plant young trees in spring should know that it is necessary to do this before the start of active sap flow, that is, until mid-May.

Preparation of landing holes

  1. Planting pits for seedlings are prepared two weeks before planting.
  2. Their optimum depth is 80 cm, length and width - 1 m.
  3. The bottom of the pit should be carefully loosened with a rake, and then a drainage from expanded clay or fragments of brick should be placed on it.
  4. A layer of dry grass or leaves, humus or sawdust is laid on top of the drainage.
  5. After that, a fertilizer mixture is prepared from four parts of fertile land and one part of wood ash and rotted manure (it is unacceptable to use fresh manure to avoid damage to the roots). 80 grams of superphosphate and 40 grams of potassium sulfate are added to a well-mixed mixture.Carefully mixing the fertilizer again, it is poured into the landing pit. After this manipulation, it must be filled to one third.

Step by step landing instructions

Photo landing scheme:

Preparing seedlings for planting, carefully inspect their roots, removing all damaged and dry, and then pour them with water for 4-5 hours, giving the root system the opportunity to be saturated with moisture.

This action, contributing to the acceleration of growth of seedlings, significantly improves its survival rate.

Instruction:

  1. 2-3 buckets of water are poured into the planting hole and wait at least two hours, allowing the soil to settle.
  2. A little fertile soil is poured into the center of the prepared pit so that a small (no more than 20 cm high) slide is formed.
  3. Prepared seedling is lowered into the pit, making sure that its root neck is not less than 5-6 cm below ground level.
  4. Next to the seedling, they drive a peg 80-100 cm high and attach a young plant to it, making sure that it is positioned strictly vertically. Thanks to the support, the seedling will not sway from the wind and its thin suction roots will remain intact.
  5. Carefully straighten the roots, sprinkle them with soil and lightly tamp.
  6. Around the stem form an earthen roller with a height of not more than 10 cm.
  7. When spring planting, it is permissible to thrash the trunk circle with a small amount of fresh manure, departing 10 cm from the trunk of the young plant.
  8. Sapling plentifully watered. The rate of watering - 30-40 liters per tree.

Collection and storage

Sinap Orlovsky variety apples are harvested (depending on the growing region) in late September - early October. Experienced gardeners do not recommend harvesting fruits before this period, as this can not only significantly impair their taste, but also significantly reduce their shelf life.

The great advantage of the variety is that mature fruits are not showered from the branches, but are kept on them thanks to durable fruit stems. This circumstance contributes to the success of the subsequent storage of apples, which can lie until the end of spring, without losing any of their taste or commodity qualities.

To store apples of this winter variety, you need a cool, dry room. Poured with dry wood shavings or wrapped in paper, they are stored in small wooden boxes or in cardboard boxes with special openings for air exchange.

Apple trees of the Sinap Orlovsky variety, though belong to the category of unpretentious crops, but for a bountiful harvest they need competent care, consisting of regular watering, competent pruning and timely application of fertilizers and fertilizers.

Peculiarities of feeding

Apple trees varieties "Sinap Orlovsky" must be fertilized at least four times a year:

  • in early spring, after wintering,
  • after the final formation of the kidneys,
  • immediately after flowering
  • after collecting all the fruits.

The first top dressing of a young plant is carried out next spring after its landing. As a fertilizer, a mixture of manure (horse, sheep, cow, rabbit or pig) with garden soil (at the rate of 700 g of manure per bucket) is used.

As soon as buds appear on the tree, 500 g of urea are scattered over the surface of the basal circle, after which the soil around the tree is carefully dug.

At the end of flowering, apple trees need to be injected with a liquid top-dressing prepared from urea (60 g), superphosphate (100 g), calcium (40 g) dissolved in 10 liters of water. A fertile mixture prepared by dissolving 50 g of superphosphate, 500 g of bird droppings and 1 kg of liquid mullein in 10 l of water has no less efficiency.

After collecting the fruits, each apple tree is watered with a solution prepared from 50 g of superphosphate and 10 liters of water.

Trimming rules

During the period of intensive growth, young plants need periodic pruning:

  1. After the first year of cultivation, the branches of young apple trees are cut to one third (approximately 20-25 cm) and all shoots that have appeared on them during the summer are removed.
  2. The following year, in the spring, only three tiers of branches are left on young trees, the rest are cut.
  3. In subsequent years, pruning performed in such a way as to identify the skeleton of the crown, which plays the role of the central conductor. No less important is the role of sanitary pruning, saving the apple from dry, broken, as well as from diseased and pest branches.
  4. Branches on adult trees in the fall pruned at 45-50 cm.

Specificity of watering

Proper watering is the key to a bountiful harvest. Its rules are simple:

  1. Throughout the spring and summer, apple trees of the Sinap Orlovsky variety must be watered at least 4-5 times a month, that is, weekly.
  2. The rate of watering for a young apple tree is from 20 to 30 liters of water.
  3. For uniform distribution of moisture in the soil after each watering, the ground of the trunk circle must be carefully loosened.
  4. Before watering, it is advisable to ensure the integrity of the earthen roller enclosing the trunk circle: it will help to retain moisture in the area where the roots lie.

Preparing for the winter

Apple trees of the Sinap Orlovsky variety have good frost resistance, allowing them to endure even very harsh winters with strong winds: weather conditions will not affect the yield of next year.

As for young plants (especially trees of the first year of cultivation), they should be covered for the winter, using a thick layer of dry grass for covering the trunk circle, and breathable covering material for wrapping the trunk. It is necessary to remove it in early spring to avoid rotting of the trunk.

Rodents, hares and mice, which are capable of completely destroying the bark and thus destroying the trees, pose a great danger to the apple trees. Protection of apple trees from rodents is best done no later than November (in the southern regions this is possible until December).

To do this, you can:

  1. Fence the barrel with a fine metal mesh (not less than 120 cm high) by digging it into the soil at a depth of 30 cm.
  2. Wrap the barrel with polyethylene, sacking or roofing felt.
  3. To tie up the trunk and low skeletal branches with spruce twigs (needles down), after which, somewhat deeper below the level of the soil, sprinkle it with earth.

As a means of repelling rodents and hung on the lower branches, you can use:

  • plastic bags,
  • twisted ribbons cut from tin cans (colliding with each other, they will create noise),
  • plastic bottles with drilled holes and mothballs poured into them (its smell will scare away animals).

Description of the apple tree Sinap Orlovsky

Sinap is of two kinds - North and Orlovsky.

The Northern variety was bred by S.I. Isaev at the biological station of young naturalists named after KA Timiryazev. It was obtained by pollination from seeds of the variety Kandil-Kitayka in 1927.

The Oryol variety is bred from the Severny variety, therefore it possesses the same taste qualities and has a high yield.. This variety was obtained in 1955 at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Breeding of Fruit Crops and the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Horticulture. I.V. Michurin by crossing the Northern Sinap and the variety Memory of Michurin.

Ripening and yield

Northern and Orlovsky Sinap has a high yield. On average, from one tree receive up to 200 kilograms of apples. Ripe fruits begin to collect from the beginning of the first decade of October. The period of the first harvest may vary depending on the type of climate and weather of the region in which this variety grows.

The period of full fruiting in the trees comes not too early. The first apples appear only in the fourth year of apple cultivation.

Over time, the apple of this variety quickly increase the level of yield. Every year the number of ripe apples increases, if in the first year they collect 100 kg, then next year this figure will increase by 2 times. However, abundant fruiting can adversely affect the size of apples.

Size of apples Sinap Orlovsky

Apple description

Sinap Orlovsky apple variety has the following qualities:

  • The size of ripe fruit is average, weight is 150 grams,
  • Ripe fruits, ready to be taken from a tree, have a yellow-green tint.. And after storage, the fruits become golden yellow,
  • If the tree is on the sunny side, a soft pink blush with blur appears on ripe apples,
  • The peel has a dense structure,
  • Ripe apples are oily and smooth to the touch.

The apple variety Northern Sinap has the following characteristics:

  1. Mature fruits have different forms, the weight of one fruit is 120 grams,
  2. The surface of the peel is smooth, there is oiliness,
  3. The color of ripe apples is yellow-green, sometimes there is a dark red blush,
  4. The flesh has a juicy, loose structure,
  5. The pulp has a wonderful taste, due to the harmonious combination of acid and sweetness, juiciness and tenderness.

The ripened fruit contains a reduced percentage of sugar. The level of total sugar is 9.5%. After a final period of maturation during maturation, the level of the ratio of sugars and acids acquires equilibrium. During this period, apples have a rich taste with a slightly sour taste. The caloric value of 100 grams of apples does not exceed 50 kilocalories.

Ripe apples Sinapa Severny and Orlovsky have high beneficial properties. They contain a high level of vitamins, microelements. When storing do not lose their useful properties.

Sinap apples on a bush

Apple Sinap - partly samoplodnoe tree. Many gardeners are advised to improve the level of yield, to grow nearby pollinators. For the Northern Sinapa, Antonovka, Pepin Saffron, Slavyanka are considered suitable options.

For Sinap Orlovsky are suitable Antonovka and Welsey.

Regions of natural growth

In Russia, suitable areas for growing Sinapa Severny are the following:

  • Central Black Earth,
  • Lower Volga
  • On the stanted forms in the region of Eastern Siberia.

Sinapa Orlovsky variety is suitable for planting in the territories:

  1. Central,
  2. Central Black Earth,
  3. Middle Volga
  4. North-West region of Russia.

In addition, this variety is actively grown in six regions of Belarus.

Crown formation

Trees of the Northern and Orlovsky Sinap varieties have the same characteristics:

  1. Strong height and large size
  2. The shape of the crown pyramid with spreading branches. For this reason, before planting it is necessary to allocate the necessary place for growing for seedlings. In the future, this will ensure full growth through the receipt of all necessary components,
  3. The size of the height of an adult tree is from 3 to 5 meters,
  4. Shoots have a dark brown color, their thickness is average. They are lowered down. Cranked form. The leaves are rarely located.
  5. The shade of the leaves is green or dark green. Size - medium, in shape they are wide, slightly elongated, lowered down. The edges of the leaf blade are raised up,
  6. The main branches from the trunk depart in the perpendicular direction, the ends have an upper direction.

Planting rules seedlings

A suitable time for planting saplings of Sinap Severny and Orlovsky apple varieties is the period from mid-September to mid-October.

Seedlings can be planted in the spring. If the apple tree is planted in the spring, then the planting should begin in the first half of April. In the spring it is worth planting when the threat of freezing is completely over, otherwise the seedlings may not settle down.

The main features of the landing:

  • Pits for seedlings need to be done in 14 days for planting,
  • The depth of the holes should be at least 80 cm, and the size of the length and width of each well should be at least 1 meter,
  • The bottom of the hole should be loosened with a rake,
  • Then you need to break a brick or expanded clay to small fragments and put it on the bottom of the pit. This will provide additional drainage,
  • Fertile soil in the hole is mixed with rotted manure and wood ash. On ¾ of the land you will need ¼ fertilizer mixture,
  • Then, 40 grams of potassium sulfate and 80 grams of superphosphate should be added to the finished mixture of soil and fertilizer mixture. Everything mixes well
  • After that, this mixture should be poured into a pit for planting. Fertilizer should fill the hole by almost 1/3 part,
  • After falling asleep fertilizer, in the central part you need to add a little bit of earth to form a hill height of 20 cm,

  • After that, the seedling is placed in the hole. The distance of the root collar to the ground should be at least 5-6 cm,
  • We drive a peg near the seedling, the size of its height should be 60-80 cm. A seedling is tied to this peg,
  • Roots carefully straightened, they should not be confused. Then they are covered with earth, tamped, but not hard,
  • Then the seedling is filled with water. One young tree will need up to 3-4 buckets of water.
North Synaph, ready for storage for the winter

It is advisable to plant young planting material of Sinap Severny and Orlovsky apple varieties on loamy, sandy loam soils with high air and moisture permeability.. The main indicator is the remoteness of planting from the flow of groundwater is not less than 2 meters, because the apple trees can not stand the long stagnation of water.

Care rules

Despite the fact that Sinap Severny and Orlovsky are considered unpretentious varieties of apple trees, they still require additional care. If you carry out appropriate and timely care, as a result you can get a good harvest.

During intensive growth of apple trees, it is necessary to do periodic cutting of young trees.

Features pruning trees:

  1. In the first year after planting the seedlings, only a third of the branches are pruned,
  2. A year later, in spring, pruning is carried out so that after it there are three tiers of branches left,
  3. In subsequent periods, the circumcision procedure is performed so that there is only one main conductor in the end.

Pruning of young trees is done on 20-25 cm, adults on 45-50 cm. During pruning, dry and damaged branches are necessarily removed.

Watering rules

In order for the tree to constantly bear fruit and give a good harvest, it is necessary to water it properly:

  • During spring and summer, trees are watered at least 4-5 times a month,
  • One young tree is required to pour out up to 2-3 buckets of water,
  • After each irrigation procedure it is necessary to break through the soil. This ensures proper moisture distribution,
  • Before irrigation, be sure to make a circle around the trunk, due to this water will be better absorbed.
Apple tree pruning scheme

Features feeding

Sinap Severny and Orlovsky are fertilized 4 times a year:

  1. After the winter period,
  2. After the formation of the kidneys,
  3. After flowering,
  4. After a full harvest.

How to fertilize apple trees:

  • The first fertilizer is done next spring after planting the seedling. During this period, a mixture of fertilizer is added to the soil - 700 grams of manure is added to 1 bucket of soil,
  • As the first buds appear in the near-stem circle of each tree, 500 grams of urea must be dispensed, then the hole is dug,
  • After the flowering period is over, trees should be fertilized with a special solution. The composition of the fertile solution includes 100 grams of superphosphate, 60 grams of urea, 40 grams of calcium. All these components are diluted in 10 liters of water. You can fertilize another no less fertile mixture - a kilogram of liquid mullein, 500 grams of bird droppings, 40-50 grams of superphosphate is added to 10 liters of water,
  • As the crop is harvested, fertilizer is applied to the soil. 30-50 grams of superphosphate is added to 10 liters of water.

Diseases and pests

Often, Sinapa Severny and Orlovsky develop scab and powdery mildew.Trees show moderate resistance to these lesions. Therefore, be sure to provide full protection against these lesions.

Apple Powder Dew

Rules for the protection and prevention of diseases from scab and powdery mildew:

  1. Works to prevent lesions and diseases of apple trees are carried out in the autumn,
  2. Mandatory control of the state of branches and the integrity of the bark of the trunk,
  3. Cutting off dried branches and damaged parts
  4. Places of trimming in young trees are sealed with chalk, in adults - with lime mortar,
  5. After a complete harvest of apples, the crowns are sprayed with a 3-5% solution of blue vitriol,
  6. In the period of early spring before the buds start blooming, spraying is done from a solution of Fitosporin M or 1% Bordeaux liquid.

With a lack of calcium in the soil, Sinapa apples are affected by bitter pitting. To saturate the land during the pouring and ripening of the fruit, it is recommended to use the drug in liquid form - Kalbit C. 6-8 ml of the drug is added to 10 liters of water. Spraying is carried out in the evening. Sprayed from the top, gradually falling to the bottom.

To fight with moth a wormwood solution is used. To do this, tincture is made from wormwood, then 25 ml of tincture is added to 10 liters of water and trees are sprayed with this solution. Spraying begins 4-5 weeks before harvest. Spraying is carried out 2 times at intervals of 7 days.

Sinap apple variety is winter versionwhich has good yields. It can be planted in regions with a harsh climate, because trees have high frost resistance.

Of course, in order to get a good harvest, you must follow the rules of planting, care and further cultivation. Do not forget to feed and spray the trees, it will protect against damage from diseases and pests.

Yield

Above average. With good care reaches 130-170 kg from an adult tree.

Large, 140-170 gr., with a dense shiny skin and a small blush. During removal, the apples are yellow-green in color and become golden yellow during storage. The flesh is pale green, loose and juicy. The taste of the fruit is harmonious, with a slight sourness.

Fruits of the Oryol synapa.

Disease resistance

Averageincluding apple scab. Tree may be affected by scab in summer or autumnin particularly wet months.

The Oryol synap needs scab treatments.

Important! The prevention and treatment of fungal diseases can be carried out by means containing beneficial bacteria (Fitosporin, Alirin, Haman). Fruits from treated wood can be eaten on the same day.

See a brief review of winter apple varieties (including the Oryol Synapa) in the video below:

Gardeners reviews

Elena T, 37 years old, city of Moscow. “Orlovsky Sinap is the latest apple tree in our garden. We harvest at the beginning of October, before the first frost, and we immediately store it for storage.

Freshly picked apples are sour and tough, but when they lie down for a couple of months, they become much tastier! As I explained, all later varieties are: ripen during storage. We eat them until April, and we are very happy about it.

I grow without chemicals and fertilizers, so that there is one benefit .. "

Vasily Ivanovich, Nizhny Novgorod. I have two Sinapas: Oryol and North. He himself planted them on a seedling, grown from seeds, and took a graft from a neighbor.

The most delicious of them is Orlovsky, and the apple is larger. But do not like that trees grew huge. They occupy more than a hundred of the earth, and to cut off a hand strongly does not rise.

But he pulled a hammock between them, the branches were thick, and the trunk was strong — they could withstand. ”

Tatyana. Saratov. ‟In our city, the Privolzhie Gardens are selling Sinap, selling them from gazelle all winter. It is unlikely that they would plant bad varieties. Juicy apples, a little bit sour, decided to plant these in the country. ”

Like all apple trees, Orlovsky Sinap loves fertile, breathable soil. Does not tolerate marshiness and high standing of groundwater.Under the landing choose well lit placeprotected from strong northern winds.

Autumn planting preferred for an apple tree 3-4 years old, winter hardy varieties.

Such “adult” seedlings are less likely to adapt to new living conditions, but they tolerate frosts better.

Do it in late September - mid October months before the onset of frosts.

Apple trees of 3-4 years old are planted in autumn.

Watch the video on how to plant an apple tree in the fall:

Spring landing will fit 1-2 summer seedlings, not very resistant to winter frosts, but more flexible to the growing conditions.

Begin it in the middle of Aprilafter thawing the soil, and finish in the middle of May, to the abundant sap of trees.

Tip! A tree of 1-2 years of age is less sick when planting and takes root better than 3-4 years old.
On how to plant an apple tree in the spring, watch the following video:

The five main rules when planting an apple tree so that she exactly caught on:

  1. Do not dig in the vaccination site. cutting - it should be 5-7 cm above the soil,
  2. Tie a seedling to a peg. Wind swaying saplings, and at the same time may suck off small sucking roots,
  3. Do not add fresh manure to the planting pit. - “burned” the roots. They can thrash out the trunk circle, retreating from the trunk 10 cm., And only during spring planting,
  4. When planting in autumn, cover the tree for the winter white coating material
  5. Planting an apple tree in heavy, fat land, add sand to it - this will increase the moisture and air permeability of the soil. Add black soil to the sandy soil.

For a tree to grow well and produce a rich harvest, you need take care of his health and growth conditions.

Sinap Orlovsky - unpretentious variety of apple trees, and does not require much attention. Care of it consists in pruning of the crown, watering in dry weather and spring-winter dressing (if desired).

The only feature of this apple is a high calcium requirement, which she takes from the soil. Without this trace element, the yield of the tree is reduced. Determine the lack of calcium can be a bluish shade of the leaves, their darkening and twisting.

Important! Heavy soils are more saturated with calcium than sandy.

Calcium fertilizers will help to fill the lack of calcium:

  • a piece of chalk,
  • dolomite flour,
  • slaked lime,
  • crushed eggshell.

Crown pruning can be done in early spring or late autumn, but before the onset of persistent frosts.

Summer you can only delete severely diseased branches, carefully smearing the garden cutting place trim.

Autumn and spring remove the tops (branches growing vertically up) and damaged branches.

Tops should be removed.

The history of apple cultivation varieties "Sinap Orlovsky"

The Sinap Orlovsky apple tree variety was bred in 1955 by the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops. There was a crossing of apple trees of the Michurin Memory and the Northern Synapse varieties. Worked on the creation of varieties: N. G. Krasova, V. K. Zaets, E. N. Sedov, T. A. Trofimova.

Tree description

Apple trees "Sinap Orlovsky" have a description of how trees with quite large in size and size.

They have a wide crown and massive branches. The main branches of the crown are rare - this greatly facilitates the care of trees and ensures the collection of high-quality crops. But despite this, the apple tree requires periodic pruning. The main branches grow at a right angle, the branches are directed upwards. The bark of apple trees is rough and gray. The shoots of the plant are dark brown in color, with wide, large leaves, which are characterized by a rare arrangement and dark green color. Blooming large buds of light pink color.

Fruit Description

Apple fruits are large, oblong, with a strong, shiny, oily surface. The color of the fruit of the apple tree “Sinap Orlovsky” is yellow-green during the harvest period, and golden-yellow during the ripening period.The seeds of the fruit are brown, small.

Terms and area for growing

Given that over time, the sapling grows large enough, you need to find a suitable spacious place for planting. The distance from one tree to another must be at least 7 meters. Apple tree will feel good in the sun, but can be planted in partial shade. If there is a lack of light, it is possible to decrease the yield of the tree and the sugar content of the fruit.

For normal development, it is better to plant an apple tree:

  • on leached chernozem,
  • loamy and sandy soils,
  • With annual fertilization, an apple tree can be planted on sandy soil.
The acidity of the soil should be weak - to pH 5.7 - 6.0, the soil - breathable and moisture-consuming, there should be no stagnation of water. With the existing threat of flooding, it is necessary to drain or plant on a hill.

The time suitable for planting the Orlovsky Synaph apple variety is considered mid September - mid October. But you can also land in the spring, then the landing begins in the first half of April.

Step-by-step process of planting seedlings

Planting should take place with the consideration that the seedling is growing rapidly. The tree needs a sufficiently lit place and a large space, so it must be planted away from tall trees.

What kind is it?

Oryol Sinap belongs to the late winter variety. Apple tree is a group of winter-hardy species. Fruit storage periods are considered high. However, in order to increase these periods, it is necessary to provide them with proper storage for the winter:

  • optimal temperature is zero,
  • storage in wooden containers (racks, containers, boxes),
  • dark room
  • relative humidity 90-95%
  • preliminary calibration by the size of the fruit,
  • Each variety is stored in separate containers.

"Sinap Orlovsky" is self-fertile. This is one of the biggest advantages.

Regardless of weather and climatic conditions, this variety will produce stable yields.

But the presence in the vicinity of apple pollen of another variety will further increase the productivity of Sinapa.

Ideally, plant lanes of two varieties at a distance of five meters from one another.

Characteristic

The grade is popular both in industrial gardens, and in private. Apple fruits are famous for their high biological value and excellent organoleptic properties. It is also interesting to read about the most common varieties of apples: "Bogatyr", "Orlik", "Welsey", "Spartan", "Dream", "Melba", "White filling", "Candy", "Mantet", "Antonovka and Sunrise And Semerenko.

Spraying against pests and diseases

To defeats with powdery mildew and scab "Sinap Orlovsky" has medium stability.

Mealy dew is a fungal disease. It is manifested by the appearance of white bloom (fungus) on the leaves. It is desirable to prevent infection and spreading of powdery mildew, otherwise it will completely absorb the tree. Colloidal sulfur and copper compounds are used to prevent and destroy this type of fungus. It is also necessary to destroy the affected parts of the tree. The pruning places are covered with chalk in young plants, lime mortar - in adults.

Scab - a type of fungus that appears due to high humidity or air stagnation in the tree crown. The first scab infects the leaves, and then the fruit. Signs of infection are: the appearance of green-brown spots on the leaves, and soon on the fruits. Preventing the appearance of scab fungi - disinfection and fertilization of the soil.

The Orlovsky Sinap apple variety is also susceptible to a disease called bitter pit. The reason for the development of this disease can be high humidity, late harvest, improper storage of fruits, low calcium content in the soil, as well as excess nitrogen fertilizers. The disease manifests itself in the form of depressed dark brown spots and can affect the fetus both on the tree and during storage.For prevention, the plant is sprayed during the growing season with calcium chloride. To prevent infection, it is necessary to harvest in time and store the fruit properly.

Fertilization

Apple tree "Sinap Orlovsky" requires fertilization not only during planting, but also during the care of the plant.

Trees are fertilized four times a year:

  • at the end of the winter period
  • upon completion of kidney formation,
  • after flowering,
  • when harvested.

Apple fertilizer rules:

  1. After planting, the tree is fertilized next spring with a mixture of manure and soil at a ratio of 700 g per 1 bucket.
  2. With the advent of buds, urea crumbles into the tree near the trunk, and the soil is dug up.
  3. After a flowering period, the tree is fertilized with a fertile solution. It consists of (per 10 liters of water): urea - 60 g, superphosphate - 100 g, calcium - 40 g.
  4. When the crop is harvested, the apple tree Sinap Orlovsky is fertilized with a solution of superphosphate: 10 liters of water plus 40 g of superphosphate.

Cropping and crown formation

When active growth begins, the branches on young trees need to be cut. At the end of the year, only a third of the branches should be cut. Pruning of young trees is 20-25 cm. At the end of the year pruning is carried out in such a way that the branches in three tiers are left. In the future, the tree is cut, so that only one conductor remains. Pruning of mature apple trees is carried out at 40-45 cm. Be sure to remove damaged and dry branches.

Protection against mice and hares

In the period from November to December, care must be taken to protect the apple trees from mice and rabbits. They gnaw the bark of a tree, leaving the trunk almost naked, which is the cause of the death of the tree.

Pest Control Techniques:

  1. The fence of the trunk of a fine metal wire mesh. A net with a height of 120 cm is suitable, it is better to bury it in the ground by 30 cm. Before the frost, you can wrap the barrel with roofing felt, burlap or polyethylene. An equally effective way would be to wrap the trunk with fir branches.
  2. The use of deterring agents can also help in solving this problem. You can hang plastic bags on the lower branches, cut out cans of ribbons, twist them in a spiral and hang them on the lower branches so that they create noise by hitting each other. You can also hang bottles with holes in which to put naphthalene - it will scare off rodents.

The story of the appearance of the apple tree Sinap Orlovsky

The Sinap Orlovsky variety was obtained more than 50 years ago - in 1955 - by the breeders of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Breeding of Fruit Crops and the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Horticulture. I.V. Michurin. Authors - E.N. Sedov, V.K. Zaets, T.A. Trofimova and N.G. Krasova - got a new variety, crossing an apple-tree Sinap north with Michurin's Memory. Since 1979, a new apple tree began to pass state tests, and 10 years later it was zoned in the Central, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga and North-West regions. In addition, Sinap Orlovsky is recommended for cultivation in six regions of Belarus. Apple tree has become very popular, especially in central Russia. It is grown not only in amateur gardens, but also on the scale of commodity production.

Features of planting and growing

In order to obtain guaranteed abundant crops, you need to properly plant a tree and properly care for it.

Planting apple trees is recommended in the fall (the second decade of September - the first half of October). But you can postpone planting in the spring, which is suitable for regions with a short fall and early winter. Spring planting should not be done before the soil is completely thawed and warms up (the second half of April).

The soil should be fertile and powerful enough; loam is best suited. It should be borne in mind that the lack of calcium in the soil provokes the disease of apples with bitter pitting.

Since the trees of Sinapa Orlovsky are large, there should be enough space for the sapling: the distance to the neighboring trees should be 4–5 m.

The pit for the seedling should be ready at least 2 weeks before planting. Its dimensions are 0.8–1 m in depth and 1 m in diameter. Preparation is carried out as follows:

  1. The bottom of the pit loosened, driven into the center of the landing stake.
  2. Pour a layer of brick dust to ensure good drainage.

When preparing the landing pit, lay a layer of gravel or broken brick on the bottom to provide drainage.

  1. Sapling before planting carefully inspect and remove all dried roots. When the roots are very dry, we place the tree in water for a few hours. If the entire seedling is dried, immerse it in water for 12–24 hours.
  2. All matted roots applefly gently straighten.
  3. We install the tree in a hole so that the root collar remains above the soil surface.
  4. Roots fall asleep riding nutrient soil, trying to fill all the gaps. Each layer of soil slightly compacted hands.
  5. Tie the tree to a peg with a strip of fabric and pour 3-4 buckets of water.

Tree care

Despite its unpretentiousness to the growing conditions, Sinap Orlovsky needs simple care to get the maximum yield.

At a young age, the apple tree grows rapidly and needs pruning. In the second year after landing, the formation of a crown should begin. In the first year, this is not worth doing, as the tree will be difficult to recover. 2–3 most developed branches are selected and form the first tier of them. In the next 2–3 years, the next tiers are formed in the same way, each 50–60 cm above the previous one.

The overall height of the tree can be slightly reduced by lowering the conductor: when the central conductor reaches a height of 2–2.5 m, it is cut into a side branch.

The crown of the apple tree is formed successively during the first 5–6 years, the center conductor is shortened at a more adult age

Further care of the crown is the timely removal of diseased and dry branches. This procedure (sanitary pruning) can be performed at any time of the year as needed.

In early spring or after autumn leaf fall, thickening or incorrectly located branches are removed.

Watering a young tree during the first year after planting should be every 10–12 days (15–20 l of water). Mature trees are watered about once a month.

An adult apple tree needs to be watered once a month on temporary furrows around the trunk.

After watering, the ground is loosened, cleaned of weeds and mulched with peat or sawdust. Watering is best for small temporary furrows, cut into concentric circles around the tree.

Sinap Orlovsky should be fertilized four times per season: in early spring, during the formation of buds, at the end of flowering and after harvest.

Organic matter is introduced into the first top dressing - 5–6 kg / m 2 (for adult trees 12–15 kg / m 2). When buds appear, 0.5 kg of carbamide is distributed on the surface of the earth in the near-barking circle and mixed with soil with forks.

Carbamide feeds apple tree after the appearance of buds

After flowering, the apple tree is fed with a mixture of 0.1 kg of superphosphate, 60 g of urea and 40 g of calcium chloride, dissolved in a bucket of water. You can use a different composition - 1 kg of mullein, 0.5 kg of chicken manure and 20–25 g of double superphosphate per 10 liters of water.

In case of calcium deficiency (one of the signs is bitter pitting of the fruits), the apple tree can be sprayed with a solution of calcium chloride (30-40 g per bucket of water).

When all the fruits have been collected, 3-4 buckets of water are added to the soil, 30-50 g of superphosphate is dissolved in each of them.

Nutrients need to be brought to the circle

Features of fruiting

Like most apple trees, Sinap Orlovsky self-infertile varietyneeding a pollinator. Most suitable for this grade:

  • Pepin Saffron,
  • Synapse North,
  • Zhigulevskoe,
  • Antonovka,
  • Welsey.

Apple tree Sinap Orlovsky quickly comes into fruition and gives the first harvest for 4-5 year after landing. Even earlier, in the 3rd year after planting, the dwarf tree form fruits. A sapling on a strong-growing stock will give the first apple only for 5-6 years.

Apples ripen in time from late September to early October. Fruiting is not stretched, all fruits can be collected from a tree at a time. An apple is considered ripe if its stem is easily separated from the branch.

Ripe Sinapa Orlovsky apples.

Annual fruit bearing, even in an adult tree. Fruit buds are formed not only on short and long fruit twigs, but also on simple and complex ringworms.

Semi-dwarf

The classic cultivation option Orlovsky Sinapa - on semi-dwarf stock.

This speeds up the period of entry into fruiting up to 4-5 years after planting, and reduces gigantic growth of a tree to 4-5-5 meters in height.

In apple trees grown on semi-dwarf rootstock shallow root system, penetrating into the soil 2.5-3 meters deep.

Growing region

The natural growth zones are several regions of Belarus and the following regions of Russia:

  • Northwestern,
  • Middle Volga
  • Central.

The variety gets along well in other regions with proper planting and compliance with the elementary rules of care (see below).

On strong-growing stock

Saplings grown on strong-growing rootstock reach 5.5-6 meters in height, they have deep root systemable to reach deep water sources. These trees late in fruiting, but also live longer - up to 45 years.

On clone stock

Champion in growth and simplicity - seedlings grown on clone rootstock (from seeds of tall and viable apple trees).

These trees reach 7 meters in heightand spread their crown 5-6 meters wide.

Such apple trees extremely unpretentious, live up to 60 years, little affected by disease, but late bear fruit - up to the 10th year of life, and give less "commodity" apples.

IMPORTANT! In especially productive years the size of apples can become less. To avoid this, gardeners cut off part of the ovaries, rationing the crop.

Dwarf

For areas with high groundwater level, apple trees on a dwarf rootstock are suitable. Their root system does not go below 1.5-2 meters deep, so it requires a garter to the stakes in the first 2-3 years after planting.

Growth "Dwarf" seedlings does not exceed 2.5-3 meters, they first of all will enter fructification - for 2-3 years after planting.

A close "relative" of the Sinap Orlovsky variety is Sinap Severny. They are similar in many respects, but the latter has smaller fruits.

Where to buy seedlings?

Any planting material better to buy in official nurserieslocated in the same climatic zone. This is especially true of seedlings grown to 3-4 years of age. It’s harder for them to get used to new conditions, especially colder ones.

For guaranteed good fruiting, purchase seedlings in nurseries.

You can buy a tree from private gardeners who grow seedlings for sale. But then you have to hope for the honesty of the seller.

Attention! Buying an apple tree through an online store is not always the best choice, because even a high-quality sapling can suffer during mail transportation, dry out or break off.

Useful tips

  1. Planting young sapling, do not water it in a cup once in 5 days. From over-wetting the roots do not get oxygen, the tree grows worse and can die,
  2. Gentle sprouts of young apple trees “love” aphids very much. So that the ants could not transfer it to the branches, wrap the stem of the tree sticky trap belt. This measure will save the apple tree for the whole summer,
  3. If you doubt the number of necessary fertilizer - make a smaller dose is better than a larger one. Due to the abundance of top dressing a chemical burn can occur in an apple tree,
  4. Take out all diseased branches, leaves, and fruits over the area and burn. Spores of fungal plants are able to be carried through the air, infecting other plantings,
  5. To harvest from high branches will help a special device - "fruit tree". It can be purchased at the store or do it yourself.

Apple Sinap Orlovsky grade

Sinap Orlovsky - late winter variety of apple trees, obtained in 1955 in the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding of Fruit Crops and the All-Union Research Institute of Horticulture. I.V.

Michurin as a result of the crossing of two famous varietal apple trees - the Northern Synapse and the Memory of Michurin. The authors of this variety are domestic breeders: Sedov EN, Trofimova T.A.

, Zayets V.K. and Krasova N.G.

Sinap Orlovsky was adopted for State testing in 1979, and 10 years later it was zoned in the Central, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga and North-West regions of our country, as well as in six regions of Belarus. The most widespread apple tree was in central Russia, not only in private gardens, but also in industrial gardens.

Trees of this variety are large in size, so when you set a plot for them you need to allocate a lot of free space. Apple trees have a broad crown and rather massive spreading branches.

Due to the rare arrangement of the main branches, the crown does not become too thick, which undoubtedly facilitates the care of the tree and contributes to the collection of high-quality crops.

However, trees need periodic pruning and shaping. For this apple is characterized by the discharge of the main branches from the trunk at a right angle, the ends of the branches are directed upwards.

The surface of the bark on the shtambe and skeletal branches is rough, gray.

Shoots of dark brown color, medium thickness, strongly pubescent, articulated, with rarely located leaves, faceted in cross section. Chechevichek is small and small in size. Buds are large, pubescent, pressed, have a conical shape.

Sinapa Orlovsky is characterized by a mixed type of fruiting: on simple and complex rings, short and long fruit twigs. The leaves are large, broad, dark green, pubescent, obovate, almost flat, with a pointed base of a wide wedge shape.

The surface of the leaves may be flat or convex. Along the edge of the sheet is wavy, serrate-crenate, crenate at the base. The tips of the leaves are twisted, the edges are raised. The scapes are short, the stipules are large, of lanceolate shape, approximately the same length with the scapes.

A significant part of the leaves on the shoot is drooping, departing at an obtuse angle to the shoot.

In spring, the trees of this variety become the main decoration of the garden due to large flowers of delicate light pink color. The buds have a white-pink hue, the petals are closed, the stigma of the pistil is often below the anthers, much less often - on the same level with them.

The fruit of the apple tree Sinap Orlovsky grows in the majority of a fairly large size or clearly greater than the average size (the weight of an apple is on average 150 grams). All apples are the same size, rounded conical oblong shape, with a slightly beveled top and blunt ribs.

The peel on the fruit is dense, the surface is glossy, smooth, with a slight oily sheen. On the peel of an apple, you can easily see the large subcutaneous points of white color. During the removal period, the main color of the fruit is yellowish-green, after a short storage it becomes golden yellow.

The cover color of apples is visible only from their sunny side in the form of a soft, blurred blush. The funnel has a narrow, sharply conical shape, there is no rusting. The stem can be short or medium length. Fruits with a deep saucer, fringed with ribs of rather large size.

In most cases, the calyx in apples is closed, but in large fruits it can be open or half-open.Heart expressed weakly. Seed chambers can be ajar or closed. The seeds are brown in color, small, pointed shape, ribbed.

Podchashechnaya tube of small size, conical shape.

The flesh of apples has excellent taste due to the harmonious combination of sourness and sweetness, juiciness and delicate, pleasant aroma. In its structure, the flesh is loose, prone to splitting, greenish-cream color.

The average long-term assessment of the taste of the fruit on the tasting scale is 4.4 - 4.7 points. Evaluation of the appearance of apples is 4.3 points.

The chemical composition of the fruit contains: sugar (9.5%), titrated acid (0.52%) pectin substances (8.9%), ascorbic acid (13.7 mg / 100 g), P-active substances (194 mg / 100 g).

The period of removable ripeness of fruits in the middle band is on the last days of September.

The capacity for maturation in apples of this variety is very high, the fruits remain until the end of spring.

This quality is very attractive for commercial cultivation: apples are used by manufacturers of baby food and juices.

Sinapa Orlovsky trees have high rates of winter hardiness and precocity. The average resistance to scab. Young trees grow quite actively, fruiting begins at 4 - 5 years.

Unlike Antonovka, trees of this variety stably bear fruit every year, and not only young apple trees, but also adults. According to VNIISPK, up to 170 centners of crop can be produced from 1 hectare of the garden.

The best pollinators for this variety are Antonovka vulgaris and Welsey.

The obvious advantages of the Sinap Orlovsky apple tree are high consumer and commodity qualities of apples, precociousness, prolonged storage of fruits intact, good level of winter hardiness.

The main disadvantage is the large size of the trees.

Despite the simplicity of care, it is desirable to choose fertile soil for planting Sinapa Oryol. With a low level of calcium in the soil, the fruits are affected by diseases and the taste of apples becomes not entirely pleasant (bitterness appears).

Apple Sinap Orlovsky: description and characteristics of the variety

The synapse is presented in two varieties: Northern and Orlovsky.

The history of the creation of a sort of apple tree of the Sinap Orlovsky type is interesting because it consists of several stages. Breeder S.I.

Isaev in the 20s of the last century brought the Northern synapse. After that, on the basis of it, in the middle of the last century, Orlovsky was bred.

Sinap Orlovsky is an amazing variety, the apple tree has the following description: high-yielding, resembles the fruits of the Northern variety in taste. The first fruits of the tree are formed 4 years after its landing.

Over time, the yield of apple trees increases, increasing annually with proper care twice.

However, it should be borne in mind that excessive fruiting can adversely affect the size and quality of fruits.

Orlovsky's synaptic trees have powerful branches and crown razlohoy. Their height is 3-5 meters. Skeletal branches are rare, which greatly simplifies the process of caring for apple trees and facilitates the collection of ripe fruits.

However, the tree needs periodic pruning. The main branches grow at right angles, directed upwards. The bark of the tree is gray, rough to the touch. Young branches are usually dark in color with large green leaves on them.

Blooms synapse large pale pink buds.

Main characteristics

Apple-tree type synapse Orlovsky high-yielding, so determines the description of the variety. However, this is not the only characteristic of culture.

The fruits of the tree are of medium size, the weight of each does not exceed 0.15 kilograms.

In the stage of ripeness, they acquire a yellow-green hue, and when stored gradually change color to golden.

If the tree grows on the side well illuminated by the sun, then on ripe fruit get a pinkish color. The peel of apples is thick and glossy.

Pollinators and care

Oryol Sinap - unpretentious variety, but requires additional care.During the period of active growth of the tree, systematic pruning of the branches should be carried out.

This variety is self-fertile. It actively bears fruit regardless of weather or climatic conditions.

Individuals of other varieties growing in the vicinity will have a positive effect on the yield of the Oryol variety.

In order to consistently enjoy the rich harvest of Sinapa, it needs to be watered properly. In summer and spring, trees need weekly hydration. Each apple tree should have about 3 buckets of water. In order to evenly distribute the moisture, the soil after watering must be carefully loosened.

Fertilizing grade is necessary not only in the process of disembarkation, but also during the care of him. The best option is to apply additional nutrition 4 times a year: after winter, bud formation, flowering and the harvest of ripe fruits.

In the period of active growth, branches on juveniles need to be cut off. A year later, a third of the branches are removed. Young trees are cut at 0.2-0.25 meters.

A year later, pruning is carried out so that 3 tiers of branches remain, and after that, only one conductor is left. Adults are pruned to 0.4–0.45 meters.

At the same time, dry and unhealthy branches are removed.

Pests and diseases

Sinap Orlovsky is often exposed to scab or powdery mildew:

  • Mealy dew is a fungal disease, which is accompanied by white bloom on the sheets. It is necessary to do everything possible so that the powdery mildew does not spread, otherwise it will simply absorb the apple tree. Prevent contamination and defeat the disease will help colloidal sulfur or substances containing copper in its composition. It is also worth removing all affected organs. Wounds formed as a result of pruning should be covered with chalk in young plants, in adults - with limestone solution.
  • Scab is a fungus that appears on plants in conditions of high humidity or when air stagnates in the trees. Initially, scab appears on the leaves, and then its signs appear on the fruit. The main symptom of scab damage is the appearance of greenish-brown spots on the plant organs. It is possible to prevent infection with a disease by disinfecting and feeding the soil.

Often the Oryol synapse suffers from bitter pimples. This ailment can develop in conditions of high humidity, late collection of fruits, organization of their improper storage, as well as in case of excessive saturation of the soil with nitrogen.

Due to the bitter pimples, characteristic depressed brown spots may appear on the fruit. It is possible to prevent the disease by spraying individuals with calcium chloride.

Preventing contamination will also be helped by timely harvesting and proper storage conditions.

Among pests, synapses, like other apple varieties, are most frequently attacked by the codling moth. To defeat her will help spraying plants with insecticides.

Advantages and disadvantages

The Orlovsky apple variety has its strengths and weaknesses.

Its advantages are resistance to frost and low temperatures, fast fruit ripeness, high yield and fruit quality.

In addition, the harvest can be stored for a long time, without losing their basic qualities.

The disadvantages of the variety are the sizes of the Sinapa fruit trees, which gives the owners of small areas a number of inconveniences in growing the fruit.

The disadvantage of Orlovsky can be considered as his susceptibility to bitter porosity, as well as the fact that the first fruits on the plant are formed 4 years after planting.

The weak side is also the lack of immunity to scab and powdery mildew with an average susceptibility to diseases in general.

So, Orlovsky Sinap is a variety of apples that will delight with stable, rich and tasty crops. However, for this you must provide the plant with proper care and protection from disease.

Apple Sinap Orlovsky: description, agricultural, photo

The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops is one of the leading institutions of its kind. Its specialists have developed hundreds of varieties of various fruit crops.Last in the list are apple trees.

One of the directions is the breeding of apple varieties suitable for cultivation in different regions, while trying to combine in the same product as many positive qualities as possible and level out their disadvantages.

In terms of results, the breeders of this institution clearly do not graze the hindquarters, and this article will be devoted to the Sinap Orlovsky apple variety, bred in 1955 by crossing the apple trees Michurin's Memory and the Northern Sinap.

In addition to the description of the fruit, the disadvantages and advantages of the Sinap Orlovsky apple tree will be highlighted, and some tips will be given regarding agrotechnical methods for growing this variety.

Fruits of Sinap Orlovsky are either of medium size or large. They are one-dimensional, an average of one apple weighs about 150 grams, those that are larger - about 200 grams or even more.

They have a rounded-conical shape, are less often oblong in shape, have blunt ribs, the tip is slightly oblique. The surface of the fruit is smooth, with a glossy shine, through the thin skin you can clearly see large white subcutaneous spots.

When harvesting (with the so-called “removable ripeness”), Sinap Orlovsky apples are yellow-green in color, but after short storage they begin to turn yellow and soon acquire a golden-yellow color.

On the sunny side, a reddish-reddish blush (covering color) appears.

The apple stem Sinap Orlovsky is short or medium, the saucer is deep, the calyx is closed in most cases, only with large fruits it is half-open, while the heart is weakly expressed. The seeds are brown, small, ribbed and slightly pointed, the seed chambers are mostly closed, sometimes ajar.

The pulp of Sinap Orlovsky apples is very juicy, light green in color, has a tasty flavor with a faint aroma.

The description indicates the following chemical composition of fruits: the amount of sugars does not exceed 9.5% (usually in winter varieties, this indicator is more than 10%), the proportion of titrated acids is about half a percent, and pectin substances are usually slightly less than 9%. Ascorbic acid, well known to all as vitamin C, is contained within 13-14 mg per 100 g of the fruit, and radioactive metals — about 190 mg per 100 g. In temperate climates, Sinap Orlovsky’s apple trees start harvesting regions with colder climatic conditions begin this process in October.

The nuances of agricultural engineering

Sinap Orlovsky variety is not very whimsical in conditions of growth, when compared with some other winter varieties, but some nuances must also be taken into account.

As already mentioned above, there should be enough calcium and other nutrients in the soil, otherwise the crop will not be as desired. Considering the size of the tree, choose a spacious place for planting.

In addition, do not forget about the annual shaping pruning (the largest branches depart from the trunk at right angles and are directed upwards, you need to adjust the growth of young branches).

The Sinap Orlovsky variety is widely distributed in Central Russia and some adjacent regions, zoned in some regions of Belarus. Moreover, this variety is grown as gardeners lovers, and in industrial gardens.

Apple tree "Sinap Orlovsky"

09.08.2017

This variety is definitely not for industrial cultivation: trees grow too big. But on the backyard, such an apple tree will provide both shade and excellent apples, which can be stored until May.

The Sinap Orlovsky apple tree variety was obtained as a result of the crossing of the Northern Sinap apple trees and the Michurin Memory. They got it in 1955, he got on state variety testing in 1979, and in the State Register - in 1989.

34 years: still, fruit selection is an occupation for the most patient and enthusiastic people.Now, with the technology of microclonal reproduction and possibilities of genetic modification, everything goes faster, but still creating a new apple variety is a matter of many years.

Therefore, “Oryol striped” and other old varieties will still be running for a long time.

Varieties of varieties

In addition to Orlovsky and Northern Sinapa, such varieties of Sinapa are known: Kandil, Gorny, Bogatyrsky, Belorussky, Almaty, Khakassky, Minusinsky.

  • Kandil has excellent yields. An adult apple tree gives up to 300 kilograms of apples.
  • Mountain Sinap skoroplodny. Fruit weight reaches 300 grams.
  • Bogatyrsky Sinap high-yielding. The weight of apples does not exceed 200 grams. Fruits are stored for 7 months.
  • Belarusian Sinap vigorous. Weight reaches 120 grams. Apples ripen by the end of September. When stored fruits are stored until the end of May.
  • Almaty Sinap srednerosly. The weight of apples does not exceed 150 grams. Fruit harvesting occurs in the last decade of September.
  • Khakassky Sinap in adulthood gives 50-60 kilograms. The average fruit weight is 170 grams. When ripe, they do not crumble. The shelf life of apples is 7-8 months.
  • Minusinsky Sinap srednerosly. The average weight of apples is 50 grams.

All these varieties of Sinap apple trees have their advantages and disadvantages, but their common characteristic is excellent taste and similar characteristics.

Northern Sinap

The Northern Sinap appeared in 1927, thanks to the free pollination of the Kandil-Chinese variety. The variety is suitable for cultivation in the Central Chernozem, Lower Volga regions and Eastern Siberia (in slate form). Apple trees are quite popular and are grown in industrial gardens and on private plots.

In self-pollination, the yield of the variety is about 40% of the total flowering, to increase the yield, you need to plant such pollinators nearby:

Fruiting occurs at 5-8 year. When using a dwarf stock, the first fruit harvest occurs from the second year - the third year.
The flowers are large, pink.
Fruits are formed on skeletal growths and perennial shoots (fruit pillows).

The apples are medium, weighing 95-150 grams, cup-shaped or conical in shape, yellowish-green with a bright brown-red blush. Under the skin shining bright subcutaneous points.
The taste is sweet-sour, refreshing, spicy, juicy. The flesh is fine-grained.

Ripening of apples comes in the first decade of October. About 170 pounds of fruit are removed from an adult apple tree (at the age of 15).
This late-winter variety and full maturity of fruits occurs during storage, after 60-90 days.

Planting and care

For the cultivation of apple trees Sinap requires a lot of space and light. The gap between the apple tree and other trees should be at least 7 meters. The best place will be a plot with sandy or loamy soil. The pH should not exceed 6 levels. The occurrence of groundwater should be at least 2 meters.

You can plant trees in March - April or in September - October (depending on the region). For a month you need to prepare the pit before planting. The depth of the pit should be 90 centimeters, width - 90 centimeters.

First, turf and fertile soil are removed, and removed to the side. The poor soil layer is removed from the site. The bottom of the pit is digging. Then on the bottom you need to put a drainage layer of gravel, broken brick or large river sand. Turf laid out on the bottom of the pit up roots. Fertile soil should be mixed with 2 buckets of rotted humus, 500 grams of ash, 1 bucket of compost, 100 grams of superphosphate and 50 potassium sulfate. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and fills 1/3 of the pit. It should make a mound. A peg is driven in a hole; it should rise above the ground level at a height of 70-90 centimeters.

The seedlings need to cut off the damaged ends of the roots. After that, soak them in warm water for 6-12 hours.

When the roots of the seedling are saturated with moisture, the tree can be planted. The tree must be set on a mound, the roots straighten.The peg should be located on the north side of the apple tree. The root neck should be located above the ground at a level of 5-7 centimeters.

After falling asleep pit, the soil should be slightly compacted. The sapling is tied to a peg with a woven tape.

Shoots for better crown growth should be shortened by 1/3. At a distance of half a meter around the tree you need to form an earthen roller. After that, the tree can be watered with 3 buckets of separated water and the ground around peat, humus around it.

Tree care should be regular and include: watering, feeding, pruning, pest and disease control. Watering must be done once a week. For 1 tree requires about 3 buckets of water. With summer drought, the volume of water needs to be increased. The ground under the apple should not dry out. After watering the soil should be loosened, if necessary, remove the weeds.

For good growth and fruiting apple Sinap pruning is required. It needs to be produced in the spring.
All dry and damaged shoots need to be removed, as well as to produce formative pruning.

In a two-year-old tree, after pruning, there should be 3 tiers of the strongest shoots and one main conductor; weaker and twisted shoots should be cut.

When pruning the shoots of a young tree, they must be shortened by 40 centimeters. In an adult tree shoots must be cut annually by 20 centimeters. Cut locations are treated with garden pitch.

  1. The first feeding of the apple tree is made the next year after planting. It is produced under the soil digging in spring, rotted manure is applied (0.6 kg of fertilizer is required for 1 tree).
  2. After the formation of buds on the soil around the tree (after abundant watering), it is necessary to scatter 0.45 kilograms of urea, then dig the ground.
  3. At the end of flowering, the tree must be fed with a solution of 0.6 kilograms of bird droppings infusion or 1 liter of mullein infusion and 60 grams of superphosphate diluted in a bucket of water. Or with a solution of 150 grams of superphosphate, 100 grams of urea, 80 g of calcium chloride, diluted in a bucket of water.
  4. After the fruits are removed, a solution of 70 grams of superphosphate is put into the soil in a bucket of water.

To protect the tree from pests and insects, it is necessary to promptly remove dry and damaged branches, process cuts with garden pitch, and sprinkle with chemicals.

To protect the apples from the plant's moth, the tree should be sprayed with wormwood solution.

If there is not enough calcium in the soil, there is a chance that apples will be damaged by bitter pitting. In order to avoid illness during the filling and ripening of fruit, it is necessary to spray a crown of calcium-containing preparations, for example, Kalbit C.

After removing the apples, the crown must be sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate. Before blooming buds (in early spring), treatment with a Bordeaux liquid or Fitosporin M is performed.

Before winter, the trunk circle must be supplemented with organic matter, dig up and mulch with peat or humus. To protect against rodents, shtamb need to whitewash a solution of lime and copper sulfate or chalk solution and cover with spruce branches or a protective grid.

In the spring, shelter needs to be removed, the mulch removed, the earth dug up and fed.
Such care allows you to grow a strong and healthy tree that will produce a bountiful harvest.

Apple Sinap: Video

Sinap apple variety has a huge number of species. For 25 years I have planted the Northern Sinap, the Oryol Sinap and Kandil on my plot. Each of the apple has its advantages. The apples are very tasty, suitable for making jam, compote.

I always dreamed of having a large apple orchard. When I had the opportunity to buy a country house, the first thing I did was plant apple trees. In the nursery, I was advised to take several Sinap trees and their pollinators. I took the first harvest from the trees after 3 years, as the apple trees were grafted on dwarf saplings. Apples are very tasty.I thought the variety was the same, but on every tree, the fruits were different in appearance and taste. Apples are kept in a cold place until the end of spring, but since they are very tasty, they simply do not remain until now, they are eaten.

The Sinap variety is unique, it is suitable for private cultivation and for growing in large quantities for sale. Everyone who has tried apples of this variety does not remain indifferent. The fruits are very tasty, juicy and beautiful. When stored in the refrigerator, they are stored until the end of spring.

Terms of harvesting and methods of its use

In the areas of the middle lane, you can start harvesting in the last decade of September, and in colder regions - in early October. Fruits need to be plucked from the stem, carefully breaking it off from the branch.

When you remove apples are firm and sour, they ripen already in the bed, becoming sweet and juicy.

Fruits are stored at a temperature of from 0 to +5 o C, in such conditions storage periods reach 5-6 months. It is very convenient for commercial production, therefore Sinap Orlovsky is often used by baby food manufacturers.

Apple cider has long been known and is a very useful drink.

At home, apples can be used by any means - eat fresh or dried, make juices, jams, jams, cider.

Watch the video: Apple Varieties (December 2019).

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