As for the columnar apple trees, it is common misconception about the lack of side shoots.
In this case, the pruning of the pyramidal apple trees can not go.
And such a question, pb, whether it is necessary to prune a columnar apple tree, arises even among experienced gardeners. But it is necessary to dispel this myth.
Formation of columnar apple trees
Whether to trim the garden, forming a strict column, the choice is individual.
But it is worth considering that appearance of apple trees - not the only reason for this, in this regard, there are several aspects:
- Forming the correct shape of an apple tree,
- Warning tangle of shoots
- Strengthening the young branches,
- Apple rejuvenation,
- Yield increase.
How to cut a columnar apple correctly: video lessons from professionals
See why it is possible and necessary, as well as how to cut a columnar apple, video from an experienced gardener:
See how the specialists of the project "6 acres" share their experience on the video on the topic - columnar apple trees: care and pruning.
Thanks to this procedure, the tree is rejuvenated, and at the base of hemp new branches are formed.
Pruning Apple: scheme
Pruning of apple trees is minimal and is aimed mainly at balancing growth and fruiting.
When forming it is worth considering some characteristicsinherent only in stunted trees.
Central escape plays the role of a rod for the whole tree and can not be shortened. As for the side - distinguish horizontally and vertically located branches.
On how to properly trim the side shoots should stay in more detail. They are the foundation in the formation of fruiting zones, which subsequently give a harvest for three to five years. In this perspective, care for columnar apple trees, pruning occupies an important place.
Trimming involves two basic techniques:
- Deletion - in the event that only part of the branch is cut off,
- A cutting - a branch, for one reason or another, is completely removed.
Forming a column, experienced gardeners stick to basic rules:
- In the year of landing young tree pruning twigs on two buds. Due to this, the shoots will harden and subsequently will give a healthier growth.
- Next year gardener waiting for new work. It is necessary to determine the horizontal branches and cut. The height of the trim is individual, but on average is about 30cm. Vertical - located closer to the central trunk, are left for further fruiting.
- For the third year tree life, last year's pruning is repeated. The difference is that the shoots that have been bearing fruit in the previous season are additionally removed.
If you have doubts about trimming the next branch, you can follow hint. On the tree should not remain branches that have reached half the thickness of the central conductor.
When pruning a columnar apple
Terms of pruning for each grade are individual and are determined by the grade feature. The formation can be carried out in four stages:
- Winter pruning, considered the main. The most successful period for its implementation is the pre-spring.
- Spring pruning, the right time to determine the central escape. Produced after flowering.
- Summer pruning is designed to remove unwanted young shoots.
- Strong vertical shoots removed during the period. autumn pruning. The same time it is possible to thin out the thickened places.
it annual plan for the formation of columnar apple trees. But each of the points should be given separate attention.
Winter pruning Apple
The columnar apple has no permanent branches.
Due to its strictly cylindrical shape, the branches of the lower part of the tree are in somewhat worse conditions.
Sunlight does not fall on them in such a volume as on the top.
In the period of winter pruning, fruiting zones are formed, gradually shifting to the upper tiers.
Also remove broken and dry branches.
To weaken the load of future fruits on the tree, too weak shoots are removed.
Pruning of Apple Apple in Spring: Scheme
The main task to finish pruning before the movement of juice begins.
The essence of the formation is that after pruning, growth increases several times. Of the four to five remaining buds on the pruned branch, gardeners receive the same number of new shoots.
Such pruning pinch is called, or pinning. New gain is not the only purpose of the procedure.
Find out everything about how pruning of apple-shaped apple trees is done in spring: the video clearly shows the subtleties of the process:
After the winter cold, frozen tips of the branches are removed. This procedure contributes to the rejuvenation and improvement of the apple tree.
Pruning of Apple Apple in Summer: Scheme
In summer, unnecessary green shoots of the current year are removed. They are easy to identify, usually they grow directly from the center conductor. To remove them do not need a pruner. Summer pruning of apple-shaped apple trees is done by plucking.
Properly trimmed columnar apple.
Pruning Apple-tree in Autumn
In the autumn, after harvest, when the movement of the juice stops, sanitary pruning of trees is performed. Kolonovidnye apple care in the fall also require.
All extra branches are deleted:
- Cross each other.
Without such a ballast, it will be easier for the tree to survive the winter. Special attention is paid to the branches.dried and damaged pests.
Correct pruning of apple in autumn: video for beginners from agroschool
See how to trim the columnar apple in the fall - the video will help you figure it out:
You may also find a useful video about making a talker for putting apple trees after pruning:
Do not forget about the shoots of the current year, growing with a central escape. Removing them in summer does not provide an absence by fall.
The above are listed general recommendations, columnar apple care pruning and shaping. But for each grade, the specificity of care is individual. And then, on the columnar Apple pruning forming is carried out according to the situation.
The age of the tree also requires its own amendments. The most important pruning of young trees.
Experts recommend starting the formation of side branches in the first year. Developing annual shoots pinch on two buds. At the same time, at the base of the branch, it is recommended to leave a pair of lower buds. Next year they will form strong young shoots.
The top is the most vulnerable part of the tree. For the normal development of the trunk need to save the crown kidney, the dangerous enemy of which is frost.
The main runaway damaged by cold will be drowned out by young branches.
The task of the gardener, during the spring pruning of apple trees, to determine which of the many shoots is the strongest.
It is left for further development, the rest is removed.
Knowing the timing and purpose of pruning lateral shoots, oh, not knowing the technique of cutting, you can bring harm to the tree.
The following are the main errors and their consequences:
- If, after trimming, the stump is too long, then its further death will follow.
- Too short, will inhibit the growth of the kidneys.
- Too oblique or shaggy cut, entails wood trauma.
- The cut during formation must be flawless..
In the process of forming the lateral branches, the so-called pruning to the “kidney” is used.
The ideal cut is easy to achieve, following a few rules:
- The cut is performed from the base to its top.
- Directed in the opposite direction from the kidney.
- Straight, two fingers above the kidney.
- Without burrs and burrs bark.
From the rigor of compliance with these recommendations depends on the further growth of the branch.
Important aspects of columnar apple care for excellent yields.
In conclusion, it should be said that of course, all of the above, requires considerable effort. But only individual work with each tree, will allow to achieve high productivity and stable yield.
Characteristics and key features
The apple tree is a stem with fruit branches growing from it upwards and a little to the side, cone-shaped crown. These branches bring harvest. The trunks of a columnar apple have a compact crown, with a small number of skeletal branches. The appearance of the columnar apple resembles pyramidal poplars, which is why it is often called the pyramidal apple tree.
The length of apple trees does not exceed 2–3 m in height, and the crown cut is 0.5 m. These volumes make it possible to grow a culture of apple-shaped apple trees on small areas of land plots. Apple trees have a beautiful decorative appearance when they are in bloom, and they are used as decoration for the area.
No need for a ladder during harvest and tree crown care. It takes less labor and effort to save pests in the garden, since they are easier to spot on low trees.
It is possible to create a very simple system of watering apples, using the fact that the distance between the trees should be about 40 cm. In such compacted plantings it is also easier to become mulch the soil, loosening and fertilizing.
High yield in a short time. Subject to the purchase of apples in the autumn, after one spring, you already have the opportunity to get a rich harvest. Most trees start to harvest after 2 years from planting.
For land with high groundwater storage suitable cultivation in containers. In addition to containers, apple trees can also be grown on balconies and loggias.
For the winter the best option would be to rearrange the plants in the basement, garage or any other room in which a certain temperature is observed.
Column early - bright yellow fruits with a red spot, the beginning of fruit ripening occurs in August. Apples of ordinary size are distinguished by their juiciness and taste.
The president - The period of harvest of this variety falls on the beginning of autumn (September, October). The apples are large, yellow in color, light in weight and slightly flattened.
Arbat - trees begin to bear fruit at the end of summer in August. Juicy and tasty apples.
Medoc - The name itself emphasizes their honey taste. Yellow apples with very high sugar content. Harvesting should begin in September.
Ray - The fruit is light green with a red spot, slightly flattened.
Iksha colonial - green apples, slightly flat in shape. They are distinguished by the sweet and sour taste and aroma of saffron.
Dialogue - apples are yellow, light in weight and with a slight sourness.
With proper planning, as well as a combination of different varieties of columnar apple trees, it is possible to achieve that you can enjoy apples until winter.
With the help of mail there is an opportunity to order saplings of any varieties of these plants.
Planting apple trees
Planting a columnar apple and caring for it requires a lot of effort. Gardeners with extensive experience recommend planting in the spring before the period of bud break. After all, the sapling will have time to take root well, grow stronger and gain strength for wintering. But there is also the planting of columnar apple trees in the fall. It is produced at the time of falling foliage and about a month before the onset of the first frost.
It should be properly planted annual seedlings that can tolerate the transplant process is much easier and differ in their speed of adaptation. For the free location of the roots of seedlings need pits of exact size. Mineral fertilizer should not be added to the planting pits, as the still-rooted root system is unable to absorb large amounts of nutrients, and their excess will have a bad effect on its development.
In the case of correct and accurate planting of seedlings during the growing season, we can expect a 20-30 cm increase.
For constant and high yields, it is required to regularly care for the columnar apple throughout the entire period. It consists mainly in abundant watering, fertilizing and preventive control of diseases and various pests.
The roots of the colonists are located on the surface layer of the soil, at a depth of 40 cm. The moisture from these layers evaporates fairly quickly, and in order to prevent the soil from drying out, it is necessary to produce permanent watering. As well as mulching the soil to slow down evaporation. Watering is directly related to the size and juiciness of the fruit during ripening.
Apple trees require constant fertilizing. This is necessary so that trees do not experience hunger in food due to the rapid depletion of the land beneath them. Before bud break, carbamide or ammonium nitrate is used. At the end of the month, a nitroammofosca is scattered around the perimeter of the crown. And at the end of a month, repeat the procedure with nitroammofoskoy.
Also, apple trees will not interfere foliar feeding. For her use of trace element solutions, sodium humate, phytosporin and all kinds of biologics. Ash has a great effect on feeding in the calculation of a pair of glasses on one tree. It should be borne in mind that in August, nitrogen and organic matter should be excluded, because for apples there is a period of rest and preparation for wintering. For the highest maturity of the shoots should be used phosphorus and potassium. Basic rules for feeding:
- In early spring, fertilize with nitrogen to develop leaves.
- Phosphorus and potassium, other trace elements were used in the budding season.
- During the period of formation of the ovary, fertilizers should be used to improve the taste of the fruit.
At that moment, after planting the apple trees, when the trunks are not yet strong enough, it is necessary to gradually increase the yield load. At the beginning of the life of the tree should remove the ovary, leaving a maximum of two. And then, during the flowering period, leave already half. With such an approach and rationing, the ovaries of the apple tree will have large fruits with a normal load without an overabundance.
Pests and diseases
Kolonovidka is known for its high resistance to diseases such as scab and mealy dew. But the treatment with fungicides as prophylaxis still does not hurt. Among the main pests for kolonovokh distinguish such:
- apple blossom flower,
- fruit sawfly,
- aphid and others.
In the fight against them, various insecticides are well suited.
The process of pest control is best combined with the moment of foliar feeding.
Trimming and shaping
When pruning apple trees, only side shoots are used, since it is forbidden to touch the top. When it is damaged or frozen, a certain number of shoots begin to grow. In this case, leave the strongest of them. If you are not confident in your abilities, it is better to look for a trimming scheme.
There are several pruning principles. They serve to form and support the columnar crown, thinning in order to illuminate the apples, update the branches. Simple trim rules:
- The shoots of the same year are shortened by two buds.
- In the case of not controlled growth of shoots in the middle of summer, they should be pinned.
- A year later, two buds are removed on one shoot, and the second shoot will bear fruit.
- Promptly remove shoots that otplodonosili.
- Sections should be processed with garden pod or linseed oil.
Kolonovidnye apple trees are unique in their miniature, decorative component and are able to please with a rich harvest.By following simple rules and listening to tips on how to care for them, you can grow the most healthy trees and achieve high yields.
Colony apple trees: pruning and care, photo
The choice of varieties of apple trees for your garden is a very important matter. Care for cuttings will have for several years, until the first harvest.
Therefore, if the selected variety does not meet your requirements, then as a result a great disappointment awaits.
Agrotechnics constantly produce new apples, so the gardener is only required to monitor the market and purchase seedlings in proven farms. The last point is very important.
Kolonovidnye apple trees spread rapidly in the domestic gardening. The imagination of the summer resident simply struck the opportunity to get about five centners of fruit from one hundred. In addition, an undeniable advantage of the kolonovidnogo form remains short and compact. Today we want to consider more care for such plantings.
This is both a plus and a minus, which are characterized by columnar apple trees. Pruning and care must comply with them. These are varieties of intensive growth and extreme precocity.
It often happens that the seedlings planted in spring, in the summer, are beginning to bloom.
This situation is stressful for the plant itself, since it did not have time to settle down in a new place and form a root system.
Therefore, in order not to lose the plant and not tear off the buds, it is necessary to carefully prepare the conditions for it, in particular, the soil. Only in the case of the correct application of top-dressing can colon-shaped apple trees grow and develop normally. Pruning and care for them at first glance is not difficult, but it has certain pitfalls. Let's talk about this in more detail.
In 1964, the first received the columnar apple. Pruning and care for this new species was not yet mastered, but year after year the rules were improved, along with the emergence of new varieties. To date, there are two types of "columns". Each of them has a further division, but more on that later.
The first type is actually colonous varieties. Graft them on dwarf rootstocks. The latter are ordinary, modern apples, characterized by high productivity and quality of fruits, and grafted onto superdwarf rootstocks and shaped like columns.
They bloom for 2-3 years of life, and some copies from the nursery, already the same age. That is, you do not have to wait for apples for a long time. However, the life of such a garden is very short, each tree pleases a gardener from 5 to 10 years. When growing, you need to comply with certain requirements, otherwise you will see an ordinary apple tree on the site, and you will not redo it back into the column.
Besides the fact that varieties are dwarf, semi-dwarf and vigorous, they, in turn, are also divided into species. Summer varieties are characterized by early flowering, the fruits can be removed as early as August. The most popular are Medoc and President. The trees are very compact, suitable for growing in a small garden.
Autumn varieties are the most popular. Their fruits ripen throughout September and October; they are large, sweet, and they tolerate very cold weather. These are Vasyugan, Jin and Titania.
Finally, the latest, winter varieties - Arbat, Bolero, Currency. Very productive, without support, the trunk may even break. Apples are well kept throughout the winter season.
Indeed, it all starts from the moment when you bring home a columnar apple. Pruning and care must be done right from day one.
If the grafting site is buried during planting, then the graft will give its own roots. Pay special attention to this, as the clonal rootstocks do not have a root collar.
In this case, the expected result is a vigorous, rooted own apple tree.
Colon-shaped varieties are small in size and extremely fecund. Lack of growth hormone, which is produced in the roots, leads to super-dwarfism. However, this moment has a downside.
It is thanks to this particular flower buds are laid in huge quantities, including on the main trunk. The side branches of the column are not needed at all, it is enough that there is a strong central conductor.
As a result, we get the main advantage that the columnar apple has. Planting and care (a photo of the garden below) is greatly facilitated. The distance between the trees is reduced to 0.5 meters.
Due to this density increases the yield.
We prepare the soil
This is a very important point, because without high-quality fertilizer you cannot grow a columnar apple. Planting and care (the photo shows the gardener's real dream, a neat little tree hung with fruits) must meet certain requirements. You get a good harvest only when the plant is provided with everything that is necessary for its development.
The landing pit must be prepared in advance. The optimal size is 90 * 90 cm, but 50 * 50 is also permissible. However, it is very important that the roots are placed freely. It needs to be fertilized.
These are superphosphate (100 g) and potassium (50 g). Be sure to mix them well with the ground, then condense. The next step is to plant an apple tree. Now you need to pour plenty of water.
If you bring organic matter into the pit, then you need to separate it from the roots with a layer of earth.
We provide conditions for normal development.
Another important point that allows you to grow a columnar apple. Care in the spring is quality feeding. It is very important to water a sapling 3-4 times in slurry. Concentration 1:10. Fermented chicken droppings will do, but it must be bred more strongly, approximately 1:30.
The next moment is a kind of pinching a seedling during the summer. The fact is that the columnar apple is characterized by prolonged growth. To speed up the aging process of the apical bud, two thirds of the plate should be removed from the four upper leaves. This is done in early August.
What else you need to know that he wants to grow a columnar apple.
Planting and care (varieties are nowadays becoming more and more promising) will bring the desired effect only if the apical bud survives. This is a weak point. It is prone to freezing.
In the event of her death, several vigorously growing vertical shoots are formed. You can leave them and allow the plant to form two columns.
Today we want to offer the gardener general instructions on how to plant a columnar apple. Planting and care, pruning and cultivation, the best varieties are all important information that as a result will help to create a dream garden.
Above we have already talked a little about spring work, now we go further. The main secret of growing these unique fruit trees is that the more we cut, the more the rest grows.
Therefore, it is not necessary to regret the landing, but it is important to know what and when can be removed.
Trimming branches at 2/3 and leaving four buds, you will get 3-4 powerful shoots. Moreover, if you decide to “regret” the plant and remove ½ of the branch, then as a result, an average of 5 shoots will grow. Accordingly, if only the apical bud is removed, then a dozen weak branches grow.
There are still some features that a summer resident should know. The closer the branch to the trunk, the stronger it grows, compared with rejected shoots. Therefore, the central conductor should not be cut off, it is not necessary to receive a branching from it. With proper care, the annual increment is 10-15 cm.
Throughout the season
For the first time in the spring, the columnar apple trees are pruned. Planting and care, reproduction of these high-yielding varieties are somewhat different from the vigorous, and this must be taken into account. Even before the start of sap flow, side branches are shortened by two buds.
Due to them, the tree gets two strong escapes during the warm season. In the second year, the one that is closer to the horizontal is left, and the vertical one is again shortened by two buds. The first will be fruiting, and the second will give two good escape.
The following year, the sprig that gave the apples is cut out, and with the remaining two they do the same as last year.
Sometimes the high activity of tree growth leads to the fact that the flower buds planted in the trunk, germinate in the side shoots. In this case, the tree gets an interesting external wedge, like a brush for dishes.
And when the crop ripens, the fruit hangs right on the trunk. By the way, all gardeners note how comfortable the columnar apple trees are.
Care and pruning in the fall is performed as needed, if you see that during the summer season did not have time to trace the tree.
It is not so easy to grow a columnar apple on your site. Planting and care, pruning, everything must be done in a timely manner, otherwise you will not see results. Growing such varieties is an intensive technology. Without a permanent presence in the garden, their growth and fruiting is impossible.
It is important to remember that they need a large amount of nutrients. Therefore, annually it is necessary to make complex fertilizers under the columnar apple. Care in the fall includes the creation of basal ring. Fresh humus is introduced into it, after which the earth is gently loosened and mulched. Now the tree no longer requires enhanced watering, as during the summer season.
Despite the good nutrition and conditions, such a large number of ovaries can not even grow a large tree, not to mention such a miniature plant.
In the first year after planting, it is best to pull out the flowers, especially if it was done in spring. For the second year, be guided by the state of the seedling. If he takes root well, then you can leave a few apples.
For the third year, enjoy the first harvest.
But the rationing is done very individually. See how your tree grows, what fruits are formed, and, based on this, plan activities for the next year. If you notice that the fruits have become smaller, then you need to reduce the number of ovaries. This is done as follows. During flowering on each fruit link leaves 2 bouquets.
Everything else is plucked out. Initially, look at the number of flowers, twice the future harvest. When the ovary appears, half the bouquets are removed. Now you need to wait a bit until the apples become the size of a cherry. Now leave only 2 ovaries in a bunch. Giving them to grow to the size of a nut, thinned again.
Now each fruit link has only one ovary.
All clonal stocks do not have a rod extending deep into the earth. Their root system is delicate and weak; moreover, the more pronounced the dwarfism of the variety, the worse the tree is fixed in the soil.
No other garden tree grows that way, so if you are planting a column for the first time, then pay special attention to this item. The roots are only 20 cm away from the trunk, and are fragile. They can be damaged when trampling down the ground or loosening. Therefore, gardeners use the technique of tinning.
That is, cereals are sown in the basal circle and periodically mowed. If there is no time for this, then the soil is mulched.
As you can see, a little effort, and columnar apple trees will grow on your site. Planting and care (photos, reviews emphasize that to obtain a good harvest will have to spend a lot of time) will be justified a hundredfold. Very important and proper watering.
It is desirable that it be constant, drip. If this is not possible, then water with a small amount of water every 2 days. At the same time, in both cases, abundant watering is required from time to time.
The optimum interval is 14 days, so that the water is completely saturated with all layers, and the soil is enriched with oxygen.
How to prune the columnar apple?
In order to get a good harvest and preserve the decorativeness of the crop, professional gardeners strongly recommend periodically cutting pruned apple trees.
This plant appeared in our gardens a couple of decades ago. Low-growing original apple trees without a crown with a small trunk instantly gained popularity in our environment. Occupying a minimum of space, these trees give an incredibly rich harvest. Of course, with proper care and proper pruning.
Why pruned apple trees, how to do it correctly and at what time of year, how to properly care for a consistently rich harvest is the topic of this article.
Pruning a tree is a responsible procedure, especially when it comes to such a unique variety as a columnar apple. It does not form a crown, fruits and leaves grow directly on the trunk. This contributes to a tight fit and a good harvest. Due to the lack of a crown, the scheme for pruning this crop is not quite normal.
There are no classic rules for pruning apple trees. The gardener has the right to decide on the need for this procedure. Apple varieties of this variety have buds on their crown, which cannot be damaged in any way. Therefore, pruning, aimed at the formation of the crown, is not appropriate.
Most often, pruning removes annual shoots that create an obstacle to the development of branches. Young shoots, attracting all the useful components, can reduce the number of fruit ovaries.
To prevent tangling of sitting shoots, they must be thinned out. All these manipulations will ultimately lead to an increase in the yield of the tree and the creation of an aesthetically neat appearance.
Should it be cut off?
When caring for a columnar apple, it is necessary to take into account the factors characteristic of the growth of this low-growing tree. The shape of the column in this plant is due to the presence of a special artificial gene. In its natural environment, the columnar apple takes on the form of a pyramidal column with side branches.
Externally, it resembles a cypress or poplar. In principle, it is possible not to interfere in the process of tree development, but to confine ourselves to a minimal pinching of the side processes. However, without pruning, there is a danger of developing a culture in a usual bonsai with a spreading crown.
To get the classic "column", the apple tree should be helped by cutting off the side shoots that will appear in the spring. Pruning will regulate their growth and form the correct columnar shape.
Pruning also has other advantages:
- even with a very dense planting, the branches of adjacent trees will not be confused,
- young branches will become stronger, and old ones will be replaced by new shoots,
- the cut crown will receive more light and power.
Compliance with all these factors will lead to a bountiful harvest.
The feature of the columnar apple is their weak growth. It is caused by an insufficient amount of growth hormones. The tree compensates for this deficiency by releasing a large number of flower buds that grow right on the trunk.
To make the trunk strong and strong, capable of holding the maximum number of fruits, you need to save it from the side branches that weaken its formation. Trees are planted at a distance of 0.8-1 meters from each other, this is a fairly dense arrangement that requires compliance with certain conditions.
Rules for pruning apple trees
- Rule number one is the main advice of experienced gardeners: the more branches cut through, the more actively the rest will develop.
- When planning for pruning apple-shaped pruning in the spring, it should be noted that it is necessary to begin the formation of the crown, armed with garden scissors, before the onset of the active movement of the juice.
If necessary, it is better to postpone pruning until the beginning of summer or until autumn - during the preparation of the tree for winter. The process of forming a dwarf tree is simple, but requires some diligence and attention to itself.Professional gardeners recommend adhering to phasing in the conduct of pruning of columnar apple trees in spring.
Also, you should follow the characteristics of the development and age of the culture. If you cut off most of the branches and put 3-4 buds on it, by the beginning of the season, new strong shoots will develop on the plant, which will bear plenty of fruit. Trimming a bit is also not an option. Then many weak branches will grow on the tree.
In some cases, gardeners are not limited to creating only one column, but form 2-3 powerful trunks.
How to make the correct pruning:
- Only one-year shoots are pruned, 2 buds remain on each of them.
- The procedure is repeated every year. Ideally, you should get a fruit link consisting of a horizontal fertile branch and 2 young shoots. Culture will bear fruit for 5 years. After that, the tree must be cut to the ground.
- For the formation of fruits in the summer, it is necessary to make a young growth of the scum and redirect nutrients from lateral branches.
- The weak spot of the columnar apple trees is their crown. Frozen in the winter, in the spring it will give several young shoots. It is necessary to leave one, the strongest, and shorten the rest to 2 buds.
Cut dwarf trees need without fanaticism. This process is caused by minimal losses for the plant, and is directed more to balance the growth and enhance the fruiting.
When forming a tree, one should take into account the peculiarities characteristic only of undersized crops. The role of the rod is played by the central shoot, it cannot be shortened. Lateral branches can be located horizontally and vertically. On this part of the trim and should be the most focused.
Lateral branches are the foundation in the formation of fruiting zones, which, with a successful pruning, will give a stable yield for 5 years.
Trimming includes 2 steps:
- Delete - only a part of the branch is trimmed,
- Cutting - the branch is removed completely.
For the formation of the correct tree will take several years.
The scheme of the phased formation of the columnar apple is as follows:
- 1st year. After planting, the tree trunk is shortened and all side shoots are removed.
- 2nd year. In the second year, young shoots are pinched, more than 30 cm in length. The uppermost shoot is not trimmed - it will be a continuation of the trunk.
- 3rd year. In the third year, lateral branches are shortened to 40 cm, and the upper shoot is pinned at a distance of 25 cm from the central bole.
- 4th year. All last year's branches are thinned, weak and improperly growing shoots are removed.
- 5th year. The tree must be limited in height. Three meters - height recommended by gardeners.
- All subsequent years. Weak dried bends are cut to stimulate the growth of young branches and increase yields.
Common pruning errors and their consequences:
- If a stump is left too short after pruning an apple tree, it will prevent the growth of the kidneys, and too long can lead to its death.
- Shaggy and oblique cut will cause wood trauma. The cut must be flawless. For the formation of the side branches applied pruning on the "kidney".
How to make the perfect cut:
- Cut off from warp to the top.
- The direction of the cut is in the opposite direction from the kidney.
- The cut should be straight, free of burrs and burrs of the bark - 2 fingers above the kidney.
Important! Pruning shoots, you need to leave 2-3 buds on each. Growth of a branch depends on it.
- Cut the apple tree is necessary with a sharp garden tool.
- The pruning procedure is painful for the plant, so the “wounds” need to be treated with a garden pitch.
- Removing the small green shoots growing from the trunk will not harm the tree. On the contrary, it is necessary to do this to help the plant form a powerful central pillar. This will increase fruiting. For further pruning, branches should be left no older than 3–4 years.
Tip: Have a doubt about the need for pruning? Please note that the tree should not be branches that have already reached half the thickness of the central trunk.
Annual plan for the formation of columnar apple trees
The timing of pruning apple-tree pruning is highly individual and depends on the variety.
Tree formation is carried out in 4 stages:
- The main pruning is winter. The most successful period for circumcision is pre-spring.
- Spring pruning is ideal for defining a central shoot. It should be done after the end of flowering.
- During the summer pruning, unnecessary young shoots are removed.
- In the fall, vertical shoots are cut. In this period, thickened areas are also thinned.
Each of these stages has its own characteristics.
A columnar apple has no permanent branches. Due to its cylindrical shape, the branches in the lower part are in worse conditions. They are deficient in sunlight.
During winter pruning, the formation of fruiting areas takes place and they are further shifted to the upper tiers. During this period, get rid of dry and broken branches. Too weak shoots are removed to relieve the load on the tree of future fruits.
the task is to have time to cut the tree before the juice begins to move. After pruning, plant growth increases many times. The remaining number of new shoots is obtained from the remaining buds of the buds. This pruning is called casing or nipping.
However, the new growth is not the ultimate goal of spring pruning. After the end of winter frosts, frozen ends are removed to rejuvenate and rejuvenate the culture.
In the summer you should get rid of this year’s unnecessary green shoots. To find them is quite simple: they grow from the center conductor. Summer pruning of apple-shaped apple trees is not carried out by shears, but by regular plucking.
Be careful! Remove small shoots gently without damaging the bark. A pair of large wounds is not so terrible for a plant as many small ones.
How to thin out the crown to get large fruit?
In order for the growth of branches, flowering and ripening of fruits to take place in the active mode, the rows between rows must have a width of no more than 1.5 meters. And the appearance of shoots should be constantly regulated.
It is impossible to touch the top stem bud, it is necessary for the growth of a seedling. The rest of the kidneys should be cut at an angle of 30 degrees so that until the kidney, the second from the trunk, remains 3 cm
For a year, the kidneys will turn into full-fledged processes.
Next spring, escape, which grew close to the horizontal branch, do not touch.
More vertical trimmed on last year’s scheme. On a short horizontal branch there will be flowers, and on the vertical - 2 more processes. One will bear fruit, and the second will need to be pruned. According to this principle, pruning of an apple tree should be done within 5 years. Spil necessarily lubricated with oil paint, garden pitch or clay.
Important! The tip is trimmed only when the upper shoot froze and began to produce shoots.
There is another more complicated way of crown formation. In addition to trimming, it also provides a nip. If this method is applied to an ordinary apple, you can subsequently get a columnar from it. Conversely, if a hybrid of a columnar apple is planted in the ground, having unnecessarily submerged a place of dwarf rootstock in it, the upper part will give roots and turn into an ordinary high apple tree.
The tree itself is a stock with a graft that has taken root in the nursery. Therefore, all major pruning should be done in the year of planting, without waiting for the seedling to take root. Follow the annual trimming principle described above.
How competent pruning to achieve long-term fruiting?
Flowers at the columnar apple trees appear on the branches and trunk. But it does not follow from this that all the ovaries will turn into fruits. Stunted crops are not able to provide their many fruits with their entire nutritional composition.
In the first year of buds appears in excess. You need to tear them all, without exception. Only next year it will be possible to leave several pieces to get up to 5 fruits from one apple tree.
Buds form bouquets - several pieces on each branch. If you leave them all, the fruits will grow in clusters. For standard fruiting, it is enough to leave one horizontal process. Flowers will appear on it, from all of them you will need to leave only 2 bouquets.
The inflorescences are also removed from the trunk according to this principle: exactly twice as many apples are planned to be harvested. On an adult tree can grow 12 kg of fruit, on average, no more than 15 large.
When the ovary begins, thinning should be repeated. On each branch remains one bunch, half of those that were not touched last time are plucked from the trunk.
After the formation of fruit the size of a cherry with each bunch removed most of the apples. It remains an average of 2 pieces.
When the fruit reaches a size with a walnut, you should leave only one fruit at the place where the bouquet was located.
This thinning will redirect the nutrient medium to the ripening fruit.
Each fruited sprout is cut next year in early spring. The whole cycle is repeated for 5 years. After that, the entire branch is cut off under the ring: it is believed that it has already completed its resource. The crown will become higher.
With proper care, culture yields fruits both 12 and 15 years old. But sooner or later the moment of tree degeneration will come. To upgrade it, you need to cut the trunk to 60 cm from the ground and wait for the emergence of new shoots - choose the most tall and tie it to the support. This will be the future top of the new tree. The rest are cut until the apple tree grows and acquires new branches.
Only individual work with each columnar apple will allow to achieve high productivity and get a stable harvest.
Kolonovidnye apple: planting, care, pruning, varieties, photos
The most popular crop in any garden is an apple tree. But due to the fact that, as a rule, apple trees spread their crown widely, it is not possible to plant more than three trees in a small area. Therefore, it is not for nothing that small columnar apple trees have become especially popular among gardeners.
Sometimes you can hear opinions that apples from such apple trees are tasteless, that the tree itself is a little like a column and the crop leaves much to be desired. But, most likely, in this case the rules for tree care were violated. We will understand the nuances concerning these varieties of apple trees.
Celled apple trees have a weak root system and because of this requires special attention to the soil in which they are planted. It must be fertile and moisture resistant. If the site is dominated by clay soil, then a drainage system is needed, which is formed in the pit for the seedling.
An ideal place for planting will be the place where the groundwater lies.
Since these trees are small, they are afraid of a strong wind that can simply break an apple tree or tear it out of the ground due to a weak root system. This should be taken into account when preparing a landing site.
It must be protected from the wind and, at the same time, it must be sunny. In a place where it will always be sunny, the fruits will ripen more efficiently.
Purchase of seedlings
Of course, it is best to choose an apple tree seedling in specialized stores or nurseries. When buying from the hands of the market, there is a big risk that the autumn variety of apple trees may come out as summer, and even worse - replace the crop (for example, sell a pear instead of an apple tree). In order not to be deceived during the purchase you need to know a few simple rules:
- A sapling must have a tag that indicates the name of the apple variety and its age. Also, in specialized places of sale there is always an accompanying document, which indicates the period of fruiting, especially the care, resistance to diseases and so on.
Given the fact that the scion and stock is quite fragile, the inoculation may be damaged. The root system should not contain lumpy cones, if a little scraping of the bark from the root, it should be white and alive. Leaves on the tree should not be.
Before planting a seedling, it is necessary to lower it into a solution of the root stimulator at night.
Preparing the landing site
It is recommended to prepare a place for planting an apple tree since autumn. The distance between the rows of trees should be at least one meter, and the distance between the trees in it not less than half a meter.
A standard pit usually has a size of 50x50, but during planting it is adjustable depending on the size of the roots of the tree.
Planting seedlings on a permanent place
How to plant a columnar apple? Let's try to figure it out.
Planting trees in a permanent place is best done in the spring, before buds bloom.
To begin with, we fill the pit with a drainage made of rubble and sand, about twenty centimeters high in layer. The soil that was removed from the pit is mixed with fertilizer or humus, as well as wood ash.
The seedling is placed in a strictly vertical position in the pit, and a support stake is driven in next to it. Roots should not be bent or broken. A tree is poured from the outer edge of the pit to the inner one.
This should be done very carefully, since the columnar apple trees have a fragile graft. When the pit is half full, you need to gently tamp the soil and pour the seedling with settled water. It is necessary to control that the vaccination is 3 centimeters from the soil.
If prikopat vaccination, it can begin the formation of the root system of the scion.
Further, the pit is filled to the end with soil and the tree is tied to a support. Now you need to water the sapling. Now should leave about two buckets of water. After that, the soil must be mulched, but the mulch must be removed for wintering.
Colonid tree care consists of:
- in fertilizer,
- soil moistening
- correct pruning
- regulation of flowering tree
- treating wood from pests and diseases
- preparing for winter.
Fertilizer and dressing
Due to the fact that the root system of a columnar apple is superficial, it is better to use fertilizers in solid form. To pour them directly on the soil and after watering. In total it is necessary to make three top dressings of a tree.
The first dressing can be done using nitroamophos during the period when the leaves start to bloom. In the year of planting the first seedling need to produce a month after planting. Then the procedure must be repeated after three, four weeks, and the third time also after three, four weeks. All feeding must end by the end of July.
If the land is not fertile, then feed, usually with humus. After application to the soil of humus, it must be watered and mulched. It must be remembered that after each feeding procedure, it is necessary to water and mulch the soil.
The above feeding scheme is only a recommendation, and may in fact differ from those that will be used by the gardener. You only need to know the following rules:
- For the best foliage formation in the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are needed,
- When forming flowers, on which the subsequent harvest depends, potassium, phosphate fertilizers, and also microelements are necessary.
- At the stage of the formation of fruits to improve their quality and taste using nitrogen tuki.
The quality of watering the tree directly depends on the juiciness of the apple, so the entire growing season is necessary to ensure it.
Under each tree you need to form a kind of boards, 3 centimeters high. They will perform the function of retaining moisture around the trunk. Up to two buckets of water should be poured onto one tree. After watering, the tree must be mulched. The need for the next watering occurs when the dry layer of the soil is five centimeters.
If the garden irrigation system, the apple trees watered between the rows.
How to regulate the load of the columnar apple
For a systematic rich harvest the tree needs preparation. A large load on the tree in the first two years can damage the tree and weaken it. To avoid this, you need to remove all the ovaries, leaving one - two. This will allow you to see the quality of the fruits at harvest and taste them.
Next year, you need to leave half the ovary. And in subsequent years, thinned during periods of flowering and at the time when the ovaries are formed. Bouquets must be left twice as large as the amount of the harvest, and after the fruit are set, no more than two ovaries should be left.
With this method of adjustment, the apples will be large and the tree will not suffer from the load.
If you do not engage in adjustment, then the columnar apple will produce a crop every two years, the apples will be small and tasteless.
A few words about crop pruning apple trees. In the fall, usually all gardeners are engaged in this procedure, but in fact, the original columnar apple tree does not need to be cut, as it grows in one trunk without side branches. But with genetic disruptions, there are cases that the tree still produces side shoots and then it must be tidy shaped.
How to prune the columnar apple? Tree pruning is done in two ways:
- In the second year after planting the apple trees, the buds and side shoots are removed.
- Form a tree top into two or three trunks. Such pruning is called "candelabrum".
Celled apple trees are immune to more diseases and are resistant to pests. However, there are years when insects are just the sea and such invasions of aphids can simply destroy the tree, and the flowering beetles will kill the entire crop.
Ways of struggle are exactly the same as for ordinary apple orchards. Treatment with insecticides or the use of folk methods in the form of a soap solution will help save the tree.
Also, dill or lemon balm can be planted near the tree, as these plants are natural assistants in pest control.
In severe winter frost at the columnar apple, the bud on the central shoot can suffer. To avoid this, you need to cover the tree for the winter with insulation or sacking.
To protect the tree from small rodents, the tree should be enclosed with a metal grid, which should be slightly tucked into the ground, but this should be done carefully so as not to damage the root system.
After the snowfall, you need to carefully, without effort, to tamp the snow near the trunk. This will save the tree from mice and rats.
Harvesting with a columnar apple is a real pleasure, because, thanks to the low span of the tree, it is not necessary to use additional equipment to reach the apples. Terms of harvesting begin according to the type of tree.
Fruits need to be sorted, placed in containers and put in the basement. The ideal temperature in the basement in which apples will be stored in winter should be between two and three degrees Celsius. The damaged or damaged fruits can be used in preparations for the winter, for example, compotes or juices.
There are a lot of varieties of columnar apple trees, the choice is varied both in terms of fruit ripening and the quality of apples. Next will be listed the popular varieties of columnar apples for Siberia and other regions.
This is a summer variety of apple trees. Semi-dwarf tree with high yield. From the apple tree "President" in the second year you can already collect up to a dozen apples.
Apple is light yellow or green with a little blush. One apple can weigh from 150 to 200 grams. Harvesting is done in August.
Fruits are juicy, soft. The tree is immune to disease and pests. In pruning, as a rule, does not need. Due to its frost resistance, this variety is perfect for Siberia.
Kolonovidnaya Apple "Moscow Necklace"
This is a winter apple variety. It can also be considered late autumn.
This apple tree will not be able to produce crops unless other varieties of apple trees are planted around it. Apples are large, red with dense skin and juicy slightly sour pulp. One apple can weigh up to 170 grams.
Harvesting with "Ozherelia" is made in October.
"Moscow" variety frost-resistant, not painful and high-yielding. This is a very popular variety of apple trees due to the fact that its fruits are very tasty, fragrant and beautiful in appearance.
This is a tall variety that gives harvest in the fall. The height of the tree can reach three meters. It is frost-resistant, and is not subject to diseases. Harvest this tree gives the first year after planting.
Fruits "Vasugan" red with soft pulp and sweet-sour taste. Maturation occurs in the month of September. This variety is high-yielding, from one fruit tree it is very real to collect up to ten kilograms of tasty and fragrant apples.
This is an autumnal variety. Very fragrant sweet and sour apples. The tree begins to bear fruit from the second year after planting. The fruits of this apple are great for processing and for consumption directly from the branch.
I must say that if you ensure the proper care of the tree and cut it in time, any sort of columnar apple will please the gardener with a quality crop.
Colony Apple: General Description
Kolonovidnye, or pyramidal apple trees appeared in the middle of the last century as a result of random hybridization, which found that engaged in their selection. The columnar apple has one trunk, on it, instead of shoots of Kolchatka, a fruit-tree and a spear, on which the formation of flower buds takes place. Fruiting lasts an average of 15 years.
General landing rules
Colon-shaped apple trees, like all fruit trees, can be planted in the spring, before woody juices awake. But planting a columnar apple in the fall is preferable; it will give the plant the opportunity to adapt and overwinter.
How to plant a columnar apple, step by step instructions.
- Over the past few weeks, prepare a pit for a sapling. It should be deep, a meter deep, wide and long. When digging, fertile soil should be folded separately from the barren soil.
- Place gravel and sand drainage at the bottom of the pit.
- Mix the fertile part of the soil with 30-40 liters of humus or compost, add 100 g of superphosphate and potash fertilizer, 100 g of dolomite flour under the condition of acidic soil, mix and lay in the pit. Leave for two weeks.
- Plant an apple tree in the prepared soil, cover it with barren soil from the pit, making sure that the root collar is above the surface.
- Form a hole around the tree, pour two buckets of water into it.
- After soaking the water, start the barrel circle. For mulching suitable grass, peat, sawdust.
- Tie the tree to the support, if necessary.
When spring planting, the pits should be prepared in autumn, so that the fertilizers dissolve, the soil coalesces and the roots fall into a favorable environment.
How to care for trees, tips on growing
Colon-shaped apple trees look great, their planting is compact and takes up little space, they give a good harvest, but they require careful maintenance, timely watering and fertilizing, loosening the soil and removing weeds.
It happens that the care of the columnar apple causes difficulties for gardeners. So, sometimes the apical bud is damaged, which is the growth point of a tree that has one trunk and does not have a crown. The most common cause of damage is freezing.
The death of the kidney leads to an increase in "spare" shoots. Then the tree will grow into several trunks. If you want it to be strictly compact in one trunk, you should choose the strongest one from the additional shoots and remove the rest.
Watering colony varieties
The root-shaped apple trees have a fibrous root system, it is located close to the surface, therefore the plants require regular moistening. Watering method is better to choose drip.
If the summer weather is normal, water the young apples should be twice a week, if arid - every other day, or even daily. Mature trees can be watered less often. By the end of the summer it is recommended to stop watering, to give the plant the opportunity to prepare for winter.
Nuances of trimming
It is believed that the columnar apple trees, if they are properly cared for, will grow in one stem, and pruning will not be required. This is not entirely true, since the side-shaped shoots of the columnar apple still provide.
It happens that the growing point is damaged, as a result of which new shoots grow. Everyone decides for himself how to form a columnar apple.
Pruning apple trees are pruned in spring, early summer or autumn. The whole procedure takes several years.
Pruning the apple tree, the scheme and dates by year:
- 1 year. Remove all side shoots, shorten the trunk.
- 2 year Pinch young shoots that have reached 30 cm. Do not touch the upper shoot with the growing point.
- 3 year. Shorten the upper shoot to 25 cm from the trunk, lateral to 40 cm.
- 4 year. To thin out lateral and irregular shoots last year.
- 5 year. Shorten the tree. A height of 3 meters is recommended.
- The following years. Remove weak and dried shoots.
How to prune an apple tree:
- Cut branches should have two buds at the base. Trimming produce a very sharp clean shears at an angle of 45 degrees per centimeter from the kidney. It will be appropriate to practice on unnecessary boughs.
Crop preferably shoots under the age of one year.
Actively growing unnecessary shoots in the middle of summer to pinch.
Fix the apical shoot, the rest to turn into links that will bear fruit.
Collapse of colonic plants
Due to the fibrous root system, the columnar apple trees, in addition to abundant watering, need protection from water evaporation from the soil. The solution can be mulching with humus or peat. The best option is the tincture of the wheel circle.
With this method, the space around the tree is sown with herbs or cereals. The vegetative cover closes the ground from the sun, and is not itself a competitor to the apple because of the shallow roots. However, it should be regularly thinned, if it is spicy herbs, and mowed, if the grass.
From the huge number of ovaries, which produces a columnar apple, it is impossible to get a full harvest.
If the apple tree blossomed in the first year, the whole color needs to be removed: the tree is too weak, and it needs strength in order to adapt and grow strong. Next year, you can leave five of the most beautiful ovaries, in the third year - ten.
How to protect apple trees in winter
Before the onset of winter frosts should take care of protection. If the tree trunk was muted with straw, it should be removed, it will be warm in it not only the apple tree, but also the mice. The latter is also satisfying.
You can cover sawdust, spruce, and other available materials. The main thing is that they are dry. The best protection for the tree will be fallen snow, which should spud the apple tree.
To protect the growing point from freezing, it is recommended to wrap it in several layers of cloth or paper.
To wind gusts did not break the plant, it is appropriate to tie it to a support.
Pros and cons of the cultivation of columnar apple trees
The advantages of the columnar apple trees are undoubtedly:
- high yield
- ease of harvesting
- the opportunity to grow up to a dozen different varieties of apples on a plot that would take one ordinary apple tree,
- resistance to pests
- decorative and originality of appearance.
The disadvantages include:
- growth point fragility
- weak roots
- timely, constant and rather time-consuming care,
- the cost of seedlings.
There is no doubt that it is necessary to try, if you want to have at least one such apple tree in your garden. It is likely that the columnar apple, no matter how troublesome it was planting and caring for it, will generously repay care with its decorative look and generous harvest.
One of the Canadian gardeners about 50 years ago accidentally spotted a tree with a strange look. On it at all there were no side branches. Instead, ripening fruits hung. As it was found later, the cause of this phenomenon was a mutation, as a result of which the crown acquired a vertical form. The aforementioned gardener from Canada took several cuttings and rooted them. Due to this, in 1964, the first columnar apple appeared, namely the variety “Leader”.
Over time, the active breeding of new varieties began, in which the size, shape, color and taste of fruits differed significantly.
The height of the columnar variety is 2.5 m maximum and 0.5 m wide. The central branch does not have side branches, so you can do without pruning. Apple tree is considered skoroplodnoy. So, with regular fertilization and proper irrigation, the first crop can be harvested in the same year. Naturally, for this you should pay attention to other factors and provide the necessary conditions for the proper development of the plant.
Kolonovidnye apple different in height. They are:
Another classification is used, according to which varieties are divided into 3 groups:
- summer (President, Medoc),
- autumn (Titania, Vasyugan),
- winter (Amber Necklace, Arbat, Moscow).
Not so long ago, these plants were grown in specialized nurseries, but recently they gradually appear in private households. Many gardeners have already appreciated the benefits of such small trees. This is especially true for retirees, who, because of their age, find it difficult to care for high spreading plants and to prune them.
It is worth noting that the columnar apple is usually grown in open ground. However, some experts prefer to use special vases. Thanks to this, it is possible to achieve different effects in the field of landscape design.
Most varieties fruits up to 15 years. Breeders say that columnar apple trees often live to 50 years, but such mature trees practically do not produce crops.
From one plant you can collect from 6 to 12 kg of fruit. This indicator may vary depending on the variety, climatic conditions and fertilizers used.
Advantages and disadvantages
A columnar apple is a truly unique tree. Instead of lateral branches, fruitful shoots are visible on the central trunk. It should be noted that such apples have a rather compact crown and a not too extensive root system. Thanks to this feature, the plant can be planted tightly, which will ensure high yields. It is also worth noting the low size, which greatly simplify the collection of fruits.
Naturally, the columnar species there are drawbacks. This is a high cost, as well as a short period of fruiting. Experts say that already 5 years after planting, the yield begins to decline.
- Vasyugan. This is a winter-hardwed apple-tree, the juicy hard fruits of which have a weight of about 150-200 g. Maturation occurs in September. Taste is sweet-sour, pulp quite dense. Up to 5 kg of crop can be harvested from one tree. The plant is resistant to most diseases and insects.
- Ostankino. The variety is distinguished by large red apples weighing 130 g. The crop is stored until the beginning of winter. Fruits are suitable for use in raw form and processing. The taste is sweet-sour, the flesh is fine-grained. About 5 kg are collected from one tree.
- The president. Compact sredneroslyaya apple is resistant to most diseases. Yellowish fruits weigh about 200 g.
- Maluha. This is one of the most delicious varieties of columnar apple trees. He has a juicy flesh and pronounced sweet taste. Fruits weigh only 50-70 g. They are stored for about a month.
- Currency. The variety is ideal for growing at their summer cottage. Already in the first year you can harvest a small crop, which does not affect the development of the seedling. This variety is resistant to scab. On the leaves there are no spots or plaque, which is noticeable in the video breeders. The fruits are distinguished by their keeping quality. They are able to maintain their taste and structure until the beginning of February.
Selection of seedlings
Experts recommend choosing annual plants. They are worth buying in early spring social nurseries. In this case, one should pay attention not only to the variety and yield of the tree. Important before buying assess the condition of the seedling. It should not be signs of the disease and any mechanical damage, as well as pests. Experienced gardeners recommend always refining frost resistance, since most popular varieties are unable to tolerate frost.
Before transporting the root system must be wrapped in a damp cloth and put the bag on top. Make it easy if you watch the corresponding video.
How to plant an apple tree?
For the formation of the crown, such a tree requires only a central shoot, so when planting the pit, it can be brought as close as possible to 0.5 meters. And for the convenience of plant care, it is better to plant apple trees at a distance of 0.9–1.0 meters from each other.
Requirements for the arrangement of planting pits for columnar apple trees and planting dates are the same as for ordinary fruit trees. Therefore, wondering how to plant an apple tree, you can safely refer to the recommendations regarding the traditional short-growing varieties. It is important that:
- the root system was not crowded or damaged, and the root neck was located slightly above the ground level,
- the pit itself was prepared no less than two weeks before the plant was planted in the ground, because it is during this time that the soil will have time to settle and the root collar will not be gradually under the soil.
If the columnar seedling is obtained by means of a vaccination, the deepening of the compound of the stock and the scion threatens to lose grade.
In the excavated pit make:
Since the root system of the columnar apple trees is often very vulnerable, after filling the pit with soil it is compacted very carefully, and then it is plentifully mulched with peat, cut grass or sawdust.
If the planting is done correctly, the apple tree will pick up color already at the age of 2-3 years. And the quality and quantity of fruits will depend on the subsequent care of apples in the summer and in other periods of the year.
Colonid Apple Trees
Cultivation of columnar apple requires constant attention to planting and painstaking care. Moreover, the care of columnar apple trees is required already at the stage when the plant is blooming. The fact is that a compact tree with a small crown literally becomes covered with flowers, therefore, especially in the first years of life, it is necessary to rationally fix the next harvest:
- If the seedling has bloomed in the first spring, it is better to remove all the buds, since the fruiting is a serious test for the plants that did not manage to acclimatize.
- In the second year on the tree can ripen to five fruits.
- Gradually, the load increases, making sure that the apples do not shrink from year to year, which can be a sign of tree overload.
Rationing consists in accurate removal of excess peduncles.
On each fruit-bearing branch and trunk, twice as many buds are left as it should ripen apples. On average, two inflorescences are left on the fruiting branch, and repeated thinning is carried out as part of the summer care of the apple tree, when a walnut-sized ovary forms.
Kolonovidnye apple trees need constant watering twice or thrice a week. After the procedure, the area under the crown is mulched with straw or mowed grass. If the plantation is laid on the basis of clonal rootstocks with a root system of the surface type, then it is dangerous to loosen the soil because of the risk of damaging the roots. In this case, within a radius of at least 25 cm from the trunk of a tree, green manure is sown, which is regularly mown.
It is good if a drip system with a dosed supply of moisture to the root system is organized for the plantation, but twice a month they carry out abundant basal circles so that the soil is wetted to the depth of the roots.
Top dressing of columnar apple trees and frost protection
Considering the question of how to care for an apple tree, it is impossible to ignore the fertilizing that is required for this crop, careful loosening of the soil, weed control and mulching.
At least three times in a season, the columnar apple should receive foliar dressing with a solution of urea with a concentration of about 0.1%:
- In the spring under the trees organic.
- In the first half of June, when vegetation is in full swing, plants receive a complex fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
- Since August, nitrogen and organic matter from fertilizing are excluded, but potassium is extremely necessary for trees. This element will help ripen shoots, and the columnar apple trees are well prepared for the upcoming winter.
In order to accelerate the ripening of the apical parts of the shoots in the middle of August, two-thirds of apple trees are shortened by leafy plates near the upper leaves.
As a measure for the care of the columnar apple trees, young plants up to the age of 3–4 years must be protected from possible freezing. For this, the materials at hand insulate not only the root zone, but also the entire escape-conductor so that the wood does not warm up and is not at risk of being attacked by rodents. When the snow cover is established on the site, the apple trees are covered with snow.