The plane tree (Chinara) is a deciduous ornamental tree of the Planan family. It has a powerful trunk, the circumference of which can reach 18 m, and its height is 60 m. Translated from Latin, “platos” means “wide”.
Sycamore is widespread: it is found in Europe, Asia and America. Chinara is a long-lived tree, specimens of more than 2 thousand years old grow in the Caucasus.
After planting, it grows very quickly during the first few years, it does not require special care. Propagated by root processes, but more often it is grown from seeds.
There are several varieties of chinara growing in Russia.
There are about 10 species of plane trees that grow throughout the world.
Sycamore ordinary - a hybrid of a plane tree of western and east. Its height reaches 40 m. It has a wide trunk and a rounded crown. It multiplies easily, grows rapidly. Distributed in America and Europe. Cultivated from the XVII century. The most popular decorative forms:
Decorative forms of plane trees
Western sycamore - deciduous tree, common in North America. Its height does not exceed 35 m, the bark is a light color.
Frost-resistant hybrid that can withstand frost is not below -35 degrees. It is undemanding to soils, but needs regular watering, since
poorly tolerated drought.
Eastern sycamore - Chinara. The fast-growing tree, mainly growing in the Caucasus. It is long-lived.
Its fruits are edible, and they are called "chinariki". Seeds of wood remain viable for one year with proper storage. Less frost resistant than P.
ordinary and P. western.
Planting and care
Planting a tree is carried out in the spring or autumn period. Sycamore prefers sunlight, heat and regular watering. Meanwhile, the tree is completely unpretentious to the composition of the soil.
Council But nevertheless, Chinara will actively grow on loose, mineral-rich soil with abundant irrigation. In dry time should increase the number of waterings.
In warm regions, an eastern sycamore is planted along water sources.
Wood can be pruned as to remove damaged branches, and decorative cutting.
For planting in central Russia, it is worth choosing frost-resistant sorts of plane trees.
Not all types of plane trees are equally hardy. Therefore it is necessary to prepare them for the winter.
To do this, the roots need to be mulched coniferous branches, sawdust or leaves.
Chinara perfectly adapts to the environment, it adapts even to urban polluted air.
The plane tree is not susceptible to pest attacks, and its diseases also do not affect.
As for fertilizing, there is absolutely no need for mineral fertilizers. At a young age, Chinara may respond positively to fertilizing.
But fertilizing the already fertile soil is not necessary.
After all, the plane tree grows well only on well-ventilated, drained and enriched with minerals and other organic soil.
Many wonder how to grow a plane tree. There are several options for growing this long-lived.
- Growing from seed.
- Planting root processes.
The first option is common in nature, when the process occurs without human intervention. The most popular breeding method of plane trees is considered seed growing.
To do this, velvety nuts are collected in the fall, then placed in a fabric bag and buried in the ground. Temperature range should be from 0 to 10 degrees. This procedure is called vernalization - hardening and disinfection.
After it, the seeds can be planted in separate tanks with drainage. Seedlings will grow very quickly. Moderate watering during growth is very important.
Another popular breeding method is considered grafting. The cuttings are placed in a container with water and sent to a cool place where the temperature varies from 3 to 6 degrees. In the spring after swelling of the kidneys, the cuttings can be transplanted into the open ground.
Attention! When planting cuttings in the ground, adding black washed sand is mandatory.
The remaining options are used a little less, since they are not as effective as the seed method.
Previously, the tree played the role of a paradise in desert areas. Under its spreading branches could hide from the scorching sun. The wood of plane wood is very much appreciated, it is used for various purposes: car interior decoration, furniture manufacturing, etc.
Apply Chinaru and as a national drug. It has hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.
In some recipes it was used for the bites of reptiles. In Europe, Chinar smoked like tobacco. The leaves and bark of the tree are used for different lotions.
The plane tree not only decorates gardens, but also helps to strengthen human health.
In landscape design plantation planted to decorate parks, gardens and squares.
The plane tree is a tall long-liver. Unpretentious tree. There are many ways to reproduce it. But the most effective is still considered growing from seed.
Loves the sun, heat and moisture. Predominantly grows on fertile soils. Winter-hardy, but needs warming for the winter, so most of the species grow in the southern regions.
Majestic plane tree landing and care, Chinara reproduction, photo
What is Chinara or in another way a plane tree, which belongs to deciduous ornamental plants of the Plataneaceae family (platane).
It is endowed with a strong large trunk with a diameter of about 18 m. It can reach a height of up to 60 meters. From the Latin "platos" is translated as broad.
In Turkey and Persia, plane trees are commonly called chinar.
Description and characteristics
You can meet this frost-resistant, fast-growing tree anywhere in the world. In countries where a warm climate prevails, a dense broad crown saves both citizens and villagers from the scorching sun.
A tree blooms in early spring and pleases those around it with flowering for a relatively short time. You can see flowers collected from 3-6 pieces in a tree, starting from April to June.
Oriental tree contains flowers of different sexes, which are collected in various inflorescences.
So male inflorescences, including from 2 to 6 flowers, are painted in yellow-green shades, while the female ones are collected in raspberry inflorescences with 2-5 colors.
Plane trees for the city
Chinara tree gets along well in an area with polluted air, but at the same time it throws off the upper layer of bark.
As soon as this process begins, large plates fall off the tree, under which the light yellow, yellow and gray areas remain.
This allows the tree to get rid of blocked parts that prevent it from being saturated with oxygen, which leads to the opening of the respiratory pores.
On the city plane tree you can see lichen, which shows that the environment is polluted.
Myths and legends
On the entire planet you can find many different plants, which are described in various chronicles. Plane is a historical representative, also related to such plants, since the history of this culture begins about 2 thousand years ago.
There is a story that tells about the gardener of the English King Charles 1.
John Tradescant was the one who called him that, from 1642 to 1654 he often traveled to the New World, from where he once brought three different trees, including Platanus.
Since some specimens of this tree growing on the territory of the British Isles for more than 300 years, we can assume that this story is true.
In ancient times, the tree was called "eastern maple". The reason for this was a sheet of plane tree, which is very similar to maple leaves. But do not think that this is the same tree.
The plane tree differs from a maple in the big sizes and long life expectancy, and also is one of the most huge trees on all planet.
Once it was possible to meet trees, whose dimensions could shock, as about 100 people could hide under the spreading thick crown of such a plane tree.
A lot of poems, poems and short stories were written about the plane tree in which these immense trees had their own names and names.
What types of plane tree can be found
There are several deciduous and evergreen specimens in the genus of plane trees.
The largest number of representatives can be found in North America, Asia Minor and Europe. In the Caucasus, you can see trees, whose age is about 2 thousand years.
But the oldest tree of this species, which is about 2300 years old, grows in Turkey. The height of this specimen exceeds 42 meters, and the circumference of its trunk is wider than 13.5 meters.
In the world there are about 10 species of this plant.
High deciduous tree, whose height varies from 25 to 30 meters, and the diameter of the trunk can be about 12 meters.
Widely scattered and rather loose crown is located quite low. The winding branches diverge from the powerful trunk to the sides at right angles.
Lower branches reach for the ground.
This deciduous species is distributed in North America. In height can reach up to 35 meters, the bark has a light shade.
It has amazing frost resistance and is able to cope with temperatures around -35 degrees. The composition of the soil is not whimsical, but it loves moisture.
Drought for this tree can be fatal.
Hybrid, based on the eastern and western plane trees. Its height can reach 40 meters. Endowed with a wide trunk and crown of a rounded shape. To multiply and grow this species is not difficult. It is found in Europe and America.
How to plant and care for a tree
These trees are planted in the fall and spring. Chinara will grow perfectly in sunny areas. It is warm and moisture-loving tree. But at the same time Chinara does not require any special soil.
Tip! But if you want the tree to grow better, plant it on a plot with loose, mineral-rich soil, which should be watered regularly. With the onset of strong summer heat, increase watering.
In order to enjoy the plane tree in central Russia, you need to find species that are best tolerated by frost. In the southern regions it is best to plant trees near water.
Regular pruning is necessarily necessary for the tree. Through this procedure, you can get rid of damaged shoots. Also, trim the crown is necessary in order to give it a decorative look.
Plane does not need mineral fertilizers. Of course, a young plant will react well to such feeding, but there is no need to over-saturate the soil with minerals. Chinara feels great if the soil is drained and can pass oxygen.
How does winter endure
With the onset of winter, almost all varieties, throwing off their foliage, still remain beautiful and do not lose their singularity. An unforgettable look and a tree trunk, on which knots can be seen. Peeling irregular plates bark reveals all the mysteriousness of the tree.
Among the many varieties there are also varieties that do not tolerate frosts and must be prepared for wintering.
Using coniferous branches, sawdust or leaves gurgle the roots of the chinara.
This is a tree that can easily adapt to any place and even get used to gassed oxygen.
How to multiply
Most novice gardeners are interested in how reproduction occurs. There are the following ways by which you can increase the number of plane trees:
The option used by the tree to breed in its natural environment. Here you will not make any effort, because the plane-tree fruit, from which seeds are poured out as a result, will do everything itself.
One of the most popular breeding types.
With the onset of autumn, it is necessary to collect velvet nuts and put them in a fabric bag that needs to be dripped into the ground. The temperature at which you need to keep the seeds in this state should not fall below 0, but not exceed 10 degrees.
Vernalization, this is the name of this unusual procedure, which allows you to harden and disinfect the seeds.
Once the process is complete, you can plant the seeds in separate drained pots.
When the seedlings begin to germinate, do not forget to provide them with moderate watering.
Cuttings must be placed in water and taken to a cool room, the temperature of which will be 3-6 degrees. With the onset of autumn, when the buds swell properly, transplant the cuttings into a place where the sycamore will grow.
Where Chinara is applied
Once this tree served as excellent shelter in the arid desert. Chinara wood is very valuable and thanks to it you can create an unforgettable interior in the car and make elegant strong furniture.
In Europe, platan foliage was used as a smoking tobacco.
Thanks to the sprawling dense crown of a tree in the Far and Near East and the Balkan Peninsula, the tree served as an excellent salvation from the heat. To do this, it was planted next to houses, temples and wells.
Also Chinara is used in the landscape and serves as an excellent decoration of the park zone, personal plots and often lands along the roads.
Platan: tree description, photos, types and properties
The genus of plane trees has many species, among which are evergreen and deciduous. In Asia, the southern regions of Europe, and North America several varieties of plane trees are popular: eastern, western, and cuneiform.
Thanks to its gigantic size, beautiful dense crown, carved leaves and multicolor bark, this tree can be a decoration of any garden or park.
Types and features of the tree
West Platan, native of which is North America, is considered to be a frost-resistant species, but does not grow above 30 m. Unlike others, this one can withstand frosts down to -35 ° С.
Eastern, or Chinara - the most picturesque of all, it is found in Central Asia, in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, belongs to rare relict tree species. Individual representatives are able to reach 26 m in girth.
Common and maple leaves are hybrids of eastern and western, these are mighty trees with branching trunks, they can grow up to 40 m, they are well tolerated by frost, able to live in a temperate climate zone.
Planes are not exacting to the nutritional value of the soil, rarely get sick and are not affected by pests, but they do not tolerate drought very well.
The ideal conditions for them are high humidity and warmth..
The spreading crown of giants is capable of covering up to several hundred people in its shadow, but they themselves need a lot of sunlight.
The tree is able to reach up to 60 m, the trunks of large specimens reach more than 6 m in diameter, at a height of several meters they begin to branch out. Individual representatives are over 2000 years old. A unique feature is considered a partial exfoliation of the bark.
In adult trees, it periodically cracks and falls off in small pieces, forming a beautiful greenish-yellow mosaic surface on the trunk.
This property protects plane trees from exposure to urban soot and harmful chemicals, allowing them to survive even in adverse environmental conditions.
Bogatyr growth and increase the width of the trunks contributes to the synthesis and deposition in the cells of lignin. Plane continues to gain volume throughout life - even the oldest specimens grow.
The bogatyrs' leaves are also wide, lobed in size up to 18 cm, arranged on long cuttings. Outwardly, they resemble maple leaves and are slightly different in shape in different species.
Young shoots are usually covered with light down, which clumps together and flies through the air like a poplar tree.
Fluff in the eyes or respiratory tract can cause severe irritation of the mucous membranes..
In the spring, at the same time with the leaves or several days later, the tree throws out the flowers collected in large brushes. Plane belongs to dioecious plants.
At Chinara female inflorescences have a bright red shade, and male - yellow. They remain only a few days, then fall off. Platanus fruits - small complex nuts, or chinaris, are edible.
In the autumn, after the leaves fall, the nuts remain hanging on the branches all winter.
With the onset of heat, their outer shell collapses and the wind spreads poured sleepy light-covered seeds from which the germination of the ovary is possible.
In the hot deserts of Chinar, growing near water sources, since antiquity created a kind of oasis in which tired travelers rested.
In the settlements in the hollows of old plane trees several people could freely accommodate. Sometimes in such natural "rooms" they organized tea or schools.
Many tales, legends and traditions are associated with this tree in Eastern culture.
Use of plane trees
Since antiquity, the leaves and bark of plane trees have been used in folk medicine as a remedy for the bites of stinging insects and snakes, for fever, for stopping bleeding, for getting rid of diseases of the stomach and intestines. Dried bark was added to the smoking mixture.
Plane wood is considered an expensive practical material, has a beautiful granular texture, resembling snake skin, high strength, but easy to process.
According to its characteristics, it is similar to oak or beech. The color of the material even within one log varies and can be pale pink or wine red.
They trim the salons of top-class cars, produce cases and boxes for cigars and jewelry, furniture, trim panels, piece parquet.
In China, there is a kind of painting on sheets of sycamore wood, when a relief pattern is cut on the surface with a thin blade.
Main species of plane tree
There are 11 known species of this tree in the plane tree family. These trees can grow more than one century. There are several decorative forms of plane trees:
Especially often planted trees (chinar) are cultivated in countries with hot climates; these trees give coolness and a welcome shadow in the garden from wide leaves that form a spreading crown. As a fruit, this powerful tree produces multi-nut nuts that break into many small nuts.
How to grow sycamore
To successfully grow a plane tree on your site, you first need to correctly select the landing site. Active growth of the plant is observed in places with a fairly loose soil, rich in basic minerals.
In dry regions will have to provide high-quality watering wood. High-quality watering will allow the plane tree to stand out in the garden. The plane tree is characterized by fast growth rates, so, during the year of active vegetation, the tree can grow upwards by 2 meters.
Gardeners can propagate plane trees with several available options:
- growing from mature seeds,
- ordinary self seeding,
- seasonal cutting,
- primary planting of basal processes,
- planting pegs.
Ordinary self-seeding is the simplest and most natural process, does not require human participation, but does not guarantee the emergence of sprouts at the right time. Therefore, gardeners more often prefer to cultivate the sycamore from mature seeds. To this end, velvet tree seeds should be collected in the fall and stored until spring in a special fabric bag. Bury the seeds in the ground prepared in the usual way.
Primary planting of mature seeds or ready seedlings is permissible to be carried out not only in spring, but also in autumn. Platanus is more suitable for places with deep-flowing moisture, which is why it can often be found near the banks of streams and rivers.
If the decision is made to plant a planter seedling, you should choose the right sample. For a strip with a cool climate, you need to buy seedlings with high rates of frost resistance. Plant a strong sprout preferably in a well-lit place in the garden. Saplings after rooting will begin to grow rapidly, so they need to be watered moderately.
Quite popular with gardeners plantation breeding strong cuttings. To do this, the cuttings cut from a strong tree should be placed in a container with water and left in a cool place with an air temperature ranging from 3 to 6 ° C. In the spring, when buds are swollen on trees in the garden, rooted cuttings can be planted in open ground.
The remaining breeding options for plane trees are rarely used because of their low efficiency in the European part of the country.
There is growing sycamore without special conditions of maintenance and care. For optimal development, a tree needs a sufficient amount of light, moisture and natural heat. Under the conditions of the middle band, only one difficulty arises - low winter hardiness of the plant. A plane tree can freely tolerate a decrease in temperature to -15 ° C, but at lower temperatures there is a risk of plant death.
The plant during periods of active growth needs regular pruning. This is done in order to remove damaged branches that hinder the full development of the tree, and to give a decorative form. The planing pruning procedure transfers well.
The gardener needs to take care of the successful over-wintering of the plant. To do this, prepare the material: high-quality mulch, consisting of sawdust, spruce twigs. Dry autumn foliage from the garden will be good mulch. Having provided shelter for the winter, you can count on the fact that the plane tree adapts to any habitat conditions, even to conditions of urban gas pollution and other places with poor ecology. Common tree diseases as well as dangerous pests do not affect plane trees. What is very important for successful cultivation.
How to grow a sycamore tree
In nature, there are trees that are planted for harvest, and there are also those that are used as living decorative ornament.
The latter can be attributed plane tree, which in the East is called Chinara
Growing from seed in a pot
This method is most popular, since in such a state seedlings can be kept in any convenient place, providing them with constant care and observation. This will allow for the appearance of any developmental disabilities to immediately get rid of the problem without losing the seedling. To make the result positive, you need to know some nuances.
Before sowing the seeds need to harden and disinfect. For this, the pre-assembled material is placed in a cotton bag and deepened to 50 cm in the ground. These manipulations are done at air temperature not lower than + 10 ° С. If the temperature is lower, you need to prepare the container, fill it with clean sand and place a bag of seeds there. The container is placed in the basement or other place where the temperature does not fall below 10 ° C.
After hardening, when the temperature begins to rise, the seeds are removed and prepared for planting. To do this, they are soaked in water for several days, and then the hatching seeds are planted in selected containers in pairs to a depth of 2 cm.
Conditions and care for crops
For good growth, the temperature in the room where the containers with seedlings are located must be at least 25 ° C. Watering is necessary as needed, making sure that the earth does not dry out. During the entire period of seed germination, it is important to ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the ground and sprouts.
You can plant seedlings in spring and autumn. Regardless of the time of year, compliance with all the rules will allow the tree to fully take root. The main thing is to remember that in the spring it is recommended to plant in the dense ground, and in the fall, on the contrary, in loose.
In order for Chinar to grow normally and please with its beauty, you need to follow some simple rules for care, which include soil moistening, fertilization, pruning of excess or damaged branches and even the creation of conditions for wintering.
Moisture and light are the main requirements of this plant. Rational watering makes it stand out from the rest of the garden. In dry time, the amount of water should be greater. Only in this case, the growth will not slow down and the leaves will be green.
Mineral feeding for these giants is important only at a young age. This should be resorted to only when the ground does not meet the requirements. Substrates well-aerated, rich in mineral and organic elements are introduced into the ground. Perfect option - use universal complex fertilizers, the main thing is not to overdo it.
Western sycamore and other species are quite thermophilic; nevertheless, they endure the cold as well. To obtain a tree with a spherical crown is required to carry out pruning, and even large branches, if they are knocked out of the overall picture.
For a successful wintering of the tree, it is important to worry about the mulch, which may consist of coniferous branches, sawdust or leaves. They are poured around a tree trunk, creating a mound of up to 30 cm.
In landscape design
Plane is used as decoration of parks, gardens and squares. He not only creates a large area of shadow, which is formed under her crown, but also decorates any area. The main thing when choosing a species is to measure the size of the ground and the future height of the tree.
In folk medicine
Chinaru is used as a hemostatic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. For example, decoction of the roots is used as a remedy for diarrhea. For this you need to take the bark of young tree trunks. Infusion of leaves is used for conjunctivitis. Consider a few recipes that describe the use of Oriental plane tree:
- To stop bleeding, 10 g of pre-chopped roots pour 100 ml of boiling water. Put for 20 minutes in a water bath. At the end of time, filter and add water to the original volume. Accept the received means on 30 ml several times a day.
- As an anticancer, the following composition is prepared: 10 g of ground bark is combined with 100 ml of boiling water. Insist 2 hours, and then filtered. Take half a cup three times a day.
- For various intestinal infections take 150 ml 3 times a day the following remedy: 10 g of bark, 10 ml of vinegar and 150 ml of water are mixed. Boil for 5 minutes, then insist 60 minutes and filter.
- For eye problems, a product is prepared from 30 g of dry, pre-crushed leaves and 300 ml of boiling water. All mixed and insist 2 hours. At the end of time, filter and use for washing.
Plane tree Oriental plane tree:
The plane tree is beautiful in the summer with a dense crown and in the winter without leaves. Its tall, often branching trunk attracts attention from afar.
The green, brownish bark in the upper part exfoliates and falls off the plates, revealing a new yellowish cover.
From this, the trunk appears to be covered with a mosaic marble ornament.
Plane tree: description
The name comes from the Greek "platos", which translates as broad. A plane tree is a powerful tree with a branching trunk reaching 50 m in height. However, it can be up to 6 m in diameter with a circle up to 18 m.
Leaf plane tree resemble maple. Their petioles are elongated. Stipules cover the escape in the form of a collar. At the same time or a little later flowers appear with leaves. They are collected in same-sex heads. On the tree there are male (yellow) and female (red) inflorescences.
Young leaves and shoots are covered with down pile. With gusts of wind, it comes off and blown away by the wind. In places where the plane tree grows in large numbers, this down in the spring falls into flakes and hovers in the air. It is believed that it can cause irritation of the mucous.
The leaves fall in winter, but the seeds remain until spring. The fruit is a difficult nutlet, it is divided into spring in parts. The seeds are equipped with a small “plumage” of hairs, which contributes to their separation with the wind.
Up to ten species can be distinguished in the genus. Western, eastern and Mexican plane trees are most prevalent. By their names one can judge the habitat regions of these related species.
Separately distinguish Kerry sycamore, found in Vietnam and Laos.
It is believed that it is the oldest surviving species, since its leaves are most similar to the fossil remains of these trees of the Tertiary period.
A leaf of a plane tree at different species has a different size and shape. This by and large all of them are different.
Eastern plane tree is found in the wild in the Balkans, in the countries of Small and Central Asia, in Africa, Indochina and Australia.
There is he in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the southern regions of Russia. Western is especially common in North America and Mexico.
Now the most popular for cultivation has a maple foliage. It is also called hybrid (R. x hybrida) and Lodnonsky. It was first allocated in England in the XVII century.
It is believed that this is a hybrid of the western and eastern plane trees, obtained by pollination of two related species growing nearby.
He absorbed all their best qualities and adapted to the more severe climate of the northern regions.
Oriental sycamore tree
This species is also known as Chinara (Chinar). It differs in a particularly powerful barrel. Known specimens up to 60 m high with a huge crown and spreading branches.
The trunk of a tree is often formed into several branches. Chinara leaves are large and beautiful, up to 20 cm. The fruit-nutlet is large, up to 1 cm in diameter.
Its core is popularly known as sinariq, it can be eaten, it is healthy and pleasant to taste.
In the culture of the local people with these giants are associated customs, beliefs, myths and legends. Chinara wood, like all plane trees, is distinguished by high density and decorative effect. It is appreciated by wooden craftsman for its texture, durability and good wear resistance.
This tree-survivor is repeatedly mentioned in literary works and annals. The species was listed in the Red Book as in need of special protection conditions. In some countries, trees of this type have security passports; they cannot be cut without special permission.
Breeding and care
The plane tree grows quickly and is considered unpretentious to the soil. It can be diluted by growing from seed, planting root shoots, cuttings, shoots, and even just pegs. They are immersed in the soil and provide favorable conditions for the formation of roots.
The tree loves sunshine, demanding on moisture and heat. The latter feature does not allow the eastern species to spread widely in northern latitudes.
It grows best on fertile and loose soil with abundant watering.
In the natural environment of the southern regions, the eastern plane tree usually landed along the creeks, at the springs and at the bottom of the gorges.
Planting is possible in spring or autumn. From seeds in the second year, you can get sprouts up to half a meter. When germinating them in the initial period, protection from direct sunlight is needed.Growth is better to select with a part of the root system, then the tree in a short period will gain strength and will quickly grow.
It is desirable to warm the soil for the winter with mulch of coniferous branches, sawdust or foliage. During the dry period, additional watering is necessary. Trees tolerate pruning, are resistant to pests, have little disease and adapt well to polluted urban atmospheres.
Oriental plane tree is characterized by the fact that in the "mature" age it usually forms a hollow.
Moreover, in individual instances it is of such size that several people can fit in it.
There are cases when a tea room, a museum, a school and even a field hospital were set up in such hollows.
Under the sprawling crown of individual giant trees, not one hundred people can hide from the scorching sun. In the southern regions, this tree is revered and valued. In Azerbaijan, there is even a brand of refrigerator, named after the tree.
Durable Oriental sycamore tree: description, photo
One of the most amazing plants on our planet is the Chinar, or Oriental sycamore. This type of tree belongs to one of the most ancient on our planet. The culture of plane trees dates back several millennia.
The culture of the spread of this tree began after the development of new territories by the Romans, Persians and Greeks. These peoples considered the plane tree to be one of the most beautiful plants in the East.
Planting of these trees, wild, formed huge groves and became an integral part of the landscape. Because of this, it is almost impossible to determine the initial range of harvesting a plane tree.
There are no wild-growing plane trees on the territory of our country.
Oriental plane: description
The tree is a favorite shadow plant in the Balkan Peninsula, as well as in the countries of the Far and Near East. The plane tree is planted near houses, temples, wells and springs.
You can clasp this plant with your hands only if their reach reaches 18 meters. Oriental plane tree possesses greenish-gray bark, and the shape of its trunk is cylindrical.
Alternately on sufficiently long cuttings are palmate-lobed leaves. The fruits of the eastern sycamore - polygons - overwinter, and in the spring they break up into separate nuts, which are carried by the wind over considerable distances.
These trees are long-lived: they can live up to two thousand years.
Sycamore in culture
In Turkey, growing the most ancient plane tree. Its age is more than 2,300 years old, its height is 50 meters, its circumference is 42 meters, and its diameter is 13.4 meters.
In Persian and Turkish, the Oriental sycamore tree was called Chinara. These mighty plants were given names, legends were made about them. Oriental poets glorified slender and elegant trees.
In the south of Europe, a large number of love signs and beliefs were associated with oriental plane trees.
It was considered a sacred tree in the Caucasus. In Islamic countries, Chinar can be found on many mosaics in mosques, as well as Iranian miniatures.
Platan was revered in Azerbaijan. To date, this country has more than 1,000 long-lived plants.
Greek mythology also considers platan sacred. Elena - an ancient deity of vegetation and fertility - had this tree.
In Christianity, the plane tree also left its mark.
Readers are probably wondering how to care for a giant. Well, even a child can take care of such a tree as an oriental plane tree.
The first thing to take care of is humidity. Eastern sycamore a priori needs watering. Rational watering Chinaru helps to stand out against the background of other inhabitants of your garden.
Humidity and light are the main requirements in agricultural technology. Durable Oriental sycamore tree is no exception.
Oriental plane tree is not as in need of feeding as indoor plants. It is needed unless at the beginning of the life of the tree. However, if the soil is fertile initially, then fertilizer is not required at all.
Wet substrates rich in mineral and organic elements are required.
If you decide to feed an oriental sycamore tree, which grows slowly or is ill, then initially you should determine what it lacks. A healthy plant will suit any complex universal fertilizer. The most important thing is not to overdo it. Follow the instructions.
The seeds of the eastern sycamore have the opportunity to germinate even after a long time: 6-12 months. The most important thing is to keep them right.
Seeds need a dry and cool place. Planting is made in accordance with the instructions. In the spring they are planted in heavy soils, but in the fall they can be planted in light soils.
Before planting, do not forget to soak the seeds in water.
Further transplantation does not have any features.
A tree of the plane tree - oriental plane tree - breeds fairly standardly. At a shallow depth - 50 centimeters - seeds are laid in the substrate. As the oriental plane tree grows very quickly, very soon you will be able to enjoy its beauty.
You will not be able to confuse this plant with other examples of wildlife. It has a striking feature: exfoliating bark. However, this is only one of the many distinguishing features of the plane tree.
As you know, majestic trees are less attacked by various parasites. Care must be taken to ensure that the integrity of the crust of the eastern sycamore is not disturbed, since parasites and diseases will penetrate through these wounds.
In addition to seeds, you can use cuttings and cuttings. The method of sowing depends on the preference of the grower, as well as on the time of sowing. It is better to use the method that you can do.
There are a lot of different plants in our country, but fruit trees, which produce a lot of fruit from year to year, belong here.
There are varieties of trees that are used for landscape design and create a cozy and shady area.
One of the most interesting representatives is Eastern Platan, which will be discussed in this article.
There are a very large number of trees of various kinds and destinations all over the world, some even write to poets. Platan is one of the most ancient species. The plant has its own history, which is more than a thousand years.
In general, the genus of plane trees includes 11 trees that always remain green. Most of these plants are in Europe, Asia. Often the tree can be seen in the Caucasus.
The breed is very long growing, and there are species that are already more than 2 thousand years old.
In Turkey, too, there is one of the oldest representatives, to whom scientists have counted 2300 years. Its height is 60 meters, the trunk in a circle is 42 meters.
Previously, plane tree was called the oriental "maple", because its sheets are very similar to maple sheets, but there are some differences between these two trees.
Plane is much larger in size and the life of the plant is longer. This type is the largest representative on the planet.
In ancient times a few hundred people could hide from the sun behind an old and big plane tree.
The plant is very popular in those regions where a hot climate prevails, because the plant allows you to get a lot of shade and coolness.
Since ancient times, the planes were planted near their homes, as well as near the temples, to get a lot of shade and cool zones. In Turkey, the plant is called Chinar. There are rumors and legends about this plant.
The breed is deciduous, grows in height by about 30 meters, and the trunk is up to 12 meters in a circle. The crown of the Planan is low and wide.
The branches are twisted, often moving away from the trunk itself, and the lower branches are inclined to the ground. As a rule, the sheets have 5 blades, and the sapling has 3 blades on the sheets.
The length of the sheets up to 15 cm, the same size and width.
Sycamore yields fruits - nuts, that after winter they turn into small nuts. The time of ripening lasts for a whole year, after which the nut is divided into small particles and the winds fly around the area.
In the breed, everything is beautiful and today the species is a favorite among gardeners, because decoration is better than that of many other representatives. Wild Platan can often be seen near rivers, lakes, in forests, among mountains.
Eastern maple is growing rapidly, so for the year of growth the plant becomes 2 meters. The seeds of the tree are unique, because germination persists for a year, with proper storage.
Before planting, plant seeds should be left in the water for a short time. Landing in the ground is carried out with the onset of spring or autumn. Soil fits any, but the plot itself should be bright.
The breed is frost resistant and tolerates frost normally to -15 degrees. When growing in the middle lane, it is recommended to select varieties that are more frost-resistant. Where heat and heat prevail, plant is planted near water.
For rapid growth will need to plant the plant in a loose soil, where there are a lot of minerals. For Platan, constant watering is important, especially if drought begins. If you constantly and abundantly water the tree, then it will effectively stand out in the garden, among other plantations.
Another tree needs some care:
- Plantation will need to constantly cut, which will remove damaged and damaged branches. Also, pruning is needed to give the correct shape and create a decorative look.
- Before winter, you need to prepare a tree. For this is done mulch from coniferous branches, as well as sawdust. Some people use leaflets for the mulch that have fallen.
Today, the plant is adapted to the fact that in cities of gas pollution. Plants are not exposed to pests, which is also very important for growing. Also, the plant is opposed to many diseases. The main thing you need to remember, growing Platan:
- Time to water the tree.
- Plant the plant in places with good light.
Experienced gardeners advise fertilizing the plant only during the first years of its life. In the case when the land is fertile, the tree can not be fertilized at all, for it is enough natural fertilizer.
In case of diseases or slow growth, supplementary feeding is introduced into the soil, but first the reason is determined, which is not enough for Platan. If the development of the tree is normal, then universal types of feed are used.
The main condition is to carefully follow the instructions so that there is no overdose.
In spring, Planan should be planted in heavy soil, and in autumn it is better to use light soil. Planting seeds is carried out according to standard technology, the depth of the seeds is about 0.5 m. When Planan grows up, it can be transplanted.
The plane tree is difficult to confuse with other breeds, because strength and beauty are immediately visible, as well as a large spreading crown.
The main feature of Platan is that after some time of growth, the crust begins to flake off. Therefore, the owners need to monitor the plant so that the integrity is not violated.
Pests can get through the damaged bark, after which the plane tree will hurt.
If you have experience planting trees by cutting and layering, then you can use this technique, in addition, this method is considered the best for Planan. If properly planted, watered and cared for, then the Plane will grow, delight with its beauty and create a good shadow for hundreds of years.
General description of the tree
In nature, this giant is called the Eastern Maple because of the similarity of the shape of the leaves. The shape of the crown of this tree can be pyramidal. Plane is considered one of the most ancient and amazing plants that can be found in natural habitats. There are 11 known species of this tree in the plane tree family. These trees can successfully develop more than one century. For example, in the Caucasus you can meet plane trees giants, whose age exceeds 2 thousand years.
In Turkey, growing majestic sycamore, the actual age of which reached 2300 years. It reached 60 m in height, and 13.4 m in circumference of the trunk. This tree is considered to be one of the largest trees on the planet. Even in ancient times, it was possible to meet plane trees with very wide crowns, in the shadow of which up to 100 people could freely be. Especially often planes are cultivated in countries with a hot climate, because they give coolness and the desired shade. Since ancient times they were valued by the population, after disembarking they formed whole shady groves.
At a certain time this powerful tree produces fruits, peculiar multi-nut nuts, which eventually break up into many small nuts. Even a high-resolution photo cannot convey the beauty of this magnificent tree: its beautiful leaves, unusual bark. Plane has become a true pet of gardeners due to its aesthetic qualities.
Some nuances of growing a beautiful plane tree
How to grow a strong sycamore in your garden? It grows simple, without requiring special conditions of maintenance and care. For optimal growth and development, it is necessary to provide a sufficient amount of light, natural heat and moisture. When growing Chinara in the middle zone, the only difficulty arises - low winter hardiness of the species, it can freely tolerate lowering the temperature to -15 degrees, but at lower temperatures there is a risk that the species can completely die.
Chinar needs regular pruning. This is done in order to remove damaged branches. Such a haircut is also needed to give a decorative form. We need to make sure that this tree successfully overwinter. To do this, prepare high-quality mulch, consisting of spruce twigs, sawdust. Dry fall foliage is an excellent mulch. Gradually ordinary plane tree adapts to any habitat conditions.
For example, it can adapt to the conditions of urban pollution. Dangerous pests do not annoy the majestic plane tree, which is very important for its successful cultivation in city squares, small parks, alleys. Common tree diseases do not affect this giant. The special diseases affecting resistant plane tree are not revealed. Any type of cutting is carried out well, it can successfully develop in places with poor ecology.
How to plant a magnificent plane tree on your site? First you need to do the selection of the landing site. Chinar will actively grow if for its planting you choose a place with sufficiently loose, rich in basic minerals, soil. In dry regions, it will also be actively developed if it is provided with high-quality watering. Long-lived tree just loves moisture. With quality watering, it will always be profitable to stand out in your garden.
Plane has a fast growth. During the year of active growing season, he can climb up to 2 meters. Primary planting of mature seeds or ready seedlings is carried out in the fall or spring. The plane tree prefers places with a deep-flowing moisture, which is why it is often planted near the banks of rivers. How to choose a seedling seedling right? For a middle zone with a cool climate, it is better to select samples with increased cold resistance. Plant a strong sprout in a well-lit place.
Use of sycamore
This majestic tree is also used in landscape design. It is planted in small parks, city squares, gardens. This tall long-liver is valued for its unpretentiousness and unusual crown shape. He loves the sun, heat, moisture. Because of his heat-loving, he requires shelter for the winter.
Even in ancient times, this tree was considered a cool oasis in hot countries. Under his lush crown could hide from the scorching sun. It is also in demand and wood plank, it is successfully used for various purposes: in the decoration of car showrooms, the manufacture of various furniture.
Eastern Chinara since ancient times was used as a healing potion.A decoction of its leaves and bark was used as an effective analgesic, hemostatic and anti-inflammatory agent. When biting dangerous reptiles also used decoction of plane trees. Also made various lotions of local exposure.
The sycamore tree grows and develops on almost any soil, but prefers fertile and loose soil. Do not forget about the regularity of watering this tree, because under natural conditions, he likes to grow near the water or in the gorges. Especially important is watering the tree in arid weather. For the health of plane trees, you can not worry too much, because it is sufficiently resistant to many diseases.
With the help of pruning, you can form plane trees of a fancy decorative shape that will serve as an excellent decoration of your beautiful garden. These giants are able to endure with all natural disasters, unfavorable conditions for their growth and development, the polluted atmosphere of megalopolises has no detrimental effect on them. Planes can easily develop near highways, in areas with unfavorable environmental conditions.
If you want to create a place in your garden for solitude and coolness, then for this purpose a fast-growing sycamore will fit perfectly. It is also perfect for growing hedges. Having grown a plane tree once, you can give this survivor to the younger generation of your family, who will also enjoy the shade of its spreading crown.